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Sub-regional workshop on measuring violence against women Henrica A.F.M. (Henriette) Jansen

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Sub-regional workshop on measuring violence against women Henrica A.F.M. (Henriette) Jansen UNECE, Geneva 27-29 April 2011 * ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sub-regional workshop on measuring violence against women Henrica A.F.M. (Henriette) Jansen


1
Sub-regional workshop on measuring violence
against womenHenrica A.F.M. (Henriette) Jansen
  • UNECE, Geneva
  • 27-29 April 2011

2
Goals of the workshop (1)
  • Conceptual understanding of gender-based
    violence, its characteristics, causes and impact
    on women and children.
  • Understanding of the goals of the survey module
    and its use in a dedicated survey or as part of
    another survey.
  • Knowledge of the ways of adapting and translating
    the survey module, including combining the module
    with optional modules on other subjects.

3
Goals of the workshop (2)
  • Understanding of the UN indicators on violence
    against women and the way they are retrieved from
    the data collected with the module, including
    knowledge of software options.
  • Knowledge of the specific aspects of interviewing
    skills and ethical and safety guidelines in
    surveys on violence against women
  • Advice on selection, training, supervision and
    support of interviewers for surveys on violence
    against women.

4
Day 1
  1. Introduction and expectations
  2. Ground rules
  3. Sex and gender
  4. What is violence against women, its consequences
    and causes?
  5. Presentations from countries
  6. VAW indicators (Friends of the Chair)
  7. Demonstration interview UNECE VAW module

5
Day 2
  1. VAW module and question by question explanation
  2. Movie Las Mofas Magicas (Daniel Rebner)
  3. Dedicated survey vs. Add-on module
  4. Examples of other modules
  5. Ethical and safety issues

6
Day 3
  1. Selection and training of interviewers
  2. Training and interviewer manuals (including
    interview techniques)
  3. Monitoring and supervision of interviewers
  4. Code book and table shells
  5. Data entry and analysis options
  6. Planning the use of the module for individual
    countries
  7. Wrap-up

7
Day 1
8
Ground Rules
  • Regular attendance
  • Be respectful
  • Ask for help when you dont understand
  • Listen without judgement or criticism
  • Be willing to challenge your beliefs
  • Honor confidentiality
  • No one is required to share more than they want to

9
Defining Sex and Gender
  • Sex refers to the biological differences between
    men and women. They are generally permanent and
    universal.
  • Gender refers to the norms, roles and social
    relations between men and women. It is socially
    constructed and varies from society to society.
    Gender roles can be changed.

10
Sex and gender quiz
  • This study collected gender/sex-disaggregated
    data.
  • This study collected sex-disaggregated data.
  • The health ministry developed a
    gender/sex-sensitive HIV policy.
  • The health ministry developed a gender-sensitive
    HIV policy.
  • My company has staffing policies on gender/sex
    balance.
  • My company has staffing policies on sex balance.
  • What is your gender/sex? Male or female?
  • What is your sex? Male or female?

11
Violence against women
12
ACTIVITY
  • Types of violence against women
  • Consequences of violence against women
  • Underlying reasons/causes of violence against
    women

13
What is violence against women?
  • any act of gender-based violence that results
    in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual,
    or psychological harm or suffering to women,
    including threats of such acts, coercion or
    arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether
    occurring in public or private life".
  • (United Nations, 1993)

14
Violence against women includes
  • partner abuse
  • sexual abuse of girls
  • rape, including marital rape
  • dowry related violence
  • female genital mutilation
  • trafficking in women
  • forced prostitution
  • sexual harassment at the workplace
  • violence condoned or carried out by the state
    (i.e. rape in war)

15
Definition of domestic violence
  • A pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviors,
  • including physical, sexual and psychological
    attacks, as well as economic coercion,
  • used by adults or adolescents against family
    members, most commonly against their current or
    former intimate partners.

