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Review of Memory

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Review of Memory Mrs. Hensley AP Psychology * Language is a defining and adaptive milestone in human evolution. Linguist Noam Chomsky argued that the human brain is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Review of Memory


1
Review of Memory
  • Mrs. Hensley
  • AP Psychology

2
Q1
  • How do psychologists describe the human memory
    system?

3
Q1 Answer
  • Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
  • Three stages
  • Encoding
  • Storing
  • Retrieval
  • Some psychologists prefer the term, working
    memory rather than short term memory to
    emphasize the active processing in the 2nd stage.

4
Q2
  • How do we get information out of memory?

5
Q2 Answer
  • Recall
  • Recognition
  • Relearning
  • Priming

6
Q3
  • Why do we forget?

7
Q3 Answer
  • Fail to encode information
  • Memories may fade after storage
  • Retrieval failure (old and new material compete)
  • Proactive interference (something in the past
    interferes with our ability to recall something
    recently learned)
  • Retroactive interference (something new
    interferes with something learned in the past)

8
Q4
  • Explain the following terms
  • Flashbulb memory
  • Amnesia
  • Déjà vu
  • Mood congruent memory

9
Q4 Answer
  • Flashbulb Memory clear memory of an emotionally
    significant moment or event
  • Ex first kiss, learning of family members
    death, 9/11 attack
  • Amnesia loss of memory, unable to form new
    memories
  • déjà vu Ive experienced this before.
    Subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier
    experience
  • Mood congruent memory recall experiences that
    are consistent with ones current good or bad mood

10
Thinking, Language, Intelligence
  • The best way to have a good idea is to have lots
    of ideas.
  • Lines Pauling

11
Thinking
  • What is it?
  • Mental activity involved in understanding,
    processing and communicating information
  • Cognitive psychology
  • Studies how the mind does all that!

12
Concept Formation
  • Concept
  • A mental grouping of persons, places, ideas,
    events, or objects that share common properties
  • People organize concepts into hierarchies

Dog, horse, elephant, sparrows, goldfish
mammal
animal
13
Concept Formation
  • Prototype
  • Best representative of a concept
  • Ex Sport
  • Football
  • Basketball
  • Golf
  • Chess
  • NASCAR

14
Assignment
  • Create a list of the different concepts that are
    represented in the classroom. Try to narrow down
    all the objects into the simplest concept
    possible.

15
Problem Solving Trial Error
  • Identify problem
  • Car wont start
  • Gather information
  • Outta gas? Dead battery?
  • Try a solution
  • Not outta gas, so Ill dry off the wires
  • Evaluate results
  • Car starts - yeah!
  • Car doesnt start - try another solution

16
Problem Solving Strategies
  • Algorithm
  • A systematic, step-by-step problem-solving
    strategy, guaranteed to provide a solution
  • Heuristic
  • A rule of thumb that allows one to make judgments
    that are quick but often in error

17
Heuristics
  • A short cut (that can be prone to errors).
    Narrows your problem space
  • We use heuristics when making decisions

Who would you trust to baby-sit your child?
Your answer is based on your heuristic of their
appearances.
18
Availability Heuristic
  • Estimating the likelihood of events based on
    their availability in our memory.

Although diseases kill many more people than
accidents, it has been shown that people will
judge accidents and diseases to be equally fatal.
This is because accidents are more dramatic and
are often written up in the paper or seen on the
news on t.v., and are more available in memory
than diseases.
  • If it comes to mind easily (maybe a vivid event)
    we presume it is common.

19
Representativeness Heuristic
Below is Linda. She loves books and hates loud
noises. Is Linda a librarian or a beautician?
  • A rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of
    things in terms of how well they match our
    prototype.
  • Can cause us to ignore important information.

Chances are, she is a beautician!!!
20
Problem Solving Strategies
  • Insight (insight examples pg. 387)
  • Mean-end analysis
  • determining difference between current situation
    and goal and then reducing the difference by
    means What can I do?
  • Difference Reduction - What direction do I move?

