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Competencies for Applied Epidemiologists in Governmental Public Health Agencies

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Title: Competency set for epidemiology professionals Author: Rebecca Sandfort, MD, MPH Last modified by: rjones Created Date: 2/26/2005 3:49:58 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Competencies for Applied Epidemiologists in Governmental Public Health Agencies


1
Competencies for Applied Epidemiologists in
Governmental Public Health Agencies
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists

2
OrApplied Epidemiology Competencies (AECs) for
short!
3
Overview
  • Background
  • Goals and Rationale
  • Methods
  • Organization of the Competencies
  • Validation of the Competencies
  • Applied Epidemiology Competencies
  • Uses and Dissemination

4
Background
5
Definition of Epidemiology
  • Epidemiology is the study of the distribution
    and determinants of health-related states and
    events in specific populations, and the
    application of this study to control of health
    problems.
  • Epidemiology is one of the core sciences of
    public health
  • Last JM. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 4th
    edition. New York Oxford University Press,
    200162.

6
Definition of Epidemiologist
  • A person who investigates the occurrence of
    disease, injury or other health-related
    conditions or events in populations to describe
    the distribution of disease or risk factors for
    disease occurrence for the purpose of
    population-based prevention and control. CSTE
    Workforce Summit, January 2004

7
Definition of Competency
  • A competency is an action-oriented statement that
    delineates essential knowledge, skills, and
    abilities in the performance of work
    responsibilities.
  • A competencies is describable and observable.
  • Center for Public Health Practice, Rollins
    School of Public Health, 2002

8
Problem
  • Insufficient number of public health
    epidemiologists
  • Epidemiologists without adequate training
  • Lack of clear career ladders for epidemiologists
  • Independent, uncoordinated efforts to define the
    field
  • National efforts focused only on academic
    epidemiology

9
Goals and Rationale
10
Goals and Objectives of the AECs
  • Goal to improve the practice of epidemiology in
    public health agencies.
  • Objectives to create a comprehensive list of
    competencies that
  • Define the discipline of applied epidemiology
    and
  • Describe what knowledge, skills, and abilities
    four levels of practicing epidemiologists working
    in government public health agencies should have
    to accomplish required tasks.

11
Rationale for Competency Development
  • Standardization of skill levels for hiring
  • Method to evaluate, reward, and promote workers
  • Road map for training existing workforce
  • Guidelines for academia
  • Improved ability to define the field
  • Utility for future certification processes

12
Methods
13
Competency Development Method
  • Reviewed existing competencies/framework
  • Expert Panelcross-cutting representation
  • Subgroups
  • Leadership group
  • Review panel
  • Consultant/editor
  • Assessment and validation
  • Summer 2005Tier 2 Competencies
  • Early 2006Tier 1, 2, 3a and 3b Competencies
  • Quantitative and qualitative comments

14
Four Tiers of Practice
  • Tier 1entry level or basic
  • Tier 2mid-level
  • Tier 3asupervisory
  • Tier 3bsenior scientist

15
Differentiating Between Tiers Example
Surveillance Evaluation
  • Tier 1 (entry-level or basic epidemiologist)
  • Support evaluation of surveillance systems
  • Tier 2 (mid-level epidemiologist/team leader)
  • Conduct evaluation of surveillance systems
  • Tier 3 (senior-level epidemiologist)
  • a. Supervisor/ManagerEnsure evaluation
  • of surveillance systems
  • b. Senior Scientist (PhD)Design and conduct
    evaluation of surveillance systems

16
Organization of the Competencies
17
Competency Framework for Public Health
Professionals
  • Assessment and Analysis
  • Basic Public Health Sciences
  • Communication
  • Community Dimensions of Practice
  • Cultural Competency
  • Financial and Operational Planning and Management
  • Leadership and Systems Thinking
  • Policy Development/Program Planning
  • Source Council on Linkages between Academia and
    Public Health Practice

18
Competency Construct
  • I. Skill Domain Area
  • 1. Competency A
  • Subcompetency
  • Sub-subcompetency/learning objective
  • Sub-subcompetency/learning objective
  • Subcompetency
  • Subcompetency
  • Competency B
  • Subcompetency
  • Subcompetency

19
Skill Domain 1 Assessment and Analysis
  • Tier 2 Competencies
  • Identify public health problems
  • Conduct surveillance
  • Investigate acute and chronic conditions
  • Apply good ethical/legal principles to study
    design and data collection, dissemination, and
    use
  • Manage data
  • Analyze data
  • Summarize results, and draw conclusions
  • Recommend evidence-based interventions and
    control measures
  • Evaluate programs

20
Skill Domain1Assessment and Analysis
  • Tier 2 Competencies
  • Identify public health problems
  • Conduct surveillance
  • Investigate acute and chronic conditions
  • Apply good ethical/legal principles to study
    design and data collection, dissemination, and
    use
  • Manage data
  • Analyze data
  • Summarize results and draw conclusions
  • Recommend evidence-based interventions and
    control measures
  • Evaluate programs