16
  • So I take a blanket and I spend the night
    with my children out in the cold because he is
    hitting me too much. I have to take the kids to
    stop him hitting them too. I would go out in the
    fields and sleep there all night. I have done
    that more than ten times
  • Woman interviewed in Peru

17
Common types of abusive behaviors
  • Physical abuse
  • Sexual abuse
  • Psychological abuse
  • Use of economics
  • Use of children to control an adult victim

18
Examples of physical abuse
  • Slapping
  • Shaking
  • Beating with fist or object
  • Strangulation
  • Burning
  • Kicking
  • Threats with knife or gun

19
Examples of sexual abuse
  • Coerced sex through threats or intimidation
  • Coerced sex through physical force
  • Forcing unwanted sexual acts
  • Forcing sex in front of others
  • Forcing sex with others

20
Examples of psychological abuse
  • Isolation from others
  • Excessive jealousy
  • Control her activities
  • Verbal aggression
  • Intimidation through destruction of property
  • Harassment or stalking
  • Threats of violence
  • Constant belittling and humiliation

21
Examples of economic abuse
  • With-holding funds
  • Spending family funds
  • Making most financial decisions
  • Not contributing financially to the family
  • Controlling the victims access to health care,
    employment, etc.

22
Examples of using children to control an adult
victim
  • Physical and sexual abuse of children
  • Hostage taking of children
  • Custody battles
  • Using children to monitor the adult victim

23
How common is physical or sexual violence in
womens lives? (WHO study)
24
How common is partner violence?
  • In most sites, 4 out of 5 women who have been
    abused (by anybody partners and others) reported
    being abused by a partner.
  • Between 15 (Japan) and 71 (Ethiopia) of
    ever-partnered women experienced physical or
    sexual violence by an intimate partner.
  • (WHO study, 2005)

25
Pregnancy is not necessarily a protected time
  • He hit me in the belly and made me miscarry
    two babies - identical or fraternal twins, I
    dont know. I went to the hospital with heavy
    bleeding and they cleaned me up
  • Woman interviewed in Peru
  • In most sites 4-12 of women who had been
    pregnant were beaten during a pregnancy
  • In almost 100 of cases the abuser was the father
    of the unborn child
  • Between one-quarter to half of these women
    reported being punched or kicked in the stomach
  • (WHO study, 2005)

26
Physical violence usually occurs together with
sexual and emotional violence
  • Globally, one-third to one-half of all physically
    abused women also report sexual violence
  • Almost all physically abused women also
    experience severe emotional abuse

27
Causes and Consequences of Violence against Women
28
Health Consequences of Abuse
  • For example
  • unwanted pregnancy
  • chronic pain syndromes
  • injury
  • depression
  • alcohol/drug use
  • STDs/HIV
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • gynecological disorders
  • Fatal Outcomes
  • homicide
  • suicide
  • maternal deaths
  • Aids related deaths
  • Non-fatal outcomes
  • physical
  • mental
  • injurious health behaviors
  • reproductive health

29
Other consequences of violence
  • For children
  • low birthweight
  • emotional well-being
  • behavioural difficulties
  • problems at school
  • injuries
  • leave home
  • For women
  • own health
  • financial status
  • ability to work
  • ability to function
  • participate in society

30
Domestic violence is learned behavior
  • learned through observation
  • learned through personal experience
  • learned in culture
  • learned in family
  • learned in communities, schools, friends, etc.

31
It may be aggravated, but not caused by
  • illness
  • heredity
  • alcohol and drugs
  • lack of self-control
  • economic problems
  • anger/stress
  • the victims behavior or problems in the
    relationship

32
Violence is learned behavior
  • Boys growing up in families where father is
    violent are three times more likely to become
    perpetrators of partner violence in their
    adulthood
  • (study in Serbia 2003).

33
Violence against women is a product of gender
subordination
  • Four issues are consistently associated with
    societies with high levels of domestic violence
  • norms of male entitlement/ownership of women
  • male control of wealth in the family
  • notions of masculinity tied to male
    dominance/honor
  • male control of decision making

34
Cultural differences in the meaning of violence
  • In large parts of the developing world, wife
    beating is seen as a form of correction or
    chastisement
  • Beating is acceptable as long as it is for just
    cause
  • Acceptability depends on who does what to whom,
    for what reason

35
Beating as discipline
  • I think that if the wife is guilty, the husband
    has the right to hit herIf I have done something
    wrongnobody should defend me. But if I havent
    done something wrong, I have a right to be
    defended.
  • -- Indigenous woman, Mexico
  • If it is a great mistake, then the husband is
    justified in beating his wife. Why not? A cow
    will not be obedient without beatings
  • -- Rural man,
  • Tamil Nadu, India

