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Will the universities ever cope with the mass production of nurses in South Africa? We have so much, and yet

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Introduction. Background. Nursing is the heart beat of any health care system. ... Optometry Dentistry MBCHB Physiotherapy Nursing Pharmacy Radiography Emergency ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Will the universities ever cope with the mass production of nurses in South Africa? We have so much, and yet


1
Will the universities ever cope with the mass
production of nurses in South Africa? We have so
much, and yet Prof Nokuthula Sibiya,
R/N Department of Nursing 7 March 2014 The Forum
of Professional Nurse Leaders
2
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3
We need to ask difficult questions and have open
discussion about these issues!
4
Nursing is the
5
Introduction
Background
Nursing is the heart beat of any health care
system. Millennium development goals are linked
to nursing and midwifery. Socio economic
development of each country is linked to health
status of the population. Leadership is key in
ensuring nursing practice, education and practice
development.
6
Introduction
Background
  • Gross shortage of nurses in South Africa.
  • Need to increase the production of nurses in the
    country.
  • Currently mass production of nurses is in
    colleges.
  • Nursing education is now located in the Higher
    Education band.

7
Outline of the presentation
  • Higher education institutions (HEIs) in South
    Africa.
  • Nursing in HEIs.
  • Funding of HEIs in South Africa.
  • Challenges of access and success in HEIs.
  • Challenges faced by Nursing in HEIs.

8
Introduction
Status of HEIs in South Africa
  • 23 public universities in SA.
  • 2 new universities (Kimberly Mbombela).
  • 11 traditional universities.
  • 6 comprehensive universities combine functions
    of traditional and Universities of Technology
    (UoTs).
  • 6 UoTs (previously known as technikons).

9
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10
Status of Nursing in HEIs
How many universities offer nursing programmes?
  • Out of 23 universities in SA, 22 offer nursing
    (two new universities have nursing in their PQM).
  • Only Central University of Technology (CUT) does
    not offer nursing programmes.
  • In KZN, there are four (4) universities.
  • Out of the four universities, only three offer
    nursing programmes.
  • MUT does not offer nursing programmes (present in
    their PQM).

11
Status of Nurse training in KZN colleges
How many colleges train nurses in KZN?
  • Private Nursing Schools
  • A number of private nursing schools in KZN.
  • Public Nursing College
  • KZNCN 25 campuses-10 campuses and 15
    sub-campuses.

12
Headcount enrolment health science professions
(2000 to 2011)


ENROLMENT 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Average Growth

Nursing 5287 6260 5398 5794 5451 5354 5084 4966 4979 5810 5873 6529 2
MBCHB 8212 8555 8476 8536 8499 8483 8268 8251 8295 8298 8708 8771 1
Dentistry 1284 1264 1280 1317 1095 1314 1263 1172 1165 1126 1182 1114 -1
Pharmacy 1281 1320 2089 2148 2271 2127 2230 2191 2147 2298 2503 2642 7
Physiotherapy 1125 1155 1253 1207 1246 1287 1488 1468 1437 1438 1514 1567 3
Optometry 732 694 751 795 849 882 831 775 719 644 606 571 -2
Radiography 872 958 943 969 986 1008 1170 1249 1336 1464 1523 1595 6
Emergency Medical Care 196 174 174 217 323 367 417 434 468 504 546 543 10

Data represents undergraduate enrolment.
Occasional and Postgraduate excluded
  • Should there be a concern regarding the decrease
    in certain professions.
  • High growth within other professions - do we
    steer the system towards unemployment or
    oversupply?

13
Actual average annual growth. What does SA
need? EMC the fastest growing profession. Are
our Universities coping and did they prepare for
such a high growth?
14
Graduates health science professions (2000 to
2011) SUPPLY
GRADUATES 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Average Growth

Nursing 986 1307 847 933 881 808 873 920 867 895 1023 1259 2
MBCHB 1131 1229 1214 1296 1394 1511 1366 1297 1309 1255 1329 1300 1
Dentistry 220 239 175 244 168 239 268 206 214 193 271 201 -1
Pharmacy 261 204 370 369 460 425 515 513 435 396 389 445 5
Physiotherapy 246 222 251 265 246 262 351 326 335 329 310 303 2
Optometry 151 131 144 145 123 157 190 123 177 156 142 131 -1
Radiography 279 300 276 303 298 320 363 385 387 470 431 519 6
Emergency Medical Care 16 22 25 22 27 53 77 65 76 120 137 146 22