21
Example Assessment and Analysis Tier 2
Subcompetencies
  • Conduct surveillance
  • Design surveillance for particular public health
    problem
  • Identify surveillance data needs
  • Implement new or revise existing surveillance
    system
  • Identify key findings
  • Conduct evaluation of surveillance systems

22
Example Assessment and AnalysisTier 2
Subcompetencies
  • Conduct surveillance
  • Design surveillance for particular public health
    problem
  • Identify surveillance data needs
  • Implement new or revise existing surveillance
    system
  • Identify key findings
  • Conduct evaluation of surveillance systems

23
Example Assessment and Analysis Tier 2
Sub-subcompetencies
  • Identify surveillance data needs
  • Create case definition
  • Describe sources, quality and limitations of
    surveillance data
  • Define data elements to be collected or reported
  • Identify mechanisms to transfer data from source
    to public health agency
  • Define timeliness required for data collection
  • Determine frequency of reporting
  • Describe potential uses of data to inform
    surveillance system design
  • Define functional requirements of supporting
    information system

24
Validation of the Competencies
25
Validation Process
  • 2005 Web survey for Tier 2 only
  • 7698 of respondents supported competencies
  • 2006 Web survey of complete competency set,
    Tiers 13
  • Three states targeted for gt75 participation
  • 80 of respondents self-identified as Tier 1 and
    2
  • 75 worked in state or local agencies
  • Review panel reviewed comments and recommended
    appropriate changes

26
Limitations to Validation Process
  • Surveys not systematic
  • Respondents self-reported tier level and other
    identifying data, thus room for bias
  • Questions asked about only the major competencies
    in each skill domain
  • No subcompetency or sub-subcompetencies evaluated
    in survey

27
Does Everyone Have to Be Competent in ALL
Competencies?
  • Yes and No
  • (it depends)
  • an epidemiologists favorite answer!

28
Does Everyone Have to Be Competent in ALL
Competencies?
  • Mastery of the competencies develops over a
    continuum of applied epidemiology practice, not a
    single point in an individuals career
  • Infectious disease, chronic disease, maternal and
    child health, and environmental epidemiology may
    emphasize different competency areas

29
Applied Epidemiology Competencies
  • Its about time!

30
Competency Skill Domains
  1. Assessment and Analysis
  2. Basic Public Health Sciences
  3. Communication
  4. Community Dimensions of Practice
  5. Cultural Competency
  6. Financial and Operational Planning and Management
  7. Leadership and Systems Thinking
  8. Policy Development

31
1 Assessment and AnalysisTier 2 Competencies
  • Identify public health problems
  • Conduct surveillance
  • Investigate acute and chronic conditions
  • Apply good ethical/legal principles to study
    design and data collection, dissemination, and
    use
  • Manage data
  • Analyze data
  • Summarize results, and draw conclusions
  • Recommend evidence-based interventions and
    control measures
  • Evaluate programs

32
2 Basic Public Health SciencesTier 2
Competencies
  • Use knowledge of causes of disease to guide
    epidemiologic practice
  • Use laboratory resources to support epidemiologic
    activities
  • Apply principles of informatics, including data
    collection, processing, and analysis, in support
    of epidemiologic investigations

33
3 CommunicationTier 2 Competencies
  • Prepare written and oral reports and
    presentations that communicate necessary
    information to professional audiences, policy
    makers, and the general public
  • Demonstrate the basic principles of risk
    communication
  • Incorporate interpersonal skills in communication
    with agency personnel, colleagues, and the public
  • Use effective communication technologies

34
4 Community Dimensions of PracticeTier 2
Competencies
  • Provide epidemiologic input into epidemiologic
    studies, public health programs, and community
    public health planning processes at the state,
    local, or tribal level
  • Participate in development of community
    partnerships to support epidemiologic
    investigations

35
5 Cultural CompetencyTier 2 Competencies
  • Describe population by various parameters
  • Establish relationships with groups of special
    concern
  • Design surveillance systems to include
    underrepresented groups
  • Conduct investigations using languages and
    approaches tailored to population
  • Use standard population categories or
    subcategories when performing data analysis
  • Use knowledge of specific sociocultural factors
    in the population to interpret findings
  • Recommend public health actions that would be
    relevant to the affected community

36
6 Financial and Operational Planning and
Management Tier 2 Competencies
  • Conduct epidemiologic activities within the
    financial and operational plan of the agency
  • Assist in developing fiscally sound budget
  • Implement operational and financial plans
  • Assist in preparing proposals for extramural
    funding
  • Use management skills
  • Use skills that foster collaborations, strong
    partnerships, and team building to accomplish
    epidemiology program objectives

37
7 Leadership and Systems ThinkingTier 2
Competencies
  • Support epidemiologic perspective in agency
    strategic planning process
  • Promote organizations vision
  • Use performance measures to evaluate and improve
    program
  • Promote ethical conduct
  • Promote workforce development
  • Prepare for emergency response

38
8 Policy Development Tier 2 Competencies
  • Bring epidemiologic perspective in development
    and analysis of public health policies

39
Uses and Dissemination
40
Intended Uses of the Competencies
  • Practitioners
  • Assess current skills
  • Create career development plans
  • Plan specific training and educational activities