36
An ecological framework for understanding
violence
Community
Society
Relationship
Individual
37
Conclusion
  • Domestic and especially partner violence against
    women affects many women around the world -- with
    grave consequences for them and their children

38
UN VAW indicators
39
Required indicator outputs (core set) 1 
  1. Total and age-specific rate of women subject to
    physical violence in the last 12 months by
    severity of violence, relationship to
    perpetrator(s) and frequency
  2. Total and age -specific rate of women subject to
    physical violence during lifetime by severity of
    violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and
    frequency
  3. Total and age-specific rate of women subject to
    sexual violence in the last 12 months by severity
    of violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and
    frequency
  4. Total and age-specific rate of women subject to
    sexual violence during lifetime by severity of
    violence, relationship to perpetrator(s) and
    frequency

40
Required indicator outputs (core set) 2 
  1. Total and age-specific rate of ever-partnered
    women subject to sexual and/or physical violence
    by current or former intimate partner in the last
    12 months by frequency
  2. Total and age-specific rate of ever-partnered
    women subject to sexual and/or physical violence
    by current or former intimate partner during
    lifetime by frequency
  3. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to
    psychological violence in the past 12 months by
    the intimate partner
  4. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to
    economic violence in the past 12 months by the
    intimate partner
  5. Total and age specific rate of women subjected to
    female genital mutilation

41
Required classifications for the indicators
  • 1-4 severity (for physical violence)
  • 1-4 relationship to perpetrator
  • 1-6 frequency
  • Denominators
  • 1-4 all women
  • 5-8 ever partnered

42
Group activity
  • What can you measure with VAW surveys that you
    cannot get from administrative records?
  • What are some of the risks of VAW surveys and
    propose strategies on how to address these.

43
Day 2
44
UNECE VAW module.Aims
  • To obtain reliable estimates for the main
    indicators of violence against women
  • To obtain an impression of the extent to which
    violence is not reported to authorities

45
Criteria that were considered for the VAW module
  • Set of indicators should be addressed (as a
    minimum)
  • Building on instruments that have been well
    tested and validated across cultures
  • Enabling comparative results (also with surveys
    already done)

46
Structure of VAW module
  • Questions on demographic characteristics of
    respondent (besides age in particular partnership
    status and partnership history)
  • Questions on partner violence psychological,
    economic, physical, sexual
  • Questions on violence by others since age 15
    physical and sexual

47
  • SECTION ON
  • VIOLENCE BY PARTNERS

48
Intimate Partner violence 2 sets of questions
  • A) Questions for current or most recent partner
  • B) Questions for any other previous partner
  • Acts of controlling behaviour
  • Acts of economic violence
  • Acts of emotional abuse
  • Acts of physical violence
  • Acts of sexual violence

49
Measurement of controlling behaviour by partner
  • He tries to keep you from seeing your friends?
  • He tries to restrict contact with your family of
    birth?
  • He insists on knowing where you are at all times?
  • He ignores you and treats you indifferently?
  • He gets angry if you speak with another man?
  • He is often suspicious that you are unfaithful?
  • He expects you to ask his permission before
    seeking health care for yourself?
  •  

50
Measurement of economic abuse by partner
  • He refuses to give you enough money for household
    expenses, even when he has money for other
    things?
  • other questions if applicable
  •  

51
Measurement of emotional violence by partner
  • Insulted you or made you feel bad about yourself?
  • Belittled or humiliated you in front of other
    people?
  • Done things to scare or intimidate you on purpose
    (e.g. by the way he looked at you, by yelling and
    smashing things)?
  • Verbally threatened to hurt you or someone you
    care about?

52
Measurement of physical violence by partner
  • Slapped or threw something at that could hurt
    you?
  • Pushed or shoved you or pulled your hair?
  • Hit with his fist or with anything else that
    could hurt you?
  • Kicked, dragged or beat you up?
  • Choked or burnt you on purpose?
  • Threatened with or actually used a gun, knife or
    other weapon against you?

Moderate
Severe
53
Measurement of sexual violence by partner
  • Were you ever forced to have sexual intercourse
    when you did not want to?
  • Did you ever have sexual intercourse you did not
    want because you were afraid of what he might do?
  • Ever force you to do something sexual that you
    did not want or that you found degrading or
    humiliating?

