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Teaching Early Reading: More than phonics (and the phonics check)

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Teaching Early Reading: More than phonics (and the phonics check) David Reedy Immediate Past President UKLA Principal Primary Adviser Barking and Dagenham Local Authority – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teaching Early Reading: More than phonics (and the phonics check)


1
Teaching Early Reading More than phonics (and
the phonics check)
  • David Reedy
  • Immediate Past President UKLA
  • Principal Primary Adviser
  • Barking and Dagenham Local Authority

2
The Policy Context
  • We still have nearly one in five 11-year-olds
    leaving primary school still struggling with
    reading. Again, the ideologically-driven,
    child-centred approach to education has led to
    the belief that the mere exposure to books and
    text, and the repetition of high frequency words,
    will lead to a child learning to read as if by
    osmosis.
  • that Look and Say, or whole language approach to
    reading ignores the importance of teaching
    children the 44 sounds of the alphabetic code,
    and how to blend those sounds into words. (Gibb,
    N. July 2010)

3
  • Phonics is the proven method that will drive up
    reading standards.
  • A solid grounding in phonics will help many
    children who are weak readers to improve. It will
    also see more pupils achieve a high Level 2 or a
    Level 3 score at the end of Key Stage 1. (Gibb,
    N. December 2011).

4
  • Research has consistently and comprehensively
    shown that systematic phonic instruction by a
    teacher is the most effective and successful way
    of teaching children to read.
  • Michael Gove(2013)
  • Speech on improving the quality of teaching and
    leadership, given on 5 September 2013 at Policy
    Exchange, London

5
Y1 Phonics Check
  • Introduced in June 2012 for all Y1 children

6
2014 National Curriculum
  • Year 1 Reading POS
  • Read aloud accurately books that are consistent
    with their developing phonic knowledge and that
    do not require them to use other strategies to
    work out words.

7
  • Phonics is essential but not sufficient A
    broader view of the development of early reading
    is needed

8
Really successful primary schools
  • have a broad and rich reading curriculum and have
    a balance of phonics, whole word and meaning
    based approaches to teach children to read.
  • are clear that the purpose of reading is to make
    sense of what is read not simply to say the
    words.
  • promote engagement and enjoyment. Engagement is
    increasingly seen by researchers as central to
    progress in reading. Children who are motivated
    want to read more and more, and get better and
    better at it.
  • are knowledgeable about high quality reading
    resources and have many of them, organised in a
    welcoming school and class library.
  • introduce all children to a wide range of
    childrens literature and explore ways in which
    reading literature can broaden the experience of
    life and give a sense of what is possible.

9
Word reading
  • Phonics is essential for decoding words
  • cat
  • dog
  • photograph
  • pedant
  • infirm
  • But is not sufficient for pronouncing accurately
    all words!

10
Word reading
  • English has more vowel sounds than most other
    European languages.
  • Some of these vowel sounds can be spelled in as
    many as seven ways, as is the unstressed vowel in
    station, polite, career, decision, division,
    persist, table, figure.

11
  • To multiply this complexity still further, some
    letters or letter combinations represent five or
    more different phonemes, such as the a in mat
  • mall
  • make
  • mast
  • many

12
Word reading Meaning connections
  • Sign
  • Two

13
Word reading Meaning connections
  • Sign
  • Two
  • Signature, signal
  • Twenty, twin, twice

14
Word Reading More meaning connections
  • lead
  • sow
  • close
  • tear

15
  • They stole all the lead from the roof.
  • A female pig is a sow. The farmer will sow the
    seeds.
  • They were to close to the door to close it.
  • If I tear that I will shed a tear.

16
heteronyms
  • wind
  • rowing
  • leading
  • bowed
  • minute
  • bass
  • does
  • ?

