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Genetics Chapter 9.1

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Chapter 9.1 Genetics Genetics - the study of genes and heredity Heredity Heredity passing of traits from parents to offspring through genes Traits Traits ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Genetics Chapter 9.1


1
Genetics Chapter 9.1
2
Genetics
  • Genetics - the study of genes and heredity

3
Heredity
  • Heredity passing of traits from parents to
    offspring through genes

4
Traits
  • Traits - characteristics that are inherited
    through genes

5
Gregor Mendel
  • A monk in the 1800s
  • First to identify heredity
  • Father of Genetics

6
Garden Peas
  • Studied the traits in garden peas
  • Tall/short
  • Round/wrinkled
  • Green/yellow pods
  • Purple/white flowers

7
Alleles
  • Each trait or characteristic has 2 copies of DNA
    that code for that trait
  • Each copy of the trait is called an allele
  • Different form of a gene

8
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9
The Rule of Dominance
  • Alleles can be either dominant or recessive
    (strong or weak)
  • Dominant (A) alleles are observable
  • Recessive (a) alleles are not usually observable,
    when the dominant allele is present

10
Dominant
  • The allele that is expressed you can see it
  • Represented by capital letters
  • C curly hair
  • B brown hair

11
Recessive
  • The allele that is not expressed when covered up
    by the dominant allele
  • It is there you just cannot see it
  • Use the lower case for the recessive allele
  • c for straight hair
  • b blonde hair

12
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13
Genotype
  • The copies of alleles or genes that an organism
    has
  • BB, Bb, bb/ TT, Tt, tt

14
Phenotype
  • The way an organism physically looks
  • Brown hair, tall

15
Homozygous (homo same)
  • Pure
  • When an organism has 2 copies of the same allele
  • BB homozygous dominant
  • bb homozygous recessive

16
Heterozygous (hetero different)
  • Hybrid
  • When an organism has 2 different alleles for a
    gene
  • Bb, Gg, etc.

17
The Law of Segregation
  • Alleles for a gene separate when forming a sperm
    and egg

18
Law of Independent Assortment
  • Alleles for different genes are distributed to
    sperm and egg independently
  • Could be
  • tall and fat
  • short and thin
  • tall and thin
  • short and fat
  • This is why all siblings do not look exactly
    alike

19
So
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