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The Great War Legacy Tracy Rosselle, M.A.T. Newsome High School, Lithia, FL


The Great War Legacy Tracy Rosselle, M.A.T. Newsome High School, Lithia, FL The Interwar Years: 1919 1930s Meanwhile in the East In the 1930s, military ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great War Legacy Tracy Rosselle, M.A.T. Newsome High School, Lithia, FL

The Great War Legacy Tracy Rosselle,
M.A.T. Newsome High School, Lithia, FL
  • The Interwar Years 1919 1930s

Outcomes of the war a regional look
  • The fallout in
  • Britain
  • France
  • Italy
  • Germany
  • Russia
  • the United States
  • Japan
  • China
  • India
  • the Middle East

  • Greatly affected economically and demographically
  • Debts were high
  • An entire generation reduced by heavy casualties
  • Vast empire now becoming a liability, especially
    as nationalist movements for independence gain
    momentum in Africa and Asia

  • Devastated infrastructure
  • The Allied power that had born the biggest brunt
    of the war
  • War widows and amputees in every city

  • Among the Allied leaders that had been promised
    large tracts of land from Austrian empire
  • Dissatisfied with the amount of land it actually
    received in return for abandoning the Triple
    Alliance and joining the Allies
  • This continued to be a political issue after the
    war, and Italy pressed for more territory along
    the Adriatic coast

  • Utterly wrecked politically, economically and
  • Millions of men dead from the fighting
  • Its landmass reduced, its overseas colonies lost
  • With the war-guilt clause, on the hook for
    massive reparations payments
  • The Kaiser abdicated and fled the country,
    leaving Germany where a weak democratic
    government (with a president and chancellor) was
    assembled in Weimar in 1919

  • Also in shambles as revolution turned into civil
  • Not a party to Versailles, having signed a treaty
    with Germany in 1917
  • Bolsheviks (Reds) and supporters of the Czar
    (Whites) fought for control of Russia for two
    years a struggle that left a million more
    Russians dead
  • Bolsheviks won, establishing Union of Soviet
    Socialist Republics and shot the Czar and his
    family to ensure an end to the Romanov Dynasty

The United States
  • Emerged from The Great War as a true world power
    but still reluctant to play that role
  • Having entered the war late and fought on
    European soil, relatively unscathed by the
    conflict in contrast to Britain and France
  • Isolationist impulse returns as U.S. retreats
    from European affairs

  • Fought on Allied side during the war
  • Like Italy, dissatisfied with the results of
    Versailles because it didnt help them expand
    their empire as much as theyd have liked
  • Postwar economy led to hard times

  • Riots erupted in Beijing to protest provisions of
    Versailles that gave concessions in China to
  • Had entered the war late, hoping for support as a
    large nation aspiring to democracy
  • May Fourth Movement arose as nationalist fervor
    peaked Chinese reformers began criticizing
    Confucian traditions and looking to Western ideas
    for inspiration

  • Made a significant contribution to the war effort
    on the side of Britain and Allies
  • Promised self-government after the war only to
    see little change after fighting ended
  • Nationalism surged under the leadership of Gandhi
    and his policy of nonviolent resistance and
  • Eventually gained independence in 1947 following
    World War II

The Middle East
  • The Ottoman Empire collapsed in 1918 with only
    Turkey remaining as it declared itself a republic
  • Turkey, under Mustafa Kemal who eventually took
    the title of Ataturk (father of the Turks)
    began to modernize, secularize and westernize
  • Other Arab lands placed under mandates of French
    and British control, disappointing those Arabs
    whod fought against the Ottomans, expecting
    freedom in return for their military assistance
  • Further tension over British control of Palestine

The Middle East (cont.)
  • In Balfour Declaration of 1917, Britain agreed in
    principle to creation of a Jewish homeland in
  • To avoid antagonizing Arabs throughout the Middle
    East, however, Britain put the Zionist question
    on the back burner (Israel would be created in
    1948 following World War II)

Adding insult to injury
  • The Great War killed 10 million soldiers and
    perhaps half that many civilians, wounding
    upwards of 30 million more. But an even bigger
    worldwide killer emerged in 1918 the Spanish flu

The Great Influenza
Origins in U.S. army camps
  • The worlds deadliest ever epidemic of influenza
    hit worldwide in the final year of The Great War.
  • Estimates of the dead vary from 20-100 million
  • Epidemiologists now believe it began in U.S. army
    camps and spread to Europe and then Asia after
    infected troops arrived there.

In the postwar years
  • The new nations of Eastern Europe, with weak
    democratic traditions, experienced difficulties
    politically (ethnic tensions were high) and
    economically. Through the 1920s and 1930s, only
    Czechoslovakia remained democratic and avoided
  • WWI completed the transformation that saw
    European aristocracy decline and the power of
    lower and middle classes ascend.

Womens suffrage
  • The drive to get women the right to vote was long
    in coming, but their role in the war economy
    gained women respect in the workplace and public
  • In most Western nations during or after WWI,
    women were given the right to vote.
  • France and Italy were alone in resisting the
    trend, not granting womens suffrage until the

Europe in decline
  • The great powers of Europe were severely drained
    by WWI, now struggling to maintain their overseas
    empires and rebuild following the war.
  • France, Britain, Belgium, Portugal and the
    Netherlands found it increasingly difficult to
    maintain their colonies.