21
Decision Making
  • Try to make best choice from alternatives
  • Utility value of given outcome
  • Probability likelihood youll achieve it
  • Representativeness Heuristic
  • A tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event
    in terms of how typical (how similar to the
    prototype) it seems
  • Availability Heuristic
  • A tendency to estimate the
  • likelihood of an event in terms of
  • how easily instances of it can be
  • recalled

22
Problems with Problem Solving
  • Mental set
  • The tendency to use a strategy that has worked in
    the past
  • Functional Fixedness
  • A tendency to think of objects only in terms of
    their usual functions, a limitation that disrupts
    problem solving

23
Problems with Problem Solving
  • Confirmation Bias
  • The inclination to search only for evidence that
    will verify ones beliefs
  • Belief Perseverance
  • The tendency to cling to beliefs even after they
    have been discredited
  • Anderson (1980)

24
Overconfidence
  • The tendency to be more confident than correct.
  • To overestimate the accuracy of your beliefs and
    judgments.

Considering overconfidence who you want to risk
1 million dollars on an audience poll?
25
Framing
  • The way an issued is posed.
  • It can have drastic effects on your decisions and
    judgments.

How do you think framing plays a part in the
Health Care Reform debate?
26
Intelligence
  • How is it defined?
  • How is it measured?
  • What can intelligence be attributed to?
  • Levels of intelligence

27
Language
  • Formal system of communication
  • Spoken,written, and/or gestures
  • Between 5,000 and 6,000 languages, worldwide
  • Most languages also have many dialects

28
Structure of Language
  • Grammar
  • The rules of a language
  • Syntax
  • Specifies how words can be arranged
  • Semantics
  • Specifies how meaning is
  • understood communicated

29
Properties of Language
  • Semantic
  • There are separate units in a language and these
    units have meaning
  • Phoneme basic building block of spoken language
  • Morpheme smallest unit that carries meaning
  • Generative
  • Combing language in novel ways
  • Displacement
  • The property of language that accounts for the
    capacity to communicate about matters that are
    not in the here-and-now

30
Language Acquisition
  • Birth
  • Cooing, crying, gurgling
  • 4-6 months
  • Babbling
  • 12 months
  • First words
  • 2 yrs up
  • Telegraphic speech
  • Overextension

31
Language Acquisition
  • No one disputes the stages of language
    development
  • But there are two main questions in terms of what
    it all means
  • Is language acquisition a product of nature or
    nurture?
  • Which comes first language or thought?

32
the answers
  • Is it nature or nurture?
  • Skinner vs. Chomsky
  • Skinner Children learn language the way animals
    learn mazes
  • Chomsky The brain is hard-wired for learning
    lang.
  • Critical period
  • During the first few years of life, we are most
    receptive to language learning
  • What comes first thought or language?
  • Both sometimes children use words to communicate
    what they already know and sometimes they form
    concepts to fit the words they hear

33
Linguistic Relativity
  • The hypothesis that language determines, or at
    least influences, the way we think

Eyeglasses
Dumbbell
  • Hyde, 1984
  • Wudgemaker story he she he or she they
  • Males equally good regardless
  • Females better in she stories, worse in he
    version

34
Intelligence
  • the test of a first-rate intelligence is the
    ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at
    the same time, and still retain the ability to
    function
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald

35
Intelligence
  • What is intelligence?
  • The capacity to learn from experience and adapt
    successfully to ones environment
  • Reflects how well we function

36
Video
  • http//learner.org/resources/series138.html

37
History of Intelligence
  • Francis Galton
  • Believed that intelligence was inherited
  • Based intelligence on
  • Muscular strength
  • Size of your head
  • Speed at reacting to signals
  • Your ability to detect slight differences

38
Solve the riddle
  • A hunter sees a bear 1 mile due south. He shoots
    and misses, and the bear runs off. The hunter
    walks the 1 mile south to where the bear had
    been, then 1 mile due east, then 1 mile due
    north-at which point the hunter is standing again
    at exactly the same spot from which the gun had
    been fired. Question What color was the bear?
    Where on the globe is the hunter? Where can one
    go, successively, 1 mile due south, then 1 mile
    due east, then 1 mile due north, and end up at
    the same place one started?