17
GOVE
18
GOVE
  • Love, glove, shove
  • move

19
Sight words
  • Many very common words are phonically irregular
    said, was, once, the and need a look and say
    approach
  • said
  • was
  • once
  • the
  • come

20
  • Teachers use their professional knowledge and
    judgement to make informed decisions about what
    kind of strategy is needed to help children read
    words

21
  • Reading is not just pronouncing written words.
    Children who become avid and accomplished readers
    focus on making sense from the start they
    develop a habit of mind that expects the words
    they decode to make sense. This allows them to
    monitor their own performance from an early
    stage, and to make corrections when they misread.
    (Dombey et al., 20104)

22
Really successful primary schools
  • have a broad and rich reading curriculum and have
    a balance of phonics, whole word and meaning
    based approaches to teach children to read.
  • are clear that the purpose of reading is to make
    sense of what is read not simply to say the
    words.
  • promote engagement and enjoyment. Engagement is
    increasingly seen by researchers as central to
    progress in reading. Children who are motivated
    want to read more and more, and get better and
    better at it.
  • are knowledgeable about high quality reading
    resources and have many of them, organised in a
    welcoming school and class library.
  • introduce all children to a wide range of
    childrens literature and explore ways in which
    reading literature can broaden the experience of
    life and give a sense of what is possible.

23
National Curriculum 2014 Y1
  • Pupils should be taught to
  • develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read,
    and understanding by
  • listening to and discussing a wide range of
    poems, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond
    that at which they can read independently
  • being encouraged to link what they read or hear
    read to their own experiences
  • becoming very familiar with key stories, fairy
    stories and traditional tales, retelling them and
    considering their particular characteristics
  • recognising and joining in with predictable
    phrases
  • learning to appreciate rhymes and poems, and to
    recite some by heart

24
Research
  • Building Communities of Readers (2006-8)
  • Building Communities Researching Literacy Lives
    (2009-10)

25
Increased knowledge -awareness of childrens
reading materials
  • Id never read a graphic novel before- it was
    quite demanding the children love them.
    (Interview, Medway)
  • They adore comics and magazines and when you
    read them you can see why- many adults read
    magazines dont they? (Interview, Birmingham)

The children have taken me on a journey into what
they read outside school I never realised
really it was so wide- now we have a much greater
choice in school. (Interview, Kent)
26
Improving pedagogy- Reading environments
physical and social
I like to read when Im relaxed. I like to read
something I can switch off to. How does this work
in the classroom? I hadnt thought of those
questions before. (Written reflection, Birmingham)
  • Now they can relax and move around to share
    reading with friends. If they choose to read
    comics or magazines they can. (Interview,
    Birmingham)

27
Improving pedagogy - Reading aloud
I will now read to the class without thinking I
could do this with it or I could do that with it
and I think the children sit back and think I
can just enjoy this that had been a big
struggle - thinking how many boxes can I tick,
what objectives can I cover and you actually then
lose the impact ofthe book. You know, just enjoy
it for a book and a good story and a good
emotional journey. (Interview, Kent)
  • Reading aloud has given me back my
    enthusiasmshowing them how to develop their own
    expression children have learnt a lot and so
    have I. (Questionnaire, Barking Dagenham)

Nathan when she stops reading aloud she leaves
us on a cliff-hanger and its really
exciting. Will Yes, because its really
expressive. (Interview, Year 3, Kent)
28
Improving pedagogy- independent reading time
I dont think wed thought before about planning
to support them as readers, for their own
reading. Wed just expected them to get on with
that whilst we did guided reading or
comprehension But now were encouraging them as
readers, helping them make good choices,
accepting much more reading material and giving
them a chance to be readers really. (Interview,
Kent)
  • Now there is ERIC own reading time and since SATS
    this has gone to 10 to 15 minutes every day at
    least. This has prompted more book talk and lots
    of informal recommendations (Written
  • reflection, Medway)

29
Improving pedagogy- independent reading time
I dont think wed thought before about planning
to support them as readers, for their own
reading. Wed just expected them to get on with
that whilst we did guided reading or
comprehension But now were encouraging them as
readers, helping them make good choices,
accepting much more reading material and giving
them a chance to be readers really. (Interview,
Kent)
  • Now there is ERIC own reading time and since SATS
    this has gone to 10 to 15 minutes every day at
    least. This has prompted more book talk and lots
    of informal recommendations (Written
  • reflection, Medway)