Angst, anyone?
  • Intellectuals led the way in questioning the
    belief in progress and the certainty of Truth
    with a capital T.
  • Writers of the Lost Generation and
    existentialists (Nietzche) struggled to find
    meaning of life.
  • Dali and surrealism (The Persistence of Memory)

The Great Depression
  • A global phenomenon, not just a U.S. matter
  • American stock market drew capital throughout the
    Roaring 1920s, but after the Crash of 29 the
    reaction was felt worldwide
  • Europeans depended on American loans to recover
    from WWI
  • Wave of U.S. bank failures crashed through other
    financial capitals in London, Berlin and Tokyo

The Great Depression (cont.)
  • Unemployment rose to double digits globally,
    topping 25 in the U.S.
  • Personal bankruptcies ran high.
  • The United States exacerbated the problem by
    passing the highest tariff in its history,
    further blocking international trade.

Depression debacle
  • Main causes
  • Overdependence on American loans and buying
  • Increase in protectionism (use of import tariffs)
  • Industrial and farming surpluses, leading to
    deflation of prices
  • Poor banking management
  • Major outcomes
  • Hardships opened door to political instability
    and rise of extremism in many nations
  • Communists criticized failure of capitalism,
    while fascists used authoritarian means to
    protect private enterprise

Depressions end

Despite FDRs New Deal an unprecedented
federal effort to help the economy the Great
Depression didnt end until the massive deficit
spending associated with WWII.
Dictatorial rule
  • Ruthless dictators emerged in the postwar climate
    of economic strife, using variations on a
    totalitarian theme
  • Benito Mussolini in Italy
  • Adolf Hitler in Germany
  • Francisco Franco in Spain
  • Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union

Mussolini the first fascist
  • Mussolini (Il Duce, the leader) led a march on
    Rome in 1922 demanding to be put in charge of the
  • King Victor Emmanuel III, fearing widespread
    violence and an uprising, saw Mussolini as his
    dynastys best hope for survival.

More Mussolini
  • Mussolini quickly abolished democracy and
    outlawed all political parties except Fascists.
  • He and the fascist movement generally feared the
    spread of the Marxist revolution in Russia.
  • Fascism fundamentals
  • Opposition to communism.
  • Glorification of the traditional state
  • Militarism and the glorification of war
  • A friend of big business and the destruction of
    labor unions
  • Rejection of liberal democracy as ineffective

Hitler hysteria
  • Germany rebuilt after WWI as a parliamentary
    democracy, but fear of communism, war debts and
    hyperinflation left it susceptible to political
  • Hitler emerged as the charismatic leader of the
    National Socialist German Workers Party (the
    Nazi Party).

Hitler hysteria (cont.)
  • Hitler used anti-Semitic racism to argue that
    Jews were leading a worldwide conspiracy toward
  • He was appointed chancellor after using
    ultra-national, anti-communist propaganda.
  • He banned other parties and had opponents
    arrested, eventually becoming dictator, or

Franco and the Spanish Civil War
  • In July 1936, Spanish army leaders led by
    General Francisco Franco rose up against the
    Socialist government of Spain (which had been a
    monarchy until 1931, when it changed to a
  • Franco favored a Fascist-style government.
  • Nationalists (Francos forces) vs. Republicans
    (Spains elected government)
  • Only the Soviet Union sent nominal aid to Spains
    liberal government during the ensuing civil war,
    but Hitler and Mussolini armed Franco with
    troops, tanks and aircraft.
  • Nationalists won and Franco became Spains
    Fascist dictator, ruling until his death in 1975.

Stalin and the Soviets
  • Seven years after the Russian Revolution, Lenin
    died of a stroke and Joseph Stalin emerged in
    1927 from the Bolshevik Partys ensuing power
    struggle as the leader of Soviet communism.
  • His style of leadership (Stalinism) was
    absolutely ruthless, as he had his rivals
    murdered opponents and millions of dissenters
    were purged through execution or imprisonment
    in gulags.

The strictures of Stalinism
  • Centralized control of the economy
  • Five-Year Plans ? state-run industrialization
  • World leadership of the international communist
  • Forced collectivization of all farming
  • Collectivization led to Great Famine, which
    killed 4-6 million people in southern Russia,
    Ukraine and Kazakhstan
  • Promotion of atheism and control of organized

  • Stalin, Franco, Mussolini and Hitler exemplified
    political dictatorships in the 20th century. The
    modern totalitarian regime featured
  • A single leader with almost unquestioned
  • Government by one party only
  • Secret police to terrorize and control the
  • Aggressive, brutal elimination of rivals to power
    and leaders of dissent

Meanwhile in the East
  • In the 1930s, military leaders in Japan replaced
    civilian politicians in the highest posts of
  • With limited natural resources it had already
    turned imperial by gaining Taiwan and Korea but
    now Japan had plans for Northeast China.
  • Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931, ignoring
    protests from the League of Nations.

Next up another world war
  • Japan kept Manchuria, walking out of the League
    of Nations.
  • Mussolini noted the fecklessness of the Leagues
    response to Japans aggression and decided to
    invade Ethiopia in 1935.
  • The war of conquest in the East would soon merge
    with hostilities in Europe instigated primarily
    by Hitler to form one big nasty fight World
    War II.