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Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Revolution California State Standards 10.3.1- Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize 10.3.2- Examine how scientific and technological ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Revolution


1
Industrial Revolution
2
California State Standards
  • 10.3.1- Analyze why England was the first country
    to industrialize
  • 10.3.2- Examine how scientific and technological
    changes and new forms of energy brought about
    massive social, economic, and cultural change
    (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James
    Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur,
    Thomas Edison).

3
Industrial Revolution
  • Refers to the increased output of machine-made
    goods that began in England during the mid 1700s.
  • Transformed almost every aspect of daily life and
    human society.
  • Societies went from agricultural societies to
    industrial societies.
  • Spread from England to Continental Europe and
    North America

4
Life Before the Industrial Revolution
  • People lived off the land.
  • They used handmade tools.
  • The best source of power was horses
  • They made their own clothing
  • They grew their own food
  • They lived in simple cottages lit by candles.

5
Life Changes as Industry Spreads
  • Population Growth
  • Food Surplus
  • People lived in cities
  • They bought food and clothes someone else made.
  • New inventions made work more efficient.
  • Steam Power
  • New modes of communication and transportation

6
Why England?
Before
After
7
Agricultural Revolution
  • Enclosures- Wealthy landowners bought up village
    farmers land and enclosed their land with fences
    or hedges.
  • Wealthy landowners had larger fields to
    experiment with more efficient methods of
    farming.
  • Results
  • Landowners tried new agricultural methods
  • Forced small farmers to become tenant farmers
  • Forced small farmers to give up farming and move
    to the city

8
Agricultural Revolution
  • Crop Rotation- process that improved crop yield
  • Practice that rotated through growing different
    crops
  • Keep pests away
  • Replenished the soil
  • Ex One year plant wheat, which exhausts
    nutrients in the soil. Then the next year
    turnips to restore the nutrients.

9
Farming Methods Improve
  • Jethro Tull invents the Seed Drill which deposits
    seeds in a row in the soil.
  • More efficient farming.
  • Increased crop production.
  • Food Surpluses can feed more people.

10
Abundant Natural Resources
  • England had an extensive amount of natural
    resources that was necessary for
    Industrialization.
  • Water power and coal to fuel the new machines
  • Iron to construct machines, tools, and buildings
  • Rivers for inland transportation
  • Harbors from which merchant ships set sail

11
Political Stability
  • Despite Britains participation in multiple wars,
    they were never fought on British soil.
  • Their military success gave the British a
    positive attitude.
  • Parliament passes laws to encourage and protect
    business ventures

12
Factors of Production
  • Resources needed to produce goods and services
    that the Industrial Revolution needed
  • Land- natural resources
  • Labor- population and urban growth
  • Capital (wealth)- entrepreneurs

13
Technological Advances in the Textile Industry
  • Several major inventions modernized the cotton
    industry. One invention led to another.
  • Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin
  • Cleaned cotton of dirt and seeds
  • Helped separate cotton at a fast rate

14
The Textile Inventions
  • Huge demand for cotton cloth.
  • John Kays Flying Shuttle (1733)
  • Helped cotton producers weave cotton into cloth
    and fabric.

15
Textile Inventions
  • James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny (1764)
  • Helped increase the speed of spinning cotton

16
Textile Inventions
  • Richard Arkwrights Water Frame (1769)
  • Spinning machine powered by water.

17
Entrepreneurs
  • People who organizes, manages, and takes on the
    risks of a business.
  • Matthew Boulton- paid James Watt a salary to
    build better engines
  • This led to James Watt discovering how to make
    steam engines run faster and more efficiently
    while using less fuel.

18
Transportation Innovations
  • As the production of goods increased, business
    needed faster and cheaper methods of moving goods
    from one place to another.
  • Turnpikes- Private roads that charged users a
    fee.

19
Transportation Innovations
  • Canals Boom
  • Factories needed a cheap and fast way of
    receiving coal and other raw materials and then
    shipping out these finished products.

20
  • Canals in Britain 1800

6 of 8
21
Transportation Innovations
  • Steam Locomotives
  • Growth of Railways
  • Tracks could go places that the rivers could not.
  • Ship goods cheaply and quickly over land.

22
  • The Growth of Railways in Great Britain, 1840
    and 1850

7 of 8
23
Closure
  • What are the factors that led to England
    industrializing first?
  • Which ones do you think are the most important?
    Why?
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