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The Time Between the Wars (WWI to WW2-2nd 30yr War?)


... who later served as American military attache in Berlin during the early years of the Nazi regime From The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich National Socialist ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Time Between the Wars (WWI to WW2-2nd 30yr War?)

The Time Between the Wars (WWI to WW2-2nd 30yr
IN FLANDERS FIELDS the poppies blow Between the
crosses row on row, That mark our place and in
the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid te guns below. We are the
Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw
sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we
lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel
with the foe To you from failing hands we throw
The torch be yours to hold it high. If ye
break faith with us who die We shall not sleep,
though poppies grow In Flanders fields.
WWI Ends
  • Europe recovered from World War I
  • Society faced rapid change
  • Depression
  • Changes in government
  • Stage is set for World War II

  • Full scale war, -gt economies devoted entirely to
    the war effort
  • The Allied and Central Powers spent 200 billion
    fighting the war
  • Nearly every major European country was bankrupt
    by 1918

Recovery, Part 2
  • 15 to 20 million dead, (civilians and military)
  • Locations of battles left heavy destruction and
    unusable land-gtBelgium/France

Aftermath of World War I
  • 1920s and 30s time of reexamination
  • Lost Generation
  • Exhausted Europe reflected -gt devastating War
  • New Authoritarian Governments, Fascist and
    Communist, spread through Europe

Surrealism- The Face of War by Salvador Dali
New Art forms such as Surrealism and Dadaism
examined the ideas brought forth by Sigmund
Freud, the Unconscious (Jung too!) The Art also
reflected the insanity of War
Dada (Degenerate Art ?/ This is what Hitler
called it)- otto dix
Note this is a triptych (3 piece art) which is
commonly placed by an altar
More Degenerate Art- George Grosz
  • Germans -gt peace according to Wilsons Fourteen
  • Actual treaty was harsh towards Germany
  • Lost land (Alsace/Czech/Poland)
  • All territories Africa and Pacific German
    military power extremely limited
  • War guilt clause
  • 31 billion in war reparations

  • League of Nations
  • Other treaties based on agreements among the
    Allied powers
  • End of Empires! Ottoman Empire , Austro-Hungarian
    empire split up-gtNew Balance of Power-
  • Brest-Litovsk btw Germany and Russia cancelled
    and Russia recovered land, new countries formed-
    Poland, Baltic States, Finland

Unstable Governments
  • -gteconomic and war recovery problems,
  • Eastern and Central. Europe- figuring out
    democracy -gtshaky situation (little liberal
    history, strong conservative elements)
  • By mid 1920s-gtDictatorships- Authoritarian
    Government- (except Czechoslovakia)
  • Coalition governments
  • Dependent on American economy and investment

Weak Governments lead to Extremism in East-
Vacillating Govts in West
  • By the end of the 1920s most of Eastern Europe
    was dominated by the military
  • Some countries (eg Hungary) had short experiences
    w/Communist Government that was quickly overrun-gt
    long term red fear
  • Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary all became effectively
    military governments, only Czechoslovakia -gt
  • England and France weak coalition governments

Germany -gtWeimar Republic
  • Proportional Government -gt weak coalitions
  • Weimar- City in Germany where Constitution was
  • Social Democratic Party ruled
  • Later Conservatives (Von Hindenburg)
  • SDP initially most powerful
  • Strong Communist party

  • Liberal Constitution-borrowed from UK Cabinet,
    from US-gt President
  • Free Speech, 20 yr voting age- both genders!
  • Voting methods-gtlikelihood of splinter groups
  • Federal system-gt less centralized
  • Failures of Weimar Republic
  • Military and Justice rife w/conservatives,
    monarchists- Rightists treated leniently,
    Leftists Harshly

Lost Territory
  • Anschluss - Germany was not allowed to unite with
    Austria. Land - Germany lost land to a number of
    other countries. Alsace-Lorraine was returned to
    France, Eupen and Malmedy were given to Belgium,
    North Schleswig was given to Denmark. Land was
    also taken from Germany and given to
    Czechoslovakia and Poland. The League of Nations
    took control of Germany's colonies