54
Reference period
  • For each of the acts of abuse or violence
    (controlling behaviours, economical, emotional,
    physical and sexual violence)
  • past 12 months
  • lifetime

55
Frequency
  • For acts of emotional, physical and sexual
    violence, and for both past 12 months and before
    past 12 months Once, few, many times
  • In test module for events of physical and sexual
    violence in the past 12 months
  • 1) daily, weekly, monthly, less than 1/month
  • 2) estimated absolute count

56
Severity
  • For physical partner violence and sexual partner
    violence
  • nature of act
  • Injuries as direct effect of any physical or
    sexual violence (asking for specific injuries)
  • Miscarriage as direct effect
  • Self reported impact on physical or mental
    wellbeing
  • Are you ever afraid of partner (never, sometimes,
    many times, all the time)

57
Type of partner relationship
  • Partner violence questions are separately asked
    for
  • current or most recent partner
  • any previous partner(s)
  • Type of relationship with partner (married,
    living together, dating) is collected for the
    previous partners who were violent for each set
    of controlling behaviours, emotional, physical
    and sexual violence

58
Non reporting of violence
  • One question at the end -- referring to any type
    of partner violence reported
  • Who have you told about your (previous)
    partners behaviour? (pre-coded list)

59
Beware of gender bias in prevalence of domestic
violence incidents and gender (British Crime
Survey)
Women Men against women Ratio Women men
Victims 657,000 356,000 65 1.8
Average number incidents per victim 20 7 2.9
Total incidents 12.9 million 2.5 million 84 5.2
60
  • SECTION ON
  • VIOLENCE BY OTHERS THAN PARTNERS

61
Measurement of physical violence by others than
partners
  • Since the age of 15, has anyone ever hit, beaten,
    kicked or done anything else to hurt you
    physically? Threw something at you? Pushed you or
    pulled your hair? Choked or burnt you on purpose?
    Threatened with or actually used a gun, knife or
    other weapon against you?
  • PROBE
  • Anyone else?
  • How about a relative? How about someone at school
    or work? How about a friend or neighbour? A
    stranger or anyone else?

62
Perpetrators, reference period and severity
  • Pre-coded list of perpetrators (incl. Sex)
  • For each of the perpetrators mentioned
  • How many times did this happen since you were 15
    y once, few, many
  • How many times did this happen in the past 12
    months once, few, many
  • For the each of (max 3) most serious
    perpetrators 3 questions on injuries and timing
    of injuries

63
1. Measurement of sexual violence by others than
partners Rape
  • Since the age of 15, has anyone ever forced you
    into sexual intercourse when you did not want to
    for example by threatening you, holding you down
    or putting you in a situation that you could not
    say no. Remember to include people you have known
    as well as strangers. Please at this point
    exclude attempts to force you.
  • Who did this to you? (followed by probes)

64
2. Measurement of other forms of sexual violence
by others
  • Since the age of 15, has anyone attempted to
    force you into a sexual act you did not want,
    attempted to force you into sexual intercourse
    (which did not take place), touched you sexually,
    or did anything else sexually that you did not
    want. Remember to include people you have known
    as well as strangers.
  • Who did this to you? (followed by probes)

65
Perpetrators and reference period sexual violence
(both sets)
  • Pre-coded list of perpetrators
  • Includes sex of perpetrator
  • For each of the perpetrators mentioned
  • How many times did this happen since you were 15
    once , few, many
  • How many times did this happen in the past 12
    months once, few, many
  • Severity rape vs. other sexual abuse

66
Questionnaire format principles
  • Lower cast ? should be read out
  • CAPITALS ? should NOT be read out
  • Numerical response codes(1, 2, 3,...) only one
    response allowed
  • Alphabetical response codes (A, B, C...) more
    than one response is allowed
  • Questions should be asked as written
  • Always put a mark for a question asked
  • Follow skip patterns exactly

67
Dedicated survey vs. Module on VAW
68
Module vs dedicated survey
  • To raise awareness about the problem
  • To influence policy
  • To monitor trends
  • To contribute to indicators at global level
  • To compare between countries
  • To understand more about violence, the
    associations, risk and protective factors

