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Crucifixion and History

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Title: Crucifixion and History Author: THOMAS HARVEY Last modified by: HP Authorized Customer Created Date: 7/3/2001 6:36:13 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Crucifixion and History


1
The Cross of Christ
The Cross History - Israel, Rome Jesus
Paul Earliest Reflection on the Cross of Christ
Four Portraits - The Gospels the Cross
The Cross, The Early Church the Doctrine of
Christ
The Cross Salvation - Atonement Justification
The Cross The Reformers
The Cross in the Modern Era
The Cross, the Church Ministry
2
The Cross History
3
Why did Jesus Die on the Cross?
History
He Challenged Angered the Religious Leaders.
He Threatened Roman Rule
He was a Political Scapegoat
Theology
He Died to save us from our sins
He Died to reveal Gods love for humanity
He Died to appease Gods Anger
He Died to defeat Satan Reclaim the Cosmos for
God.
4
Understanding the Cross
Cross as History Event that Occured in space
time
Cross as Truth How Christs death is understood,
described, evaluated placed within larger
framework of meaningful relationships.
Cross as Symbol - Artifact, Ritual, or Sign -
Articulates reinforces communal individual
identity, environment, morality, future
orientation. Symbols determine what will what
will not be intelligible or assimilated by a
particular culture.
5
History, Truth the Cross
HISTORY - Not Legendary
Actual Event - With Symbolic Theological
Implication
REVELATION - Nature of God, humankind, Sin,
Redemption Hope
RELEVANCE - Informs that church as to its own
identity, its message, its ministry, and its own
suffering.
6
Historical Method
Now I Know!!!
TRADITION Training, Knowledge, Procedures,
Authority, Practices, Virtues, Disciplines,
Belief.
THE EVIDENCE
HISTORIAN
The Bible
  • KEY QUESTIONS Who, What, Where, When, Why?
  • What actually Occurred? Not a matter of belief,
    but a matter of description

EVENT
7
Theological Method
Now I Know!!!
TRADITION Training, Knowledge, Procedures,
Authority, Practices, Virtues, Disciplines,
Belief.
EVENT
Theologian
BIBLICAL INTERPRETATION
  • 4 AcademicTasks
  • Description
  • Synthesis
  • Interpretation
  • Application
  • 3 Spiritual Tasks
  • Enlightenment
  • Discipleship
  • Transformation

THEOLOGICAL IMPLICATION
8
Crucifixion as HistoryEvidence
9
Crucifixion well Attested Historically Three
Different Perspectives
Josephus
Bible
Jewish Writings
10
Israel,
Rome
Jesus
11
Israel The Judges Cycle
Israel Forgets Covenant
Commits Idolatry
Conquered
Yahweh Restores Israel
Yahweh Hears Israels Cry
Israel Repents
12
Suffering and Election Blessing and Curses
Babylonians
Persians
Greeks
Romans
13
Suffering and Election Blessing and Curses
26 I call heaven and earth as witnesses against
you this day that you will quickly perish from
the land that you are crossing the Jordan to
possess. You will not live there long but will
certainly be destroyed. 27 The LORD will scatter
you among the peoples, and only a few of you will
survive among the nations to which the LORD will
drive you.
14
Suffering and Election Blessing and Curses
...But if from there you seek the LORD your God,
you will find him if you look for him with all
your heart and with all your soul. 30 When you
are in distress and all these things have
happened to you, then in later days you will
return to the LORD your God and obey him. 31 For
the LORD your God is a merciful God he will not
abandon or destroy you or forget the covenant
with your forefathers Deuteronomy 425ff
15
Israel and Eschatology
  • Israels current plight, covenant punishment
    for sin.
  • Righteousness fulfilled through suffering, grace
    forgiveness Gods Kingdom comes.
  • New Covenant - Circumcision of the Heart. Surpass
    the old - Established by Gods righteousness
    Power