German Disarmament
  • Military Clauses
  • Army - was to be reduced to 100,000 men and no
    tanks were allowed Navy - Germany was only
    allowed 6 ships and no submarines Air force -
    Germany was not allowed an airforce Rhineland -
    The Rhineland area was to be kept free of German
    military personnel and weapons

Germany Post WWI
Early Crisis- Saar Basin- Ruhr Valley
  • Germany fails to pay full
  • Reparations (1922)- France
  • Occupies mines- upsets
  • Britain- Germans unite!
  • -Constant issue of Reparations
  • US doesnt demand Reparations but does demand
    repayment of War Debt- Heavy Burden

Germany 1920s
  • Economic Problems- Hyperinflation
  • Weak and unstable Weimar Republic -gt breeding
    ground for radicals
  • Govt. failed to raise taxes in WWIgtsolve

Treaties/Agreements 1920s
  • Refinancing the Debt-gtDawes plan and subsequent
    Young Plan- Stabilized SPD and Germany!
  • Trappau 1922 Berlin Treaty 1926 Russia
  • Locarno Pact 1925- reasserting
  • borders but not Poland! (Stressemen)
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact
  • Little Entente- Czech, Yugoslavia, Romania

Great Britain- The sun begins to Set? Sort of
  • Reliance on British countries in WWI -gt
  • Irish Question- Irish independence? 216?
  • Ghandi in India, Egypt Protectorate
  • Slow Economy throughout 1920s
  • A last gasp before dominance begins to Fade (had
    its own Iraq problem)

France 1920 and 30s
  • Highly dependent upon Reparations
  • Paid them in 1815 and 1871
  • Some felt that not enough Retribution
  • Conservative Governments dominated in the 20s,
    more liberal Governments in 1930s
  • Sizeable followings of both socialism and fascism
  • Anti-Semitism lingered under the surface, however
    in the 1930s Leon Blum, a Jew was Prime Minister
  • Institutes 5 day 40hr workweek

Rise of Extremism
  • Fear/Anxiety-gtlose faith in democratic government
  • Turn to extremism (communism, fascism)
  • Subordination of the individual to the State
  • Fascism born of the need for action
  • Extreme nationalism
  • Authoritarian leaders-
  • Absolute loyalty
  • Censorship
  • Dictatorial one party rule
  • Denied individual rights
  • Each class has a function

Rise of Extremism
  • Economic and Social Problems lead
  • to extremism (communism, fascism)
  • Fascism born of the need for action
  • Extreme nationalism
  • Authoritarian leaders-Dictators
  • One Party Government
  • Censorship
  • Limited Civil Rights

  • What groups of people are attracted to
  • Fascism?
  • Communism?

Each involves SUBORDINATION of the person to the
Chart of ideologies
  • Believed sacrifices during WWI were in vain-
  • Versailles didnt properly compensate Italy
  • Severe economic crisis, didnt want communism
  • red fear (Bolsheviks)
  • Weak Coalition Governments- Proportional
  • Benito Mussolini promised rescue Italy
  • Takes over government in 1922-bloodless
  • King Victor Emmanuel
  • Fascists- reconstitute Italian Parliament (25
  • Model of fascism-

Mussolinis Palace
Cultural Change
Life for Europeans changes at an unheard of
pace Travel and Mass Media become commonplace
  • Worldwide Economic Depression
  • October 24, 1929, stock market fell
  • Germany/Austria particularly hard hit
  • Depression v. Recession, whats the Difference?

Depression, cont.
  • Businesses, banks, and factories closed
  • American economy collapses! Reverbates-gtEuropean
  • Unemployment skyrockets-gtDeflation
  • Austrian Bank fails 1930-gt German bank
    failure-econ. Collapse (sound familiar?)

