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Infancy: The First Year of Life

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4 Infancy: The First Year of Life Define joint attention L.O. 4.17 * L.O. 4.18 * * L.O. 4.19 * L.O. 4.20 * L.O. 4.21 * Highlight each milestone L.O. 4.21 * Mention ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Infancy: The First Year of Life


1
4
  • Infancy The First Year of Life

2
Infancy Growth and Change Height and Weight
  • Infants grow at faster rate first year than at
    any other time
  • Weight doubles in first 5 months and triples by
    end of first year
  • Babies appear plump
  • Will lose baby fat in first year
  • Height is more uneven in growth than weight

3
Infancy Growth and Change Developmental Pattern
  • Two key growth patterns
  • Cephalocaudal principle
  • Proximodistal principle

4
Infancy Growth and Change Teeth and Teething
  • First tooth appears between 5-9 months
  • Teething-first teeth break through the skin
  • Symptoms include
  • Saliva production
  • Coughing
  • Rash
  • Grabbing things to put in mouth
  • Relief can be found in teething ring or cold wet
    washcloth

5
Infancy Growth and Change Brain Development
  • At birth, brain is ¼ the size of adults brain
  • By age 2 it will reach 70 percent
  • Growth in brain due to
  • Exuberance-dendritic connects multiply
  • Myelination-axons become encased in a myelin
    sheath
  • Efficiency increases due to synaptic pruning

6
Infancy Growth and Development Brain
Specialization
  • Brain divided into three major regions
  • Hindbrain
  • Midbrain
  • Both structures mature early and perform basic
    biological functions
  • Forebrain
  • Limbic system-hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus
  • Cereberal Cortex-lobes

7
Infancy Growth and Development Brain
Specialization
8
Infancy Growth and Development Infant Brain
Plasticity
  • Plasticity important for the infants brain
    development
  • Adaptable to overcome damage
  • Environmental deprivation can have permanent
    effects
  • Example seen in Romanian Adoptions

9
Figure 4.3 Romanian Adoptees Cognitive
Abilities, by Age of Adoption The later the age
of adoption, the lower their cognitive abilities.
Source Based on Beckett et al. (2006)
10
Infancy Growth and Development Sleep Changes
  • Neonates sleep 16-17 hours
  • 3-4 Months sleep 6-7 hours at night
  • 6 Months cultural patterns influence sleep
    patterns
  • American 14 hours
  • Kipsigis 12 hours
  • Dutch 16 hours

11
Infancy Growth and Development Sleep Changes
  • Early infancy is highest risk period for Sudden
    Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Leading cause of death for infants 1-12 months in
    developed countries
  • Ethnic variations
  • Asian descent less likely while higher rates for
    African Americans and Native Americans
  • Poorer prenatal care could be a factor

12
Infancy Growth and Development Sudden Infant
Death Syndrome
  • No clear cause but there are risk factors
  • Sleeping on stomach instead of back
  • Low birth weight and APGAR score
  • Smoking
  • Soft bedding

13
Infancy Growth and Development Sudden Infant
Death Syndrome
  • Campaign to reduce SIDS includes a Back to sleep
    campaign
  • Campaign has caused reduction of SIDS worldwide

14
Infancy Growth and Development Sudden Infant
Death Syndrome
15
Infancy Growth and Development Co-Sleeping
  • United States warns against co-sleeping
  • Excessive dependence, emotional health, and SIDS
  • Developing countries view as normal
  • Highly vulnerable to injury and illness
  • Custom Complex

16
Physical Development Infant Health Nutritional
Needs
  • Infants need a high fat diet which breast milk
    provides
  • About 6 months may introduce solid foods
  • Cultural variations types of food introduced
  • West-rice cereal
  • Traditional cultures-mashed, prechewed, pureed

17
Physical Development Infant Health Nutritional
Needs
  • Malnutrition during this time can be severe and
    enduring
  • Can be caused by inability of mother to
    breastfeed
  • Marasmus is a risk for malnourished infants

18
Physical Development Infant Health Infant
Mortality
  • Most infant mortality is neonatal mortality
  • Top sources of infant mortality include
  • Malnutrition
  • Malaria
  • Diarrhea
  • Vaccinations have been beneficial

19
Physical Development Infant Health Infant
Mortality
20
Physical Development Cultural Beliefs and
Practices to Protect Infants
  • Traditional cultures
  • Parents awareness of infants vulnerabilities
    influenced parenting practices
  • Developed practices to help infants avoid harm
  • Current practices may be magical where knowledge
    is limited

21
Physical Development Motor and Sensory Development
  • Gross motor development includes whole body
    movements like crawling
  • Children tend to develop gross motor skills in
    sequence
  • Sequence has genetic beginnings with
    environmental influences

22
Table 4.1 Milestones of Gross Motor Development
in Infancy Age ranges provided are for 90 of
American infants. Based on Bayley (2005)
23
Physical Development Motor and Sensory Development
  • Cultural practices emphasize the role of
    environment on gross motor skills
  • Swaddling is a common practice which can be
    restrictive to infants
  • Other cultures encourage gross motor skills
  • Long term effects tend to minimally impact gross
    motor development

24
Figure 4.4 The Impact of Reduction Campaigns on
Sids Rates Why did rates of SIDS decline so much
over this period?
25
Physical Development Motor and Sensory Development
  • Fine motor skills are the more precise motor
    abilities
  • Major accomplishments of fine motor skills
    include reaching and grasping
  • Will also exhibit pincer grasp that allows
    feeding of themselves

