The Growing Importance of Performance Management Systems at the Federal Level in the United States - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Growing Importance of Performance Management Systems at the Federal Level in the United States

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Title: The Growing Importance of Performance Management Systems at the Federal Level in the United States


1
  • The Growing Importance of Performance Management
    Systems at the Federal Level in the United States
  • Professor Kenneth Apfel
  • University of Maryland

2
KEY COMPONENTS OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PLANS
  • System of measuring performance, setting
    performance goals and establishing
    accountabilities
  • System used to manage the organization (through
    common language)
  • System linked to strategic planning and
    evaluation processes
  • Internal and external involvement and acceptance
    of system - transparency

3
PERFORMANCE-STAT TENETS
  • Accurate and timely intelligence shared by all.
  • Rapid deployment of resources
  • Effective tactics and strategies
  • Relentless follow-up and assessment

4
The Baltimore Citi-Stat Process
  • Participating agencies submit customized data
    templates on a regular basis to report on key
    performance indicators.

5
Mapping
Digital maps are used to plot complaints, vacant
homes, lead paint violations, food
inspections, and potholes, allowing managers to
track employee performance and public service
delivery.
6
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9
  • Most states - and many US cities - have now
    established performance management systems in
    varying forms.
  • This is a harder task for the US Federal
    Government, but performance systems are growing
    in importance.
  • Older history Johnson, Nixon, Reagan

10
PRESIDENT CLINTONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
APPROACH
  • Use Government Performance and Results Act to
    drive reforms a federal law, not just
    administrative reforms by the Executive Branch
  • National Performance Review over 1,200
    proposals bubbled up.
  • Outcomes to be transparent
  • Hammer Awards recognition and rewards for major
    successes

11
GPRA FRAMEWORK
  • Strategic Plans
  • general goals and objectives, including outcome-
    related goals and objectives, for the major
    agency functions
  • Annual Performance Plans
  • establish performance goals to define the level
    of performance to be achieved by a program
    activity
  • Program Performance Reports
  • Includes the performance indicators established
    in the agency performance plan, along with the
    actual program performance achieved compared with
    the performance goals expressed in the plan for
    that fiscal year.

12
SSAs Performance Management Plan
  • INTERNAL EXTERNAL INVOLVEMENT IN
  • Mission
  • Strategic Plan (5 year plan)
  • Annual Performance Plan (annual plan)
  • Annual Performance Reports (results)
  • Performance reinforced through
  • Monthly Executive meetings
  • Quarterly Management Meetings
  • Regional/Field Actions Drive Down in
    Organization
  • Link to Accountability

13
President Bushs Performance Management Approach
  • Presidents Management Scorecard
  • Program Assessment Review Tool
  • Greater transparency
  • A forceful, focused, high level approach!

14
Executive Branch Management Scorecard
15
Program Assessment Rating Tool
  • Assesses Programs in Four Key Dimensions
  • Purpose and Design
  • Planning
  • Management
  • Results and Accountability
  • Generates Objective Program Ratings
  • Effective
  • Moderately Effective
  • Adequate
  • Ineffective
  • Results Not Demonstrated
  • Encourages Continuous Improvement
  • Applies Consistent Framework to all Programs

16
National Academy of Public Administration Study
on Federal Performance Management
  • Strengthen performance initiatives by
  • Focusing on high Administration priorities
  • Establishing agency accountability
  • Establishing more transparency
  • Conducting consultations with Congress
  • Ensuring that performance systems are both useful
    and used

17
The Governance Dilemma (Donald Kettl)
  • Coordination
  • Growing need for network-based solutions
  • No one isor can bein charge of results
  • Need for a leader to guide process
  • Environment
  • Intense, immediate media coverage
  • Large, rapid costs from program failure
  • Serious problems spread globally
  • Constraints
  • Money fiscal limits
  • Management results we have are as good as it
    gets
  • Intellectual capital
  • No clear guide for theory or practice

18
President Obamas Performance Management Approach
  • A new, strengthened performance law
  • Establish a new White House and agency senior
    executive Chief Performance Officer
  • Focus all agency performance around 2-4 key
    performance goals
  • Establish broad-based, cross-cutting networked
    goals
  • Make performance information both a useful and a
    used management tool

19
The Government Performance and Results
Modernization Act of 2010
  • Signed into law on January 4, 2011-- reinforces
    the 1993 GPRA performance legislation
  • White House to work with agencies to create a
    Federal Performance Plan and Federal Priority
    Goals.
  • White House to develop government-wide
    performance goals in consultation with key
    committees of Congress. 
  • All federal agencies to designate a Chief
    Operating Officer and a Performance Improvement
    Officer
  • Systems need more transparency

20
Recovery.gov
21
Recovery.gov
22
WWW.data.gov (and next generation)
23
USAspending.gov
24
Most Important Performance.gov
  • This new site will include performance and
    evaluation information for all federal agencies
  • Still in development stage --not yet ready for
    public viewing
  • Soon!

25
Example of Performance.gov Dept of Housing and
Urban Development
  • HUDStat
  • -- HUD is using HUDStat meetings frequent
    goal-focused, data-driven discussions to
    identify problems and examine them more carefully
    to find patterns and causal relationships, speed
    progress, improve quality, prevent or reduce
    problems, and cut costs.
  • --In one HUDStat meeting that focused on rental
    housing, HUD examined geographic disparities in
    public housing occupancy rates to identify
    opportunities for increasing the number of
    renters it serves. HUDStat sessions inform
    program and budget decisions.

26
Example of Performance.gov Food and Drug
Administration
  • FDA-TRACK
  • --FDA-Track develops, monitors, and reports on
    monthly performance measures, which are then
    analyzed and discussed with Agency's senior
    leadership.
  • --FDA-Track website allows the public to view
    FDAs performance data, learn about the agencys
    breadth of responsibilities, and track progress.
  • --FDA-Track includes important Agency-wide
    initiatives, such as progress on egg farm
    inspections, H1N1 vaccines and medical
    countermeasures.

27
Example of Performance.gov Social Security
Administration
  • SSA Performance Improvement Officer is the new,
    accountable official
  • All federal agencies required to establish
    ambitious Priority Goals to achieve over the next
    18-24 months. Social Security Administration has
    four Priority Goals
  • Increase benefit applications filed online
  • Reduce backlogs for disability claims
  • Improve customers service experience
  • Ensure effective stewardship by increasing
    program integrity efforts
  • SSA evaluations to be included in Annual
    Performance and Accountability Reports

28
Example Crosscutting Goals
  • High Priority Performance Goals limited number,
    high public value, achievable in 18-24 months
  • Examples
  • Reduce the population of homeless veterans to
    59,000 by June, 2012 (HUD and VA and HHS)
  • By the end of 2011, increase the number of
    provinces in Afghanistan in which women and
    children are food secure from 10 to 14. (USDA,
    State, Defense)
  • Evaluation initiatives linked to goals

29
CLINTON AND BUSH AND OBAMA ADMINISTRATIONS
  • The past two decades a stronger approach than
    the performance initiatives of prior US
    Administrations.
  • Focus on results federal laws enacted with
    greater focus on performance.
  • Major, high visibility efforts by all three
    Presidents. And all newer initiatives were built
    on the performance initiatives (and weaknesses)
    of prior Administrations.
  • All important steps. But the increasingly
    networked nature of public challenges will
    test the performance management movement in the
    years ahead. Who is accountable for what?
  • PREDICTION Future Presidents may criticize past
    Presidential efforts -- but they will build on
    past efforts, with increased transparency.
    Performance management is here to stay.
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