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The Northern Renaissance

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The Northern Renaissance Italian Ren. spread to N. Euro. French Ren., English Ren., etc. 1453: Flanders Ren. developed here first, had $$$$$ Fr. & Eng. = monarchies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Northern Renaissance


1
The Northern Renaissance
2
  • Italian Ren. spread to N. Euro.
  • French Ren., English Ren., etc.
  • 1453
  • FlandersRen. developed here first, had
  • Fr. Eng. monarchies (patrons)
  • N. Euros. studied in Italian universities
  • Took ideas back to native lands

3
II. The Spread of Ideas
  • 1494 Fr. King (Charles VIII) claimed throne of
    Napleslaunched invasion
  • b/c of war, Italians fled to N. Euro.

4
A. German Painters
  • 1. Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
  • Journied to Italy
  • Produced woodcuts copper engravings (best known
    for)
  • Knight, Death, and the Devil (realism
    symbolism)
  • Portrayed religious subjects, classical myths,
    realistic landscapes
  • helped spread Ren. ideas

5
Knight, Death, and the Devil
6
  • 2. Hans Holbein (1497-1543)
  • Influenced by Durers realism
  • Specialized in painting portraits (photogenic in
    detail)
  • Emigrated to Eng. (painted royals) (King Henry
    VIII)
  • Also, Portrait of Erasmus Portrait of More

7
Portrait of Erasmus Portrait of More
8
B. Flemish Painters
  • Flanders artistic center of N. Euro.
  • 1. Jan van Eyck (1385-1440)
  • First great Ren. painter
  • Perfected oil painting (painted greater realism
    detail)
  • Spread to Italy
  • Wedding Portrait The Adoration of the Lamb

9
Wedding Portrait
10
The Adoration of the Lamb
11
  • 2. Pieter Brugel painted in mid-1500s
  • Interested in realistic details individual
    people
  • Painted the countryside peasants of Flanders
    (festivals, dances, weddings, harvests)
  • Criticized the intolerance cruelty he saw
  • Peasant Wedding (1568)

12
Peasant Wedding
13
III. The Reform of Northern Society
  • Italian humanists revival of classical
    languages texts
  • N. humanists criticized Christian Church of
    failing to inspire people to lead Christian lives
  • Christian HumanismREFORM SOCIETY!

14
A. Christian Humanists
  • 1. Desiderus Erasmus (1466-1536)
  • Dutch humanist, very-well traveled throughout
    Euro.
  • he was THE scholar of Euro. whose writings were
    read everywhere
  • 1509 The Praise of Folly his most
    famous---satire
  • Folly human nature
  • Described many things that were wrong and needed
    correcting
  • 1. merchants (they lie, swear, cheat, practice
    all intrigues of dishonesty)
  • 2. lawyers (they of all men have the greatest
    conceit of their own abilities)
  • 3. scholastic philosophers (that talk as much by
    rote as a parrot)
  • 4. scientists (who esteem themselves the only
    favorites of wisdom, look upon the rest of
    mankind as the dirt rubbish of creation)
  • 5. churchmen/monks (impudent pretenders to the
    profession of piety)
  • 6. popes, cardinals, bishops (who in pomp
    splendor have almost equalled, if not outdone,
    secular princes)
  • In order to improve society, STUDY THE BIBLE!!

15
  • 2. Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
  • Most significant English
  • Wrote Utopiafirst important description of an
    ideal state
  • Contrasted a fictitious land (Utopia Land of
    Nowhere) w/the harsh conditions of England
  • Blamed capitalism for misery of lower classes
  • More felt that governments are a conspiracy of
    the rich, who in pretence of managing the public,
    only pursue their private ends,first that they
    may, without danger, preserve all that they have
    so ill acquired, and then, that they may engage
    the poor to toil and labor for them at as low
    rates as possible, and oppress them as much as
    they please.
  • In Utopia no one is in want b/c economy is
    planned cooperativeproperty is held in common

16
  • Mores imaginary sailor stated
  • In all other places, it is visible that while
    people talk of a commonwealth, every man only
    seeks his own wealth but there, where no man
    has any property, all men zealously pursue the
    good of the public.In Utopia, where every man
    has a right to everything, they all know that if
    care is taken to keep the public stores full, no
    private man can want anything for among them
    there is no unequal distribution, so that no man
    is poor, none in necessity and though no man has
    anything, yet they are all rich for what can
    make a man so rich as to lead a serene and
    cheerful life, free from anxieties neither
    apprehending want himself, nor vexed with the
    endless complaints of his wife?

17
  • More first modern English socialist
  • Economic outlook legacy of M.A.
  • Preferred medieval collectivism over modern
    economic individualism
  • Also, preferred a Church-led state (medieval) by
    popes rather than by kings
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