41
Intended Uses of the Competencies
  • Employers
  • Create career ladders for employees
  • Develop position descriptions and job
    qualifications
  • Develop training plans for employees
  • Assess epidemiologic capacity of an organization
  • Educators
  • Design education programs that meet needs of
    public health agencies
  • Incorporate critical elements of epidemiologic
    practice into existing coursework

42
Dissemination
  • Oral presentations at meetings
  • Downloadable documents
  • CSTE website www.cste.org/competencies.asp
  • CDC website www.cdc.gov/od/owcd/cdd/aec/
  • Quick reference fact sheets
  • One-page executive summary and complete preface
    document
  • Fact sheets for each tier

43
Dissemination
  • Online competency toolkit for users
  • PowerPoint presentations
  • Interactive quiz
  • Engage users in the field of epidemiology
  • Introduce users to the AECs
  • Epidemiology position descriptions
  • Training resource guide
  • AEC brochure
  • Evaluation checklists

44
Dissemination
  • Special Issue of Public Health Reports
    Competency-Based Epidemiologic Training in Public
    Health Practice
  • March/April 2008
  • Commentaries on the need for competencies and
    their uses
  • Development of the AECs
  • Competency-based applied epidemiology training
  • Innovative partnerships between academia and
    practice
  • Evaluation of epidemiology training programs

45
Dissemination
  • Public Health Literature
  • Editorial Professional Competencies for Applied
    Epidemiologists A Roadmap to a More Effective
    Epidemiologic Workforce
  • by Guthrie S. Birkhead, MD and Denise Koo, MD,
    MPH
  • Journal of Public Health Management
    PracticeNovember/December 2006  Volume
    12 Number 6 Pages 501 - 504

46
Online Resources
  • www.cdc.gov/od/owcd/cdd/aec/
  • www.cste.org/competencies.asp
  • Complete competency documents
  • One page competency summaries by tier
  • Competency toolkit
  • Competency self-assessment
  • Summary of training resources
  • Competency PowerPoint slide sets
  • Sample position descriptions
  • Publications related to competencies
  • Contents of the toolkit also available from CSTE
  • 770-458-3811

47
The Driving Force of the AECsLeadership Group
  • Conveners
  • Denise Koo, MD, MPHCenters for Disease Control
    and Prevention
  • Matt Boulton, MD, MPHUniversity of Michigan
    School of Public Health and CSTE
  • Co-Chairs
  • Gus Birkhead, MD, MPHNew York State Department
    of Health and CSTE
  • Kathy Miner, PhD, MPH, CHESRollins School of
    Public Health, Emory University
  • Consultant and Editor
  • Jac Davies, MPHCSTE Consultant and Editor,
    formerly with Washington State Department of
    Health

48
The Driving Force of the AECsExpert Panelists
  • Kaye Bender, RN, PhD, FAANUniversity of
    Mississippi Medical Center School of Nursing
  • Roger H. Bernier, PhD, MPHCenters for Disease
    Control and Prevention
  • Mike Crutcher, MD, MPHOklahoma State Dept Health
  • Richard Dicker, MD, MScCenters for Disease
    Control and Prevention
  • Gail Hansen, DVM, MPHKansas Department of Health
    and Environment
  • Richard Hopkins, MD, MSPHCenters for Disease
    Control and Prevention
  • Sara Huston, PhDNorth Carolina Division of
    Public Health
  • Miriam Link-Mullison, MS, RDJackson County
    Health Department
  • Hal Morgenstern, PhDUniversity of Michigan
    School of Public Health
  • Lloyd Novick, MD, MPHOnondaga County (New York)
    Department of Health
  • Len Paulozzi, MD, MPHCenters for Disease Control
    and Prevention
  • William M. Sappenfield, MD, MPHCenters for
    Disease Control and Prevention
  • Greg Steele, DrPH, MPHIndiana University School
    of Medicine
  • Lou Turner, DrPH, MPHNorth Carolina State
    Laboratory of Public Health
  • Mark E. White, MDCenters for Disease Control and
    Prevention

49
The Driving Force of the AECsReview and Other
Panelists
  • Review Panelists
  • James Gale, MD, MSUniversity of Washington
  • Kristine Gebbie, DrPH, RN,Columbia School of
    Nursing
  • Maureen Lichtveld, MD, MPHCenters for Disease
    Control and Prevention
  • Kristine Moore, MD, MPHUniversity of Minnesota
  • Art Reingold, MDUniversity of California at
    Berkeley
  • CSTE National Office Staff
  • Pat McConnon, MPH, Executive Director
  • LaKesha Robinson, MPH
  • Jennifer Lemmings, MPH

50
Partner Organizations
  • American Public Health Association (APHA)
  • Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH)
  • Association of State and Territorial Health
    Officials (ASTHO)
  • National Association of County and City Health
    Officials (NACCHO)

51
For more information
  • Contact CSTE 770-458-3811
  • Visit the following websites
  • www.cste.org
  • www.cdc.gov/od/owcd/cdd/aec/
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