26
Physical Development Motor and Sensory Development
  • Depth perception is influenced by development of
    binocular vision at 2-3 months of age
  • Important when children become mobile
  • Intermodal perception
  • One month olds match things in mouth to things
    they touch
  • By eight months can match unfamiliar faces with
    correct voice and gender

27
Cognitive Development
28
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Piagetian key terms
  • Schemes-cognitive structure for processing,
    organizing and interpreting information
  • Assimilation-new information is altered to fit an
    existing scheme
  • Accommodation-changing a scheme to adapt to the
    new information

29
Piagets Sensorimotor Stage
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Composed of 4 substages

30
Object Permanence
  • Object permanence -objects continue to exist even
    when not aware of them
  • Under 4 months no understanding
  • 4-8 months-some uncertain about existence
  • 8-12 months-Developing awareness
  • Will still make A not B error

31
Evaluating Piagets Sensorimotor Theory
  • Criticisms include
  • Underestimating infants ability especially
    regarding object permanence
  • Renee Baillargeon and researchers tested infant
    abilities using the violation of expectations
    method
  • Object permanence may reflect memory development
  • Cultural limitations as well

32
Information Processing in Infancy
  • Information processing model views cognitive
    changes as continuous.
  • Historically computer was analogy but awareness
    that brain is more complex
  • Human thinking divided into capacities for
    attention, processing and memory

33
Information Processing in Infancy
34
Attention/Habituation
  • Attention studied using habituation and
    dishabituation
  • Habituation-gradual decrease in attention
  • Dishabituation-revival of attention with a new
    stimulus

35
Attention/Habituation
  • Neonates-several minutes before dishabituation
  • 4-5 months-only several seconds
  • Infants become better at perceiving and
    processing stimuli
  • End of first year joint attention highlights
    social attention

36
Memory
  • Short Term memory improves during first year of
    life
  • Object permanence tasks show infants can remember
    more locations of hidden objects
  • Long Term memory increases as well
  • Difference between recognition memory and recall
    memory

37
Assessing Infant Development
  • Arnold Gesell four subscale assessment tool
  • Motor skills
  • Language Use
  • Adaptive behavior
  • Personal-Social behavior
  • Development Quotient (DQ)

Arnold Gesell
38
Assessing Infant Development
  • Nancy Bayley produced a contemporary measure of
    infant development
  • 3 main scales
  • Cognitive
  • Language
  • Motor
  • Limited by low reliability of the scales
  • Not predictive of later IQ but can be used a
    screening tool

39
Assessing Infant Development
  • Information processing model uses habituation to
    assess intelligence
  • Infants with short habituation time, process
    information more quickly
  • Longitudinal studies have shown a connection
    between habituation time and IQ and higher
    achievement

40
Media Stimulation
  • Mozart effect led to creation of educational
    videos and DVDs
  • Most studies have not supported the effectiveness
    of education CDs and videos
  • Effective ways to encourage cognitive interaction
    includes talking, reading, responding and patience

41
Table 4.3 Milestones of Infant Language
Development
42
Language Development
  • Many cultures use Infant Directed Speech to speak
    to infants
  • Higher Pitch with simplified grammar
  • Exaggerated intonation and phrases repeated
  • Infants seem to prefer this speech and is common
    in many cultures

43
Language Development
  • Some cultures do not speak to infants in any
    special way
  • No consistent negative effects in cultures with
    no IDS

44
Emotional and Social Development
45
Temperament
  • Temperament-innate tendencies that would be
    shaped to become adult personality
  • Composed of activity level, adaptability,
    intensity of reactions and quality of mood are
    judged
  • Easy
  • Difficult
  • Slow to warm up
  • Current research adds self-regulation or
    sociability

46
Goodness of Fit
  • Goodness of fit-a good fit between temperament of
    child and environmental demands
  • Babies with negative temperamental qualities did
    better with parents who were tolerant
  • Cultures value different traits leading to
    cultural goodness of fit
  • Asian babies less active as this is cultural
    important

47
Infant Emotions
  • Primary emotions are basic emotions we share with
    other animals
  • Secondary emotions develop later and are called
    socio-moral emotions
  • Primary emotions-distress, interest and pleasure
    in first weeks of life
  • Becomes anger, sadness, fear, surprise and
    happiness

48
Infant Emotions
  • Anger as being separate from crying occurs by 7
    months of age
  • Sadness is rare unless mothers are depressed
  • Fear- by 6 months of age
  • Fear seems to occur with stranger anxiety
  • Surprise -about 6 months of age
  • Happiness-2 to 3 months

49
Infants Emotional Perceptions
  • Crying in response to hearing another cry is
    emotional contagion
  • Infants perceive emotions by audition before
    visual
  • The still face paradigm shows infants quickly
    learn to expect certain emotional reactions
  • By 7 months infants can match auditory to visual
    emotions
  • By 9-10 months infants show social referencing

50
Cultural Themes of Infant Social Life
  1. Infants are with their mothers for the early
    months of life
  2. After 6 months, most daily care done by older
    girls rather than the mother
  3. Infants are among many other people in the course
    of the day

51
Cultural Themes of Infant Social Life
  1. Infants are held or carried almost constantly
  2. Fathers are usually remote or absent during first
    year

52
Foundation of Social Development
  • Eriksons First stage focuses on trust versus
    mistrust
  • Centers around the emotional and social bond and
    not the biological bond
  • Developing trust in infancy provides foundation
    for future social development

53
Foundation of Social Development
  • Bowlbys attachment theory focused on early
    quality relationships as well
  • Focused on primary caregiver being sensitive and
    responsive
  • Attachment theory has evolutionary basis and
    mother-offspring relationships in animal species
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