  • In U.S. the New Deal
  • In Europe democratic groups failed, and
    anti-democratic leaders step in
  • France Popular Front (Communists and
  • Britain National Government (all party
    coalition)- cuts???anti-keynsian

John Maynard Keynes
  • Spend out of a Recession-STIMULATE
  • British Economist
  • Theorized -gtdeep recession-gtParadox of Thrift-
    Consumers-gtSave instead of Spend, compounding the
    Recessionary Problems
  • Government MUSTspend
  • Book General Theory on Employment, Interest and
    Money (1936)
  • Short Run Matters-gtLong Run were all dead
  • Major effect on Post WW II Economics--Also argued
    against Protectionist Trade Policies
  • Along w/Smith, Malthus and Ricardo- One of the
    most important Economists in World History!!!
  • Member of the Bloomsbury Group- w/Virginia Woolf,
    EM Forster

American Isolationism
  • Most Americans -gt avoid political ties to other
  • Rejected Treaty of Versailles and didnt join
    League of Nations
  • Economically (banks and industry), heavily
    connected to Europe (Dawes and Young Plans)

Fascism v. Communists and RepublicansSpanish
Civil War
Conservatives and Fascists fought Socialists and
Liberals (Republicans)
  • -Republicans won elections but military
  • Germany and Italy will provide military support
    for the Fascists
  • Soviet Union (Russia) will provide support for
    the Communists
  • Fascists Win, led by Francisco Franco

Painting by Pablo Picasso
Guernica was the site of the 1st aerial bombing
of a city- 1000s indiscriminately
killed Saturation Bombing- precursor to Dresden
Spain - civil war- Guernica
  • Harsh deal? from Versailles Treaty- Conservatives
    remained in Power-
  • Late 1920s recovery until-gtGreat Depression
  • Left/Right split
  • Nazis gain power 1933
  • Adolf Hitler promised the people what they
    wanted elected Chancellor

One Theory
  • From Luther and sell out of Peasants
    Revolt-gt30yr War and increased Serfdom-gtPrussia
    (militarism)gtVolksculture-Reaction to
    Napoleonism? gtBurschenschafen-gt Hegel
    (Subordination of the indiv. To State-gtNietzche
    (Uberman)-gtWagner (German Myth)-gtChamberlain
    (virulent Anti-semitism)-gtWilhelm II-gt Hilter

From The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
  • The Peace of Westphalia (1648) was almost as
    disastrous to the future of Germany as the war
    had been. The German princes, who had sided with
    France and Sweden, were confirmed as absolute
    rulers of their little domains, some 350 of them,
    the Emperor remaining merely as a figurehead so
    far as the German lands were concerned. The surge
    of reform and enlightenment which had swept
    Germany at the end of the fifteenth and the
    beginning of the sixteenth centuries was
    smothered. In that period the great free cities
    had enjoyed virtual independence feudalism was
    gone in them, the arts and commerce thrived. Even
    in the countryside the German peasant had secured
    liberties far greater than those enjoyed in
    England and France. Indeed, at the beginning of
    the sixteenth century Germany could be said to be
    one of the fountains of European civilization.
  • Now, after the Peace of Westphalia, it was
    reduced to the barbarism of Muscovy. Serfdom was
    reimposed, even introduced in areas where it had
    been unknown. The towns lost their
    self-government. The peasants, the laborers, even
    the middle-class burghers, were exploited to the
    limit by the princes, who held them down in a
    degrading state of servitude. The pursuit of
    learning and the arts all but ceased. The greedy
    rulers had no feeling for German nationalism and
    patriotism and stamped out any manifestations of
    them in their subjects. Civilization came to a
    standstill in Germany. The Reich, as one
    historian has put it, was artificially
    stabilized at a medieval level of confusion and

Weimar Instability
  • Freikorps
  • Kapp Putsch
  • Communist revolts
  • Establishment National Socialist Party

  • Early US Report on Adolf Hitler
  • Captain Smith wrote a lengthy report which the
    embassy dispatched to Washington on November 25,
  • The most active political force in Bavaria at
    the present time is the National Socialist Labor
    Party. Less a political party than a popular
    movement, it must be considered as the Bavarian
    counterpart to the Italian fascist! . . . It has
    recently acquired a political influence quite
    disproportionate to its actual numerical
    strength. . .Adolf Hitler from the very first has
    been the dominating force in the movement, and
    the personality of this man has undoubtedly been
    one of the most important factors contributing to
    its success... His ability to influence a popular
    assembly is uncanny. In private conversation he
    disclosed himself as a forceful and logical
    speaker, which, when tempered with a fanatical
    earnestness, made a very deep impression on a
    neutral listener.
  • Colonel Smith, who later served as American
    military attache in Berlin during the early years
    of the Nazi regime
  • From The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