30
Really successful primary schools
  • have a broad and rich reading curriculum and have
    a balance of phonics, whole word and meaning
    based approaches to teach children to read.
  • are clear that the purpose of reading is to make
    sense of what is read not simply to say the
    words.
  • promote engagement and enjoyment. Engagement is
    increasingly seen by researchers as central to
    progress in reading. Children who are motivated
    want to read more and more, and get better and
    better at it.
  • are knowledgeable about high quality reading
    resources and have many of them, organised in a
    welcoming school and class library.
  • introduce all children to a wide range of
    childrens literature and explore ways in which
    reading literature can broaden the experience of
    life and give a sense of what is possible.

31
What texts?
  • texts with subtleties that stand exploration,
    re-reading, and raise genuine questions
  • texts that are capable of engaging children
  • texts that contain high quality language
  • texts that are representative
  • texts that can be read aloud

32
(No Transcript)
33
The dangers of the Phonics Check
  • Promotes a narrow and erroneous view of reading
  • high stakes tests have a pronounced negative
    impact on the curriculum
  • Workload issues the average time for preparation
    and administration was 15.5 hours in the pilot
  • Many higher attaining pupils are confused by
    pseudo-words
  • No relation between phonics check result and
    attainment in reading in Y2
  • Undermines the professionalism and capacity of
    teachers when decisions are made about how to
    help children to get better at reading
  • Is expensive

34
UKLA SurveyY1 Phonics check
  • The evidence overwhelmingly indicates that in
    teachers and Headteachers professional
    judgment, the Phonics Screening Check for
    six-year-olds is time-consuming and unnecessary.
    They feel that checks like this should not be
    imposed on all children, but used judiciously
    where a teacher thinks it would help to identify
    specific needs in a particular child. In schools
    experience the results have labeled some
    successful and fluent readers as failures. The
    check does not differentiate at the top end. It
    does not identify high experience readers but, on
    the contrary, it is potentially holding them back
    and undermining their assurance as readers.

35
The evidence makes it clear that the Phonics
Screening Check should not be used in subsequent
years for all children in year 1, but implemented
at teachers discretion to identify specific
developmental needs in particular children for
whom it is appropriate.
36
Spelling Punctuation and Grammar tests
  • Y2 and Y6 in 2016

37
A typical question
  • Which sentence contains two verbs?
  • Tick one.
  • The lambs played happily.
  • The cows sleep in the field.
  • The puppies growl and bark.
  • The horses eat grass and hay.
  • 1 mark

38
Research on grammar
  • Repeated studies show no evidence of formal
    teaching of grammar of impact on writing or
    reading (Hillocks, 1986 Andrews et al., 2006).
  • However studies investigated teaching a grammar
    course and teaching writing separately
  • No studies before 2012 which investigated
    teaching grammar meaningfully in the context of
    writing in UK.
  • No studies in UK context of primary age pupils

39
Grammar teaching
  • However, Myhills recent work with Secondary
    students has shown the value of including
    explicit attention to relevant grammatical
    constructions within the context of writing
    (Myhill et al., 2011).

40
  • The writing of primary school children might be
    improved where teachers
  • introduce key terms such as synonym verb,
    noun, sentence and noun phrase in the
    context of shared writing (Hunt, 2001).
  • Research is not clear about which grammatical
    terms are likely to be most productive in the
    primary years, at which stage, or how they might
    best be introduced.
  • What is clear is that any teaching of grammar
    needs to be carried out in the context of
    purposeful reading and writing.

41
What next?
  • How can teacher associations and subject
    associations work together to mitigate the
    baleful effects of high stakes and narrow tests?
  • How can we work together to ensure evidence based
    approaches to the teaching of early reading and
    writing are promoted?
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