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Commerce 2BA3 Group Dynamics, Teamwork and Group Decision-Making Week 8

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Commerce 2BA3 Group Dynamics, Teamwork and Group Decision-Making Week 8 Dr. T. McAteer DeGroote School of Business McMaster University Group What is a group? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Commerce 2BA3 Group Dynamics, Teamwork and Group Decision-Making Week 8


1
Commerce 2BA3Group Dynamics, Teamwork and Group
Decision-MakingWeek 8
  • Dr. T. McAteer
  • DeGroote School of Business
  • McMaster University

2
Group
  • What is a group?
  • Two or more people interacting interdependently
    to achieve a common goal
  • Formal vs. Informal
  • Established by organizations vs. emerging
    naturally

3
Stages of Group Development
  • Forming
  • Storming
  • Norming
  • Performing
  • Adjourning

4
Punctuated Equilibrium Model
  • How groups with deadlines are affected by their
    first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions
  • Phase 1 first meeting to midpoint of existence
    (precedence is set)
  • Midpoint Transition need to move forward is
    apparent
  • Phase 2 decisions and approaches are played out

5
Discussion Question
  • What do these two models tell organizations about
    managing groups?
  • First meeting ( or forming and norming stage) is
    critical
  • Do not look for radical progress during the
    beginning stages
  • Be sure that adequate resources are available

6
Group Structure Size
  • What is the ultimate group size?
  • Depends on the task
  • Additive Task
  • Group performance is dependent on the sum of the
    performance of individual group members
  • Disjunctive Task
  • Group performance is dependent on the performance
    of the best group member
  • Conjunctive Task
  • Group performance is limited by the performance
    of the poorest group member

7
Group Structure Size
  • As groups become larger, they suffer from process
    losses
  • Performance difficulties that result from the
    problems of motivating and coordinating larger
    groups

8
When will groups perform higher than individuals?
  • Group members differ in skills and abilities
  • Some division of labour can occur

9
Group Structure
  • Diversity?
  • Diverse groups might take longer to do their
    forming, storming and norming
  • Diverse groups sometimes perform better when the
    task requires cognitive, creativity-demanding
    tasks and problem solving rather than routine work

10
Group Norms
  • What are norms?
  • Collective expectations that members of social
    units have regarding the behaviour of each other
  • E.g.
  • Dress norms
  • Reward allocation norms
  • Performance norms

11
Group Roles
  • Positions in a group that have a set of expected
    behaviours attached to them
  • Role ambiguity
  • Role Conflict
  • Exists when faced with incompatible role
    expectations
  • Both can result in job disatisfaction, stress
    reactions, lower commitment, and turnover

12
Group Cohesiveness
  • What is group cohesiveness?
  • The degree to which a group is especially
    attractive to its members
  • Factors that influence cohesiveness?
  • Threat competition
  • Success
  • Size
  • Toughness of initiation

13
Group Cohesiveness
  • Consequences of Cohesiveness?
  • More participation in group activities
  • More conformity
  • More success
  • In more cohesive groups, individual performance
    is similar

14
Social Loafing
  • What is social loafing?
  • The tendency to withhold physical or intellectual
    effort when performing a group task
  • How can we counteract social loafing?
  • Make individual performance more visible
  • Make sure the work is interesting
  • Increase feelings of indispensability
  • Increase performance feedback

15
Discussion Question
  • Can you apply any of these concepts to your group
    in this class?

16
Team
  • What is a team?
  • A group becomes a team when there exists a strong
    sense of shared commitment, and when a synergy
    develops such that the groups efforts are
    greater than the sum of its parts

17
Self-Managed Work Teams
  • Work groups that have the opportunity to do
    challenging work under reduced supervision
  • What factors are important to a SMWT?
  • Stability
  • Size
  • Expertise
  • Diversity

18
Cross-Functional Teams
  • What is a cross-functional work team?
  • Work groups that bring people with different
    functional specialties together to better invent,
    design, or deliver a product or service

19
Discussion Question
  • What factors influence group effectiveness?
  • Task
  • Challenge
  • Complexity
  • Interdependence

20
Discussion Question
  • Managerial support
  • Training
  • Rewards
  • Encouragement of independence
  • Group Composition
  • Stability
  • Size
  • Expertise
  • Diversity

21
Group Decision Making
  • Why use groups in decision making?
  • Groups or teams can make higher-quality decisions
    than individuals
  • Generate more ideas and evaluate them better
  • Increases decision acceptance and commitment

22
Disadvantages of Group Decision Making
  • Time
  • Conflict
  • Domination
  • Groupthink

23
Groupthink
  • The capacity for group pressure to damage the
    mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral
    judgment of decision making groups
  • Develops because of too much cohesiveness,
    concern for approval and isolation of the group

24
How do groups handle risk?
  • Risky shift
  • The tendency for groups to make riskier decisions
    than the average risk initially advocated by
    their individual members
  • Conservative Shift
  • The tendency for groups to make less risky
    decisions than the average risk initially
    advocated by their individual members
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