16
The Messiah as Savior
King Destroys Israels enemies. Restores Israels
place as Chief of the nations. Usher in the
Kingdom of God bring eternal shalom.
Prophet Israels Teacher judge Lead nations to
righteousness
Priest Restore Temple Sacrifice Provide for
Atonement Re-establish proper worship of God To
usher in Kingdom of God.
17
Jesus and Israel
How did Jesus view his own Identity and Ministry?
18
Jesus as Christ - The Anointed
Baptism - Reception of Messianic Calling and
Mandate.
Prophet - Authoritative Teacher - New Covenant
Ministry Revolutionary understanding of God,
Kingdom, Ministry
Priest - Purifier of the Temple - Builder of New
Temple
King - Inauguration Kingdom of God Worker of
mighty Power. Establishment of New Israel
How did Jesus view his own Identity and Ministry?
19
Prophet Teacher of Righteousness
Brings the Fathers Message
Authority of God - Extends modifies the Torah
Announces Breaking in of the Kingdom Need for
Repentance - Rejects violent uprising instead
argues for Kingdom established by God through
righteousness
Israel as the Light of the World.
Jesus began to preach, "Repent, for the kingdom
of heaven is near."
20
Priest Purification of the Temple
Interest in Purity and Forgiveness
Emphasis on Internal External Righteousness
Atonement - Sacrificial System Replaced
suggestion of Temple and his Body
LK 215 Some of his disciples were remarking
about how the temple was adorned with beautiful
stones and with gifts dedicated to God. But Jesus
said, 6 "As for what you see here, the time will
come when not one stone will be left on another
every one of them will be thrown down."
21
King Establishment of New Israel
Inauguration of the Kingdom of God
Selects 12 Apostles that Represent New Israel
Claims the Kingdom has come.
Views his presence and ministry as fulfillment of
the Prophets
Preaches Kingdom of inverts the current status
Quo. The Ins are out and the outs are in.
Destroy and then Restore Israel.
LK 1249 "I have come to bring fire on the earth,
and how I wish it were already kindled!
22
The Cross Last Supper
In word action Jesus points to his upcoming
death in terms of the Passover/Exodus.
Reinterprets Passover
New Symbols Given
Death New Covenant
23
The Last Supper Ritual meal Given Jesus
Ministry the opposition he faced, and his
overturning of the sacrificial system. Jesus
understood that his blood was required for a new
covenant.
John 656 Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my
blood remains in me, and I in him. 57 Just as the
living Father sent me and I live because of the
Father, so the one who feeds on me will live
because of me.
24
A New Communion Jesus body Feast of Unleavened
Bread.
And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and
gave it to them, saying, "This is my body given
for you do this in remembrance of me."
25
A New Covenant Symbolized in the Bread
The unleavened bread represents the critical
moment has arrived. Israels alienation from God
would end. Those that share the bread represent
Israel restored.
26
New Covenant Jesus Blood as the Blood of New
Covenant
MT 2627 Then he took the cup, gave thanks and
offered it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all
of you. 28 This is my blood of the covenant,
which is poured out for many for the forgiveness
of sins. 29 I tell you, I will not drink of this
fruit of the vine from now on until that day when
I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom."
27
A New Covenant Symbolized in the Cup
The Cup - blood of the Covenant Atones for sin
establishes new Covenant Through Redemptive
Sacrifice. The Suffering Servant.
28
Why was Jesus Crucified?
  • As Prophet - Announced Judgment upon Israel,
    Jerusalem the Temple.
  • As Priest he had Cleansed the Temple.
  • As Messiah - He was regarded as its rightful
    ruler.

They took palm branches and went out to meet him,
shouting, "Hosanna! "Blessed is he who comes
in the name of the Lord!" "Blessed is the King
of Israel!"
29
Why was Jesus Crucified? The Jewish Charge
  • Jesus was hanged on the eve of Passover. The
    herald went before him for forty days saying,
    He is going forth to be stoned because he
    practised sorcery and enticed and led Israel
    astray. Let everyone knowing anything in his
    defense come and plead for him. But nothing was
    found in his defence so he was hanged on the eve
    of Passover. bSangh. 43a

Jesus was Charged with breaking Jewish Law
  • Jesus reinterpretation of the Torah was seen as
    blasphemy by the Pharisees.
  • Jesus action in the temple put him in conflict
    with Chief Priest.

Crime false prophet Deut 13. Through his
works of power he was leading Israel astray
30
Reasons for Crucifixion? Jewish Crime - Roman
Concern.
Capital Punishment, however, was restricted to
the Roman Government.
  • Pilate must pass sentence. Thus Crime must be
    against Roman Law and concern he claimed to be
    King.
  • Romans Taunt Jesus as a would be King.
  • At the Cross, Priests, Scribes, taunt Jesus as
    would be Prophet.

31
Pontius Pilate
Pilate - Insecure, provocative Incompetent.
Disliked Despised by Jews - He in Turn Sought
to Spite them.
32
Pontius Pilate
Thwarts Jerusalem Council
Convenient Excuse - Jesus no Rebel - Priests
seek to kill Jesus for their own reasons
Hand is Forced - If you let this man go you are
not Caesars friend. Jn. 1912
Handwashing Not innocence but sign of contempt
of Jewish Leaders - Evasion of responsibility.
King of the Jews - Sign to Spite the Jewish
Leaders
33
Crucifixion itself
Cross- Stauros - Upright stake or Beam
Old Testament - Not crucified but bodies hung on
trees to warn criminals - sign of being cursed.
Romans - Only slaves, rebels lowest type of
criminals crucified.
Symbol of Roman Authority and ruthlessness
Crucifixion of Failed Messiahs marked period
Painful form of Torture lasting up to several
days. Death by asphyxiation.
34
Crucifixion itself
Jesus Mocked
Flogged
Crown of Thorns
Carries Cross to Golgotha
Stripped Nailed to the Cross
Clothes Divided
35
Crucifixion itself
Sign - King of the Jews
Sixth Hour Gives up his Spirit
Pierced and brought down
Body placed hurriedly in Tomb
36
Some Last Reflections for Good Friday
Time of Somber Reflection
Recognition of Judgment Upon Sin
Recognition of Cost of Grace
Recognition of Depth of Compassion
Commitment to Dedicated Discipleship
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