Data represents undergraduate enrolment.
Occasional and postgraduate excluded
15
Graduate growth should be higher than enrolment
growth.
16
Capacity, Intake and Eligible Applicants Nursing
1896?3000 by 2011
Intake lower than capacity NMMU, UFS, UJ,
UWC Noticeable the increase in the number of
eligible applicants
17
Challenges Health Science Deans - 17 Nov 2011
  • As presented by Prof S Essack on the 17 November
    2011
  • Inadequate infrastructure teaching and learning
    spaces, skills laboratories, residences
  • Inadequate clinical teaching and training
    platform both in available student placement
    sites as well as the facilities at these sites
    for non-clinical teaching and learning
  • Shortage of clinical supervisors within the
    clinical teaching and training platform as a
    result of high vacancy rates and high workloads
    within public sector student placement sites.
  • Staffstudent ratios mandated by the professional
    councils are increasingly difficult to effect
  • Increased operational costs, particularly
    transport costs linked to expanded clinical
    teaching and training platform
  • Limited and dwindling pool of credentialed
    healthcare professionals pursuing careers in the
    academic health sciences

18
Unleashing academic talent
19
Career pathing
Promotion
20
Funding of HEIs
21
Other sources of funding
  • Two other major sources of funding
  • Student fees often supported by National Student
    Financial Aid System (NSFAS).
  • Donations and grants (often through funding for
    research, for example Atlantic Philanthropies,
    NRF, MRC, STTI etc.).

22
Funding for provincial Nursing Colleges
Sources
  • Most nursing colleges function according to
    provincial legislation.
  • Funded from the provincial health budgets.
  • Funding based on a budget submitted by the
    college principal.
  • Funding not based on any norms or standards.
  • Budgets do not automatically increase with
    increased activity, e.g. more publications, more
    funding.

23
Access and success in higher education
Challenges
  • Access and success are primary concerns of
    university system throughout the world.
  • Admitting and graduating students is the core
    business of universities.
  • Access and success are profoundly linked to the
    social and political context within which
    universities operate.
  • These must be understood in historical terms.

24
Factors affecting student access and success
Access
  • Political and economic context
  • Partnerships
  • Higher education system
  • Policy
  • Funding
  • Quality assurance
  • Data
  • Expectations of higher
    education (HE)
  • Political and economic forces
    impacting on HE
  • Post-school pathways
  • Youth unemployment NEETS
  • Articulation gap
  • Social context
  • Race
  • Gender
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Schooling
  • Choice
  • Career guidance
  • Preparedness
  • Literacy
  • Post-school opportunities
  • Disadvantage
  • Equity
  • Family support

Admission/ Application/ Testing
Leadership Systems Data
Academic staff - Institutions
E
Academic
  • Curriculum
  • Pedagogy
  • Teaching
  • Technology
  • Language
  • Theories of knowledge, teaching and learning
  • Academic Development
  • Tracking early warning systems
  • Enrolment/Placement
  • Transition
  • Students
  • Individual agency
  • Student engagement
  • Campus culture
  • Peer support
  • First year experience
  • Retention Attrition
  • Finance
  • Housing
  • Student
  • support
  • services

Non - Academic
Success
Postgraduate Pathways
Employment Graduate Attributes Capabilities
Graduation Throughput Achievement
Stopout, Or Dropout
25
Access and success in higher education
Challenges
  • In the early 1990s, a massive expansion of black
    student enrolment in HE occurred.
  • Numbers increased from 495 356 in 1994 to 938 201
    in 2011.
  • Black student numbers increased from 55 in 1994
    to 81 in 2011.

26
Graduation rates in higher education
Challenges
  • 15 of students at SA universities graduate
    (Mtshali, 2013).
  • The target set in the National Plan for HE (NPHE)
    is 22.5 on an average three-year contact UG
    programmes and 13.5 for UG distance programmes.
  • The bar has been raised to 25 for 2030.

27
Success rates in higher education
Challenges
  • 79 for contact students and 69 for distant UG
    students.
  • Success rates of African students are 10 below
    those of White students (DHET, 2012).
  • University success rates in SA are relatively low
    compared to similarly developed countries
    (National Planning Committee 2011).

28
Drop-out rates in higher education
Challenges
  • SA has high attrition (low retention) rates.
  • Of the year 2000 cohort of students, only 30 had
    graduated after 5 years of study, while 50 had
    left the institutions without graduating and 14
    of students were still registered after 5 years
    (Scott et al., 2007).
  • Black completion rate is less than half the white
    completion rate (Scott et al., 2007 CHE 2013).

29
Implications for nursing
  • Nursing is not the first choice of career for the
    high school learners (Mbangi Sibiya, 2013).
  • Nursing still attracts more African than White
    students (Manson Sibiya).
  • The three universities are graduating far less
    than the number of students that are graduated by
    nursing colleges in KZN.

30
Implications for nursing
  • Enrolment plan submitted to DHET for 2014-2019.
  • Where is the subsidy going to come from for
    Nursing Colleges if they move to HE?
  • Research culture still at its infancy
    stage-subsidy for block grant-research?
  • Entry qualifications is Masters.
  • Pressure for staff to obtain doctoral
    qualifications.

31
Collaboration with practice
Together we can do more
  • Advisory board meetings
  • SANEN
  • Partnership in organising conferences-2014 ANEC
    in collaboration with FPNL on 25-27 June 2014

32
Conclusion
33
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