Shortmodule
Special survey
69
Challenges for module
  • Suitability of vehicle survey
  • Sample issues and representativeness
  • Interviewers, (extra) special training
  • Placement of module
  • How to introduce/explain the module to
    respondents
  • Measure to protect safety for interviewers and
    respondents
  • Need to provide support and referrals
  • Emotional support for interviewers
  • Risk of higher levels of non-disclosure

70
Example of dedicated surveyWomens Health and
Life Experiences WHO Questionnaire outline
  • Section 7 Respondent and her partner
  • Section 8 Injuries
  • Section 9 Impact and coping
  • Section 10 Other experiences
  • Section 11 Financial autonomy
  • Section 12 Completion of the interview
  • Section 1 Respondent and her community
  • Section 2 General Health
  • Section 3 Reproductive health
  • Section 4 Children
  • Section 5 Current or most recent partner
  • Section 6 Attitudes toward gender roles

71
Discussion Other modules
72
Ethical and safety measures
73
Putting womens safety first in violence research
  • 1. Safety of respondents and research team
  • 2. Studies need to be methodologically sound
  • 3. Confidentiality for safety and data quality
  • 4. Selection and training of team members
  • 5. Actions to reducing distress to respondents
  • 6. Possibilities of referral, support mechanisms
  • 7. Proper interpretation and use of study results
  • 8. Violence questions in other surveys

74
1. Safety of respondents and research team
  • Interviews only in a private setting, participant
    should feel free to reschedule or relocate
  • Frame the study not in terms of violence (but
    further information should be give as part of
    consent procedure)
  • Only one woman per household
  • Train interviewers to handle interruptions (e.g.
    Dummy questions, rescheduling)
  • Logistics and budget planning should consider
    safety

75
2. Studies need to be methodologically sound
  • Ethically it is unacceptable to conduct a poorly
    designed study that cannot address the aims
  • Practically too too low estimates can be used to
    question the importance of violence
  • Avoid loaded terms as abuse, rape, violence
  • Give attention to wording, length of interview,
    multiple opportunities for disclosure, etc.
  • When results unexpected, discuss findings with
    key informants, community groups before
    dissemination

76
3. Confidentiality for safety and data quality
  • Address this in training of interviewers no
    interviewers working in their own community
  • Confidentiality procedures, consent process
  • Handling of names
  • Presentation of findings no one community or
    individual can be identified
  • Handling of photograph
  • Handling of the press and publicity

77
Fieldwork Brazil
78
4. Selection and training of team members
  • Sex, skill, attitude and training of interviewer
  • Training should include introduction on gender
    and violence
  • Training as opportunity for research staff to
    come to terms with own experiences
  • Role of interviewers Not counselling, not trying
    to "save" respondents
  • Addressing emotional needs of team members

79
5. Actions to reducing distress to respondents
  • Ask all questions in supportive and
    non-judgemental manner
  • Train interviewers to deal with distress
  • Train when and how to terminate interview (if
    woman does not want to continue or if continuing
    would be detrimental)
  • All interviews should end in a positive manner

80
  • "Somehow it made me feel good, because it was
    something that I had never told anyone before.
    Now Ive told someone".
  • --Respondent, Brazil

81
6. Possibilities of referral, support mechanisms
  • If possible meet prior to field work with
    potential providers of support
  • Develop information sheet and offer to all
    respondents either small enough to be hidden or
    include a range of other services
  • For-warn potential service providers
  • Where few resources exist, consider having a
    trained counsellor or women's advocate accompany
    the teams

82
7. Proper interpretation and use of study results
  • Research findings should be fed into ongoing
    advocacy, policy-making and intervention
    activities
  • Involve advocacy and service groups etc from the
    beginning as part of research team or advisory
    committee. Also in use and advocacy
  • Researchers need to be proactive in ensuring that
    research findings are interpreted appropriately
    by public and media

83
8. Violence questions in other surveys
  • Be aware of the challenges of ensuring data
    quality and ensuring respondent safety
  • It makes sense only of research team is willing
    and able to address basic ethical and
    methodological guidelines.

