FROM COLONIAL RIVALRIES TO CONTINENTAL WAR SCARES, 1898-1907 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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FROM COLONIAL RIVALRIES TO CONTINENTAL WAR SCARES, 1898-1907

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SOURCE: John Keegan, _An Illustrated History of the First World War_ (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001), p. 14. * * The background of the Anglo-Russian Entente of 1907. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FROM COLONIAL RIVALRIES TO CONTINENTAL WAR SCARES, 1898-1907


1
FROM COLONIAL RIVALRIES TO CONTINENTAL WAR
SCARES, 1898-1907
1898 Germany launches a naval arms race 1904
Entente cordiale resolves colonial disputes
between France and Great Britain 1905 First
Morocco Crisis (Germany tests the Entente
following Russias defeat by Japan) 1906 Germany
suffers diplomatic isolation at the Algericas
Conference 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente resolves
Asian colonial disputes
2
THE SHIFTING BALANCE OF INDUSTRIAL POWER (Annual
steel production in thousands of metric tons)
YEAR United Kingdom Germany France Russia
1880 1,317 690 389 307
1900 4,980 6,461 1,565 2,216
1913 7,787 17,609 4,687 4,918
BUT GREAT BRITAIN REMAINED THE WORLD LEADER IN
COMMERCE AND FINANCE (Shares of World Foreign
Trade)
YEAR U.K. Germany France USA
1880 23 10 11 10
1900 20 13 9 11
1913 17 13 8 11
3
Wilhelm II, the first German monarch to seek
publicity relentlessly
4
Queen Victoria and her three sons visit her
daughter, Vicky, and grandson, Wilhelm II, in
Coburg in 1894
The future King Edward VII (1901-10) stands at
the right. Wilhelm II proclaimed that Germany was
a World Power like Britain.
5
Wilhelm was surrounded by flatterers, such
as Bernhard von Bülow (b. 1849, Reich Chancellor
1900-09)
He wrote a courtier in 1895 "I place my faith
increasingly in the Kaiser. He is so impressive!
He is, along with Frederick the Great, the most
impressive Hohenzollern who has ever lived. In a
manner which I have never seen before, he
combines the most genuine and original genius
with the clearest good sense. He possesses the
kind of imagination that lifts me on eagle's
wings above all triviality and, at the same time,
the shrewdest appreciation of the possible and
the attainable. And with it, what energy! What
reflectiveness! What swiftness and sureness of
conception!"
6
Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, Navy Chief,
1897-1917
Count Albert von Schlieffen, Army Chief of
Staff, 1891-1906
7
The Schlieffen Plan of 1895-1905 vs. the French
Plan XVII
8
TIRPITZS THEORY OF RISK
  • In private Admiral Tirpitz acknowledged that
    Germany could never build a navy as large as
    Britains, but he argued from the study of naval
    history that if Germany could achieve a ratio of
    23 in battleships, then the British government
    could not be certain of defeating it. That
    uncertainty, he concluded, would compel the
    British to seek the friendship of Germany. He
    also argued that the British could never base all
    their capital ships in home waters.
  • His arguments contradicted those of the German
    Foreign Office, which opposed any provocation of
    the British after the Franco-Russian Alliance
    formed.

9
In 1898 Germany announced a plan to build 3
battleships a year. Wilhelm II Germany must
wield Neptunes trident as well as Jupiters
scepter.
In response Britain launched the H.M.S.
Dreadnought in 1906 It carried ten 12-inch guns
and 11-inch armor plate, and cruised at over 20
m.p.h.
10
Soliciting charitable donations for the German
Navy (1899) One poster offers the Kaisers
personal sketches of the types of warship then
afloat
11
Weltpolitik and Public Opinion Imperialist
Pressure Groups in Germany
  • The Pan-German League 20,000 members, led by
    Heinrich Class
  • The German League for the Eastern Marches
    (Hakatisten) 220,000 members
  • The Colonial Society 40,000 members
  • The Navy League over 1,000,000 members
  • Their influence peaked under the Bülow Bloc of
    1906-1909, when the Conservatives and Liberals
    all backed the government in the Reichstag

12
Friedrich Naumann (1860-1919) Former Lutheran
pastor, leader of the Social Gospel movement,
united all Left Liberals in the Progressive
Peoples Party in 1910
13
Naumann, National Socialism (speech of 1899)
  • For me and my friends the word national means
    the new idea that Imperial Germany should become
    a world power. For us this idea of world power
    is the precondition for all social progress.
    What does socialism mean in material, economic
    terms? It means more food, clothing, housing,
    more goods for the working population! But
    already today our German soil cannot satisfy the
    needs of our current population. ...We must
    import more just to support our growing
    population. If we also want to raise the living
    standard of the masses we must import far more
    from abroad than we do today. But imports can
    only be purchased through exports. Given this
    position in the world market, as socialists we
    must promote an energetic export policy. Any
    socialism that does not is mere theory. ...This
    explains our position toward the naval policy of
    Kaiser Wilhelm II. We've been called navy
    fanatics I've been called a "navy chaplain" -
    that doesn't matter! In fact the future of our
    German nation lies on the water. Since we can no
    longer have an agrarian state, we must go forward
    to a world power state, no matter how difficult
    and expensive this is.

14
Squadron of the German High Seas Fleet on
maneuver in the North Sea, ca. 1910 (with
Zeppelin)
15
Admiral Sir John Fisher (at left), First Sea Lord
(1904-10), modernized the British fleet
Fisher converted the young Liberal, Sir Winston
Churchill, into a champion of naval spending by
1911
16
The British Navy League, founded in 1894, took
its motto from Lord Nelson and grew to 14,000
members in 1901 and 100,000 by 1914 (including
Kipling)
Souvenir of the Centenary of the Battle of
Trafalgar (1905)
17
The Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of April 1904
resolved colonial disputes in Africa and
gradually evolved into something like an
alliance (cartoon in PUNCH to celebrate its 10th
anniversary)
18
The partition of Morocco between France and
Spain, 1905-1911 The German government persuaded
the vacationing Kaiser to land his yacht in
Tangier in March 1905 to test the Entente
19
Punch ridicules the visit by Wilhelm II to
Morocco in March 1905
The Moroccan Ambassador to Spain signs the Final
Act, April 7, 1906
20
Battle cruisers of the British Grand Fleet,
anchored in the Firth of Forth After 1905 the
British concentrated their navy in home waters to
counter the German threat
21
The Anglo-Russian Entente of 1907
22
THE CROWE MEMORANDUM OF JANUARY 1, 1907 (advice
for the Foreign Secretary, Sir Edward Grey, by
Sir Eyre Crowe, senior policy analyst in the
British Foreign Office)
  • With the events of 1871 the spirit of Prussia
    passed into the new Germany. In no other country
    is there a conviction so deeply rooted in the
    very body and soul of all classes of the
    population that the preservation of national
    rights and the realization of national ideals
    rest absolutely on the readiness of every citizen
    in the last resort to stake himself and his State
    on their assertion and vindication. With blood
    and iron Prussia had forged her position in the
    councils of the Great Powers of Europe. And
    now it took the same approach to overseas
    expansion.
  • There is one road whichwill most certainly not
    lead to any permanent improvement of relations
    with any Power, least of all Germany, and which
    must therefore be abandoned that is the road
    paved with graceful British concessionsconcession
    s made without any conviction either of their
    justice or of their being set off by equivalent
    counter-services. The vain hopes that in this
    manner Germany can be conciliated and made more
    friendly must be definitely given up.
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