39
Theories of Intelligence
  • Spearmans G factor (1904)
  • Proposed that general intelligence (g) underlies
    all mental abilities
  • Specific intelligence (s)
  • Factor analysis
  • A statistical technique used to identify clusters
    of test items that correlate with another
  • Thurstones Primary Mental Abilities
  • 7 factors which correlate but not enough to
    represent 1 underlying factor
  • Verbal comprehension, word fluency, number
    facility (math), associative memory, perceptual
    speed for stimulus recognition, reasoning, and
    spatial visualization

40
Theories of Intelligence
  • Triarchic theory of intelligence
  • Robert Sternberg
  • Analytical
  • The mental steps of components used to solve
    problems
  • This is what traditional IQ tests assess
  • Creative
  • Intellectual and motivational processes that lead
    to novel solutions, ideas, artistic forms, or
    products
  • Practical
  • The ability to size up new situations and adapt
    to real-life demands

41
Gardners Frames of Mind
  • Multiple intelligences
  • There are seven (9)types of intelligence
  • Linguistic verbal aptitude
  • Logical-mathematical mathematical aptitude
  • Spatial ability to visualize objects
  • Musical ability to appreciate the tonal
    qualities of sound, compose, and play
  • Bodily-kinesthetic ability to control movement
  • Interpersonal ability to understand people
  • Intrapersonal ability to understand oneself

42
EQ (Emotional Intelligence)
  • Salovey and Mayer (1990)
  • Self-awareness
  • Mood management
  • Self-motivation
  • Inpulse control
  • People skills

43
Reading The EQ Factor
  • Take the Emotional Intelligence Survey
  • Read the article and prepare for a socratic
    seminar
  • To prepare
  • Create a summary
  • Identify 3 sentences/paragraphs that highlight
    something you found interesting, powerful,
    puzzling
  • Create 3 Qs for class discussion

44
Binet-Simon Stanford-Binet Scales
  • Binet-Simon scale (1905)
  • Assigned mental age based on items correct
  • Stanford-Binet
  • Lewis Terman at Stanford (1916)
  • Added items suitable to adults
  • Converted scale to a single score
  • IQ mental age x 100
  • chronological age
  • This doesnt work for adults was adjusted

45
Problems with the IQ Formula
  • It does not really work well on adults, why?

If a 60 year old man
does as well as an average 30 year old
then his IQ would be 50!!!!!!
That makes no sense!!!!!
46
The Wechsler Scales
  • David Weschler
  • Intelligence is
  • The global capacity to act purposefully, to think
    rationally, and to deal effectively with the
    environment
  • IQ ratio breaks down as we get older
  • Deviation IQ
  • Compares scores to the mean of peer group
  • WAIS (pg 279)
  • Measures intelligence for late adolescence
    through adulthood
  • Two parts verbal performance subtests

47
Issues to Consider in IQ Testing
  • Standardization
  • The procedure by which existing norms are used to
    interpret an individuals test score
  • Reliability
  • Degree to which test gives consistent results
  • Validity
  • Does the test measure what it
  • claims to measure

48
Distribution of IQ scores
68
Mental Retardation
Mentally Gifted
95
100
115
85
130
70
49
Extremes in Intelligence
  • Mental Giftedness
  • IQ above 130
  • MENSA
  • Limits membership to top 2 of population
  • Take test. Are you Mensa quality?
  • Watch clip on Daniel Tannet

50
Extremes in Intelligence
  • Mental retardation
  • IQ below 70
  • Difficulties with
  • Self-care
  • School / work
  • Social relationships
  • Four categories
  • Mild, Moderate, Severe, Profound

51
Causes of Mental Retardation
  • Cultural-familial
  • Inadequate mental stimulation
  • Poor diet, little or no medical care
  • Genetic defects
  • Down syndrome
  • Brain damage
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Hypoxia

52
The Nature Nurture Debate
  • Natures influence on IQ
  • Identical twins reared together are more similar
    than fraternal twins reared together
  • Siblings who grow up together are more similar
    than unrelated individuals who grow up in the
    same house
  • Children are more similar to their biological
    parents than to adoptive parents
  • Nurtures influence on IQ
  • Prenatal care, exposure to alcohol and other
    toxins, birth complications, malnutrition in the
    first few months of life, intellectual
    stimulation at home, stress, high-quality
    education, the amount of time spent in school
  • Head Start programs (and those like it)
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