National Socialist German Workers Party
  • 1923 Beer Hall Putsch- involved Ludendorf
  • 1924- Mein Kampf- while in luxury Prison?
  • Mid 20s Roehms stormtroopers
  • (Brownshirts-SA)-Later SS too! (others had their

Beer Hall Putsch
  • The National Revolution has begun! Hitler
    shouted. This building is occupied by six
    hundred heavily armed men. No one may leave the
    hall. Unless there is immediate quiet 1 shall
    have a machine gun posted in the gallery. The
    Bavarian and Reich governments have been removed
    and a provisional national government formed. The
    barracks of the Reichswehr and police are
    occupied. The Army and the police are marching on
    the city under the swastika banner.
  • At any rate a shot was fired and in the next
    instant a volley of shots rang out from both
    sides, spelling in that instant the doom of
    Hitlers hopes. Scheubner- Richter fell, mortally
    wounded. Goering went down with a serious wound
    in his thigh. Within sixty seconds the firing
    stopped, but the street was already littered with
    fallen bodies sixteen Nazis and three police
    dead or dying, many more wounded and the rest,
    including Hitler, clutching the pavement to save
    their lives.
  • Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

Mein Kampf-
  • Not a Bestseller-
  • 9,473 copies (1925),. 6,913 (1926), 5,607 (1927),
    3,015 (1928), 7,664 (1929), rose with the
    fortunes of the Nazi Party in 1930, when an
    inexpensive one-volume edition at eight marks
    appeared, to 54,086, 50,808 (1931), 90,351 (1932)
  • From Mein Kampf
  • All the human culture, all the results of art,
    science and technology that we see before us
    today, are almost exclusively the creative
    product of the Aryan he alone was the founder
    of all higher humanity, there- fore representing
    the prototype of all that we understand by the
    word man. He is the Prometheus of mankind from
    whose shining brow the divine spark of genius has
    sprung at all times, forever kindling anew that
    fire of knowledge which illumined the night of
    silent mys- teries and thus caused man to climb
    the path to mastery over the other beings of this
    earth ... It was he who laid the foundations and
    erected the walls of every great structure in
    human culture.

Rise to Power
  • 1928 Election- Nazi Party wins 12 Seats
  • Late 20s Coalition Govt formed -gt fails 3/30
  • 1930 Election Nazi-gt107 Seats
  • SA 1 Million members
  • 5/32 Hitler v. Von Hindenburg for President-gt
    Hindenburgs wins
  • 7/32 Nazi party wins 230 seats 37
  • 11/32 party 196 seats 33-
  • Attempt at Coalition govt alienates conservatives
  • 1/30/33 Hitler named Chancellor
  • 2/27/33 Reichstag Fire-gtCommunists blamed art 48
  • 3/33 Nazi party wins 288 seats 43.9
  • 3/23/33 Enabling Act
  • 5/33 Nazi Party seizes offices, banks, newspapers
    and free trade unions
  • 7/33 Nazi Party sole legal party
  • 6/34 SA leader Roehm and prior chancellor killed
    (Night of Long Knives)
  • 8/34 Hindenburg dies, Hitler- President and

Rise of German Nazism
Nuremburg Rallies
  • Nazi Party elected 1933
  • Stages fire? in Reichstag- blames
    Communists-outlaws other parties
  • Creates Dictatorship (48)
  • Use of Propaganda to build support

Anti-Semitic Laws Passed
  • Mein Kampf, (written while in prison-after Beer
    Hall Putsch) overt-gtJews were a plague on Germany
  • 1933 Jews excluded from Civil Service (including
  • 1933 Dachau established Beginning NOT JEWS-
    political prisoners!
  • 1935 Nuremberg Laws passed limiting Jewish
    Employment and citizenship
  • November 1938-gtKristallnacht