84
  • We were so naïve. When we first added
    questions on violence into our survey on
    contraceptive use we did nothing specialit never
    occurred to us that we would have problems.
    Later we found out that three women had been
    severely beaten for participating in our survey.
    We felt awful and realized then that we were in
    over our heads..
  • (Researcher from Mexico)

85
Minimum conditions for using a short module
  • Measures to protect safety of respondents and
    interviewers
  • Crisis intervention and referrals to specialized
    services for respondents who need this
  • Special training and emotional support and
    follow-up for interviewers

86
(No Transcript)
87
Day 3
88
Selection and training of interviewers
89
Topics
  • Manuals and materials
  • Selection and recruitment of fieldstaff
  • Training of field staff including piloting
  • Support for field staff and respondents
  • Field supervision and monitoring
  • Team dynamics
  • Lessons learned

90
Materials with UNECE VAW module
  • Question by question explanation
  • Training program for interviewers with training
    facilitators manual and PPT
  • Interviewer manual including ethical and safety
    measures
  • Outline for feedback report and guides for
    debriefing interviewers
  • Code book and analysis plan for the VAW
    indicators
  • SPSS recodes and syntaxes

91
Selection of interviewers
  • Female interviewers and supervisors
  • Good interviewers and supervisors are critical to
    the success of the study
  • Selection process very important - consider
    criteria, base selection on attitudes, motivation
    as well as competency
  • Over - sample for interviewers
  • Trust your gut feelings if you think there may
    be a problem with someone, get rid of them
  • Ask peers who would be good supervisors

92
Goals of interviewer training
  • To increase sensitivity of participants to gender
    issues
  • To develop a basic understanding of gender-based
    violence, its characteristics, causes and impact
    on the health of women and children
  • To understand the goals of the study/module
  • To learn skills for interviewing, taking into
    account safety and ethical guidelines
  • To become familiar with the questionnaire /
    module (and protocol)

93
Example of training schedule
  • Day 1
  • Sensitization to concepts of gender and violence
  • Presentations from advocacy groups/NGOs
  • Exposure to support options for women living with
    violence
  • Aim and overview of the study questionnaire
  • Interviewing techniques and safety measures

94
  • Day 2
  • Detailed question by question explanation of
    questionnaire
  • Role-plays on approaching the household and using
    the complete questionnaire, practice how to
    respond if interview interrupted or if respondent
    becomes distressed and other difficult situations

95
  • Day 3-5
  • Sampling procedures, including repeated visits
    to reduce non-response
  • Pilot testing of questionnaire/module and all
    field procedures, including logistics, safety
    measures, supervisory procedures, debriefing and
    feedback sessions
  • Final adjustments to questionnaire and field
    procedures
  • Separate sessions for supervisors on supervisory
    procedures

96
Interviewer training
  • Use multiple training techniques
  • Group work, brainstorming, presentations,
    discussion, role plays, games, energizers, film,
    demonstration, involving others (victims,
    psychologists/councellers)

97
Practical recommendations
  • Importance of good planning - pays off in the end
  • Allow sufficient time for training of field
    supervisors
  • Use pilot study (field practice) also practice
    training for the field supervisors/editors and
    data entry staff
  • Start with the easy area - often rural location
  • Start slow, need to have ongoing
    training/briefings in particular in first weeks

98
Office support Peru
99
Field work immediately following the training!
100
Support for interviewers give them breaks /
time off if needed Peru
101
Lessons learnedTraining and fieldwork
  • Ensure opportunities during training to interview
    victims of violence
  • Training and pilot essential phases for
    finalizing questionnaire
  • Imaginative strategies to reduce non-response
  • Privacy is hard to ensure - share strategies
  • Provide opportunities (e.g. phone number) for
    respondents to check legitimacy of interview
  • Issues around random selection eligible women

102
Reducing non-response
  • Importance of working with gate-keepers to
    communities such as health workers
  • Importance of getting to eligible women (once
    started, most will finish)
  • Will often need to hold interviews in evening and
    weekends
  • More than three return visits may be needed,
    especially in urban sites

103
Evidence of importance of training Special
training vs professional interviewers (dedicated
survey, Serbia, 2003)
Inexperienced, 3 week training Professional, 1 day training
Response rate 93 86
Disclosure rate 26 21
Respondent satisfaction with violence 46 29
Respondent satisfaction without violence 46 38
104
  • ... I hardly could pull myself together not to
    cry. I wanted to get out of the house as soon as
    possible and cry out loud.... I hardly made it to
    the car as soon as I told my whole team they
    all burst out in tears. The most painful thing
    for me was not being able to do anything. At the
    end I thought that this very research is about
    hope, and I have done my part. (interviewer)

