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Most common empires and famous dudes

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Most common empires and famous dudes Confucius Chinese founder of Confucianism who taught that society should be more ordered Respect for elders, teachers, rulers Shi ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Most common empires and famous dudes


1
Most common empires and famous dudes
2
Paleolithic AgeOld Stone Age
  • People migrate
  • Nomads who move from place to place
  • Invent stone tools and oral language
  • Discover fire

3
Neolithic AgeNew Stone Age
  • Discover agriculture (farming) and domestication
    (taming animals)
  • ALLOWS PEOPLE TO SETTLE INTO VILLAGES

4
Sumerian Civilization
  • 1st civilization
  • City-states in Mesopotamia
  • First written code of laws, first organized
    religion, first organized governments, first
    empires
  • First writing- called cuneiform

5
Egyptian Civilization
  • Nile River
  • Pyramids, pharaohs (kings)
  • Influenced by Kush, a kingdom to the south
  • Hieroglyphics

6
Indus Civilization
  • Indus River in India
  • Highly organized, built perfectly planned cities
    with sewer and water systems
  • Invaded by Indo-Aryan people

7
Indo-Aryans
  • Invaded India
  • Introduced caste system, a social class system
    that prevents people from increasing their class

8
Chinese Civilization
  • First on Yellow, then Yangtze River
  • Created dynasties- kings whose power is based on
    birth

9
Mauryan Empire
  • Indian empire
  • Most famous emperor was Asoka, who converted to
    Buddhism and worked to spread Buddhism

10
Gupta Empire
  • Golden Age of India
  • Advances in math, literature, astronomy

11
Hebrew civilization
  • Abraham father of Judaism
  • First Monotheistic religion
  • Moses Ten Commandments- set of moral laws

12
Phoenicians
  • Best traders of the ancient world
  • Trading empire throughout Mediterranean region
  • Invented the alphabet

13
Persian Empire
  • Created by Cyrus I
  • Showed conquered people tolerance
  • Built roads, esp the Royal Road to help
    communicate with empire, good for moving armies
    too
  • Practice Zoroastrianism religion

14
Greek Civilization
  • Small city-states develop because they are
    separated from each other by water and mountains
  • Athens develops direct democracy (people vote
    directly on laws)
  • Athens contributions to Western civilization
    (European) include art, architecture (Parthenon),
    philosophy, literature (Homers Iliad and
    Odyssey)
  • Sparta has a militaristic culture

15
Alexander the Greats Empire
  • A group of Greek-like people called Macedonians
    invade Greece under king Philip II
  • His son, Alexander takes over when Philip dies
    and builds a huge empire in Europe, Africa, and
    Asia
  • Greek culture mixes with Egyptian, Persian, and
    Indian culture to form Hellenistic Culture

16
Roman Republic
  • Rome develops a republic, or indirect democracy
    (people vote for people to vote on laws)
  • Goes to war with Carthage over control of Western
    Mediterranean during Punic Wars
  • Rome wins, builds an empire

17
Roman Empire
  • Toward end of republic, a general named Julius
    Caesar takes over Rome and tries to become king,
    hes assassinated
  • His adopted son Augustus avenges him and becomes
    Romes first emperor
  • This beings 200 years of peace and prosperity
    called Pax Romana

18
Fall of Rome
  • Eventually Roman Empire gets too big to defend
    and control
  • Germanic people like Attila the Hun invade and
    eventually conquer the western half of the Roman
    Empire
  • Eastern half of empire continues as Byzantine
    Empire

19
Byzantine Empire
  • Capital city Constantinople
  • Protected on 3 sides by water and by massive
    walls on the other side
  • Justinian I most powerful emperor
  • Conquers much of Roman Empire
  • Creates code of laws called Justinians Code
    (Justice)
  • Builds Hagia Sophia (big church)

20
Charlemagnes Empire
  • Western Europe began Middle Ages after fall of
    Roman Empire, lots of tiny kingdoms always
    fighting each other
  • Charlemagne, a Frankish (French) king, conquers
    many of these and builds a new empire
  • He tries to revive (recreate) the Roman Empire
    (fail)
  • Allies with the Catholic church and builds schools