Americans and Nazi ideals
  • Henry Ford- The Dearborn Independent May 22,
    1920, "The International Jew The World's
    Problem." "There is a race, a part of humanity
    which has never yet been received as a welcome
    part." This people, has ever been fouling the
    earth and plotting to dominate it. In order to
    eventually rule the Gentiles, the Jews have long
    been conspiring to form an "international
    super-capitalist government." (This racial
    problem).. "prime" question confronting all
    society.-Ford frequently accused the Jews of
    causing a decline in American culture, values,
    products, entertainment, and even worse, of being
    the instigators of World War I.Who Financed
    Hitler The Secret Funding of Hitler's Rise to
  • Charles Lindberg- Jews were trying, partly
    through their ownership of the media, to draw
    America into the war. Lindbergh represented
    America First
  • Eugenics- Forced Sterilizations 1920s
  • Jim Crow, Chinese Exclusion Act etc
  • Resettlement- (true in many other countries
    tooTrail of Tears, Indian Bureau)

Foreign PolicyAxis Power
  • Disarmament talks ended, Rearmament upsurge
  • Austrian Nazis kill Austrian Chancellor 1933
  • Naval Agreement w/Britain 1935
  • Removes League of Nations
  • 1936 Germany and Italy form alliance- Rome-Berlin
  • Italy in 1935 invaded Ethiopia
  • Japan Joins Axis as well

Kristalnacht 11/10/38Pogrom?-Night of the
Broken Glass-
  • German Jew kills German diplomat in Paris-
    Germans riots against Jews.
  • Jewish businesses and synagogues are destroyed-
    police turn their backs. Hundreds of Jews are
    killed or wounded

  • The Depression -gt military leaders took control
  • Planned to solve economic problems -gt Pacific
  • Ruled in emperors name

Germany on the Marchviolates the Treaty of
-1936 Remilitarizes the Rhine
1937 Germany forms a union with Austria-
Anschluss One Culture, One Fuhrer
1938-Occupies the Sudetenland part of
Munich Conference-Appeasement
  • Hitler meets with Britain (Prime Minister
    Chamberlain) as well as France-
  • Germany promises the Occupation of the
    Sudetenland is the last thing theyll do

The Church and Churches
  • Pius XI-
  • Concordat with Nazis 1933
  • Later sent objections to Nazi- treatment of
    Church (though not to others)
  • 1938 Objected to racism
  • Lateran Treaty with Mussolini 1929
  • Majority Protestant Pastors Germany failed to
  • Pacelli-gtPius XII- Anti-Semite-gtnegotiated treaty
  • Bolsheviks and CommunistsOusted Church

Soviet Union
  • Lenin dies-gtTrotskys ousted-gtStalin gains power
  • Stalin- Bureaucrat-gtheaded the party- Politburo
  • gtthrough patronage built up a strong base
  • Trotsky favored radical economic changes
  • Lost favor-gtStalin didnt take a position

  • 1929 Kulaks (primarily Ukrainian farmers) ordered
    to collectivize
  • 1930s Millions exiled- perish

5 Year Plans
  • Heavy Industry
  • Russia witnesses explosive growth
  • Centrally planned economy
  • Ignore consumer economy
  • Urbanization
  • Education-as means of advancement
  • Especially sciences

  • 1933-gt Great Purges begin
  • Bukharin architect of NEP executed 1938
  • Moves to countryside
  • Local leaders use purges

Soviets (Russia) and German Agree to
Non-Aggression Pact (1939)
  • Note 1920s Soviets facilitated German violations
    of Treaty Versailles. Nonetheless Ironic-
    Anti-Communist signs w/ardent Communist

September 1, 1939- WWII Begins
  • Poland Invaded
  • France and Britain allied
  • with Poland will enter War

Women in Totalitarian Regimes
  • Low Birth Rate- why?
  • Attempts to build up Population
  • Awards for big families (largely ineffective)
  • Fascists (far right)
  • Traditional in Nature- gtKinder, Kirche, Kuche
    (german-Children, Church and Kitchen)
  • Communist
  • Initially some increased rights, -gtlater
    retrenchment- Matushka

Culture and Art
  • Streams of Consciousness
  • Effect of Freud on Literature
  • James Joyce Ulysses- (some say the greatest
    English Novel)
  • 24 hours in the life of Leopold Bloom through the
    streets of Dublin
  • Bloomsbury Group (not related to L. Bloom above)

  • Jung (Psychology)
  • Building on Freud
  • Argues the Id- collective conscience
  • Similarities of Myths etcsome commonality,
  • Rutherford and Heisenberg (Physics)
  • Atomic Research and Uncertainty Principle
  • Laying the groundwork for atomic energy research