105
  • Maybe I was mediating by listening to her for
    half an hour, and it was worth the world when at
    the end she thanks me and tells me she felt
    worthy.
  • (interviewer)

106
Research as social action
  • For interviewers a life-changing experience,
    with many going on working on women issues
  • For respondents their awareness was raised,
    they were listened to, and they were made to feel
    worthy

107
Supervising and monitoring interviewers
108
Team composition dynamics
  • Be attentive to how construct teams - dont let
    people choose their teams
  • Attention to team building
  • Study will bring out the best worst in everyone
  • Allow adequate time for de-briefing, giving
    feedback, providing support
  • Tension between quality and quantity
  • Develop strategies to handle burn out, team
    interpersonal problems.
  • Importance of field diaries.

109
Supervisor questionnaire
  • Short questionnaire
  • Used to see if interviewers doing their job
  • Not to check violence prevalence
  • Questions are not repeated from questionnaire but
    deal with
  • What were the questions about?
  • How did you feel about the interview?
  • Were you treated well?

110
Monitoring form
  • Daily and weekly monitoring per team, per cluster
    and per interviewer
  • Per interviewer monitor response rate and
    disclosure rate

111
DATA PROCESSING
112
Topics
  • Code book
  • Data analysis plan
  • Dummy tables for report
  • Data entry options
  • Syntax files for calculating indicators

113
Code book
114
Data entry options
  • Suggestion use CSPro share among countries
    using the same module
  • If other program used, advisable to maintain
    same database structure.

115
Data entry
  • Interactive error checking
  • 100 double entry

116
Data entry - suggestions
  • Training start with people who know data entry
  • Include data enterers and manager in some of
    training (questionnaire description)
  • Additional training on data entry (using
    questionnaires from pilot)
  • Entry should be concurrent with collection need
    enough people and computers
  • Allows opportunities for feedback from data entry
    to field-workers
  • Can send back questionnaires to field