21
Muslim Empires
  • After Muhammad died, Islam expanded rapidly
  • Under Umayyad Caliphate, conquers central Asia,
    northern Africa, and Spain. Almost conquered
    Europe, but stopped by Charles Martel at Battle
    of Tours
  • Baghdad becomes capital
  • Important city for learning (they invent algebra,
    and preserve Greek/Roman learning)

22
Ghana, Mali, Songhai
  • West African kingdoms
  • Animist religions and Islam
  • Timbuktu an important trade and cultural city
  • Depend on gold-salt trade

23
Aksum
  • Christian kingdom
  • Depended on trade

24
Maya, Aztec, Inca
  • All polytheistic
  • All depend on agriculture
  • Inca build road system to help communicate with
    empire

25
England
  • After fall of Roman Empire, England conquered by
    Anglo-Saxons (AngloEnglish)
  • Then conquered by William the Conqueror and
    Normans

26
France
  • After Charlemagne, ruled by Hugh Capet and
    Capetian Dynasty
  • Fights England during the 100 Years War
  • French peasant girl named Joan of Arc rallies
    French troops and defeat the Brits.
  • French become nationalistic

27
Spain
  • Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand unite Spain by
    kicking out the Moors (Muslims) and Jews

28
Mongol Empire
  • Ghengis Kahn builds biggest empire ever
  • Russia, China, Central Asia

29
Russia
  • Ivan the Great kicks out Mongols
  • Becomes the first czar
  • Russia becomes a free country

30
Hammurabi
  • Sumerian dude
  • Invented first written code of laws
  • Very harsh punishments, but kept society in order

31
Abraham
  • Founder of Judaism, the worlds first
    monotheistic religion

32
Moses
  • Jewish dude who led Jews out of slavery in Egypt
  • God sent him the 10 Commandments, a set of social
    and religious laws

33
Buddha (Prince Siddhartha Guatama)
  • Founder of Buddhism
  • Taught that enlightenment (state of perfect
    understanding) is possible
  • People should follow Eightfold Path and Four
    Noble Truths

34
Confucius
  • Chinese founder of Confucianism who taught that
    society should be more ordered
  • Respect for elders, teachers, rulers

35
Shi Huangdi
  • Brutal Chinese emperor who unified China
  • Built the Great Wall of China

36
Pericles
  • Greek dude from Athens who expanded democracy in
    Athens
  • Golden Age of Pericles a highpoint of Greek
    cultural achievement (built the Parthenon for
    example)

37
Plato, Socrates, Aristotle
  • Greek philosophers

38
Julius Caesar
  • Roman general who overthrew the Roman Republic
  • Assassinated by Roman Senate

39
Augustus Caesar
  • 1st Roman Emperor
  • Began period of Pax Romana- 200 years of peace
    and prosperity in the Roman Empire

40
Jesus of Nazarath
  • Founder of Christianity
  • Taught about a personal relationship with God
    through prayer and good deeds

41
Apostles Peter and Paul
  • Early Christians
  • Peter was the founder of the Church
  • Paul spread Christianity through the Roman Empire

42
Constantine
  • Roman Emperor toward the end of the Roman
    Republic
  • Legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire
  • Converted to Christianity on his death bed

43
Justinian
  • Byzantine Emperor during high point
  • Reconquered Roman Empire, built Hagia Sophia,
    created Justinians Code of Laws

44
Cyril and Methodius
  • Byzantine missionaries who created alphabet for
    Slavic people to read bible
  • Called Cyrillic alphabet after Cyril

45
Muhammad
  • Arabian founder of Islam from Mecca

46
Charles Martel
  • Frankish (French) dude who defeated Muslim
    invasion at the Battle of Tours
  • Saved Christian Europe from being conquered by
    Muslims

47
Charlemagne
  • Frankish king (grandson of Charles Martel) who
    conquered much of Western Europe and revived the
    idea of the Roman Empire
  • Also opened schools

48
William the Conqueror
  • Norman (French Viking) guy who conquered
    England and centralized the kings power

49
Joan of Arc
  • French girl who rallied the French to defeat the
    English during the 100 Years War

50
Isabella and Ferdinand
  • Spanish queen and king who kicked the Muslim
    Moors and Jews out of Spain
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