117
DiscussionData entry options
118
Analysis plan
119
Indicator Denominator Numerator Relationship Severity Frequency Comments
1 Total and age specific rate of women subjected to physical violence in the last 12 months by severity of violence, relationship to the perpetrator and frequency All women that receive the module, total and in 5 year age groups All women that experienced physical partner violence and/or non partner violence in the last 12 months Partners, relatives, friends/ acquantances/ strangers/ others (to be decided) Severe for partner violence injuries and/or miscarriage and/or acts c-f (else moderate) Severe for non-partner violence physical violence with injuries Once, few times, many times Need to include the missing answers on partner violence from those who were not partnered and recode them as "no"
2 Total and age specific rate of women subjected to physical violence during lifetime by severity of violence, relationship to the perpetrator and frequency All women that receive the module, total and in 5 year age groups All women that experienced physical partner violence and/or non partner violence in their life (for non-partners since age 15) Partners, relatives, friends/ acquantances/ strangers/ others (to be decided) Severe for partner violence injuries and/or miscarriage and/or acts c-f (else moderate)Severe for non-partner violence physical violence with injuries Once, few times, many times Need to include the missing answers on partner violence from those who were not partnered and recode them as "no"
3 Total and age specific rate of women subjected to sexual violence in the last 12 months by severity of violence, relationship to the perpetrator and frequency All women that receive the module, total and in 5 year age groups All women that experienced sexual partner violence and/or non partner violence in the last 12 months Partners, relatives, friends/ acquantances/ strangers/ others (to be decided) Severe for partner violence any forced sexual intercourse for non-partner violence rape (else moderate) Once, few times, many times Need to include the missing answers on partner violence from those who were not partnered and recode them as "no"
4 Total and age specific rate of women subjected to sexual violence during lifetime by severity of violence, relationship to the perpetrator and frequency All women that receive the module, total and in 5 year age groups All women that experienced sexual partner violence and/or non partner violence in their life (for non-partners since age 15) Partners, relatives, friends/ acquantances/ strangers/ others (to be decided) Severe for partner violence any forced sexual intercourse for non-partner violence rape (else moderate) Once, few times, many times Need to include the missing answers on partner violence from those who were not partnered and recode them as "no"
120
Indicator Denominator Numerator Relationship Severity Frequency Comments
5 Total and age specific rate of ever-partnered women subjected to sexual and/or physical violence by current of former intimate partner in the last 12 months by frequency All ever-partnered women that receive the module, total and in 5 year age groups All women that experienced sexual and/or physical partner violence in the last 12 months Current partners/ former partners (can be broken down in more detailed way) Severe for non-partner violence physical violence with injuries (note not required for indicator 5) Once, few times, many times To be explored for more detailed counts of incidents (collected in the test module)
6 Total and age specific rate of ever-partnered women subjected to sexual and/or physical violence by current or former intimate partner during lifetime by frequency All ever-partnered women that receive the module, total and in 5 year age groups All women that experienced physical partner violence and/or non partner violence in their life Current partners/ former partners (can be broken down in more detailed way) Severe for non-partner violence physical violence with injuries (note not required for indicator 6) Once, few times, many times Although not part of the indicator To be explored for partner violence health impacts, continuous living in fear as aspects of severity
7 Total and age specific rate of women subjected to psychological violence in the past 12 months by the intimate partner All ever-partnered women that receive the module, total and in 5 year age groups All women that experienced sexual and/or psychological partner violence in the last 12 months Current partners/ former partners (can be broken down in more detailed way) Explore this indicator with and without controlling behaviours
8 Total and age specific rate of women subjected to economic violence in the past 12 months by the intimate partner All ever-partnered women that receive the module, total and in 5 year age groups All women that experienced sexual and/or economical partner violence in the last 12 months Current partners/ former partners (can be broken down in more detailed way) Consider testing other questions on economic violence
121
Table shells (dummy tables)
122
Recode and analysis syntaxes
  • prsevpa - severity based on acts (first 2
    acts only moderate)
  •  IF (prphys 0) prsevpa 0 .
  • IF (V27aa 1 V27ab 1) prsevpa 1 .
  • IF (V27ac 1 V27ad 1 V27ae 1 V27af
    1) prsevpa 2 .
  • VARIABLE LABELS prsevpa 'severity phys violence
    by former partner (acts)'.
  • VALUE LABELS prsevpa 0 'no phys violence' 1
    'moderate phys violence only' 2 'severe phys
    violence' .
  • EXECUTE .
  •  
  • prsevpi - severity based on injuries (first 2
    acts only moderate)
  •  IF (prphys 0) prsevpi 0 .
  • IF ( V40aa 2 V40ab 2 V40ac 2 V40ad
    2 ) prsevpi 1 .
  • IF (V40aa 1 V40ab 1 V40ac 1 V40ad
    1) prsevpi 2.
  • VARIABLE LABELS prsevpi 'severity phys violence
    by former partner (injuries)'.
  • VALUE LABELS prsevpi 0 'no phys violence' 1 'phys
    violence no injuries' 2 'phys violence and
    injuries' .
  • EXECUTE .
  •  

123
Example tables
  • Indicator 2 Georgia (pilot test data)

124
(No Transcript)
125
(No Transcript)
126
ActivityPlanning the use of the module
  • Module to other survey or stand-alone
  • Type of vehicle survey/sources of funding
  • How to integrate module in this survey
    placement, etc
  • Sampling strategy (for survey / module) sample
    size for module selection of eligible women
  • Type and number of interviewers , supervisors
  • Safety (incl. safe name) and support mechanisms
  • Training plan and duration
  • Data processing procedures
  • Timeline for the activity
  • Possible obstacles and strategies to overcome

127
REALIZE that this is different from routine
surveys
  • Ethical issues, including safe name
  • Training of interviewers very important!!
  • Psychological support for interviewers and
    respondents
  • It is an intervention in itself
  • Survey as a participatory activity
  • Survey as transforming for interviewers and
    researchers
  • Survey as awareness building among respondents

128
Good luck!!
FOR MORE INFORMATION AND MATERIALS
http//www1.unece.org/stat/platform/display/VAW/M
easuringviolenceagainstwomen
  • henriette.jansen_at_gmail.com
  • Photos Henriette Jansen
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