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Title: Unit III A Modern Nation Author: wsr Last modified by: cookb Created Date: 11/30/2006 10:46:09 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit VIII

Unit VIII Boom Times and Challenges (1919-1945)
  • Chapter 24 Section 2
  • Life during the 1920s

Main Idea 1 In the 1920s many young people found
new independence in a changing society.
  • After the war, many young people moved to cities.
  • By 1920 more than half of the countrys
    population lived in urban areas.
  • Took advantage of 1920s economic boom to gain
  • New youth culture developed
  • Access to education grew.
  • High school attendance doubled in 1920s.
  • More attended colleges and universities.
  • Women also found new opportunities.
  • Number of women in workforce continued to grow.
  • New roles in politics
  • Some women, known as flappers, openly challenged
    traditional ideas of how women were supposed to

Effects of Urbanization
  • Though the 1920s was a time of great economic
    opportunities for many, farmers did not share in
    the prosperity.
  • Farming took a hard hit after World War I, when
    demand for products went down and many workers
    moved to industrialized cities.
  • The 1920 census showed that for the first time
    ever, more Americans lived in cities than in
    rural areas, and three-fourths of all workers
    worked somewhere other than a farm.
  • The rise of the automobile helped bring the
    cities and the country together, and rural people
    were now likely to spend time in town and were
    less isolated.
  • Education also increased, and by the 1920s many
    states passed laws requiring children to attend
    school, helping force children out of workplaces.
    Compulsory School Attendance

School attendance and enrollment increased as
industry grew because more people could afford to
send their children to school, not to work.
The Flapper
  • The flapper was "modern."
  • Lively and full of energy, she was single but
  • With short hair and a short skirt, with
    turned-down hose and powdered knees - the flapper
    must have seemed to her mother (the gentle Gibson
    girl of an earlier generation) like a rebel.
  • No longer confined to home and tradition, the
    typical flapper was a young women who was often
    thought of as a little fast and maybe even a
    little brazen
  • These young women further blurred the boundaries
    between respectable and depraved by their public
    activities swearing, smoking cigarettes,
    drinking alcohol, dancing, and dating were among
    her pastimes.

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A Changing Society
  • Recall What did many soldiers returning from
    the war in Europe hope to continue doing when
    they got home?
  • Identify What historical change happened to the
    nations population for the first time?
  • Contrast How was life different for young
    people before they married?
  • Evaluate What do you think about women being
    elected to political office when others were
    excluded from professional fields?

Main Idea 2 Postwar tensions occasionally led to
fear and violence.
  • Negative attitudes toward Communists grew in the
  • After Communists took power in Russia in 1917,
    Americans worried that they would soon try to
    gain power in the United States.
  • Many Americans blamed Communists and radicals for
    labor strikes and other problems.
  • Attitudes led to a Red Scare, a time of fear of
    Communists, or Reds.
  • Communists were held responsible for bombings and
  • Bombs were found in postal packages addressed to
    famous Americans and Communists were held
  • Political officials home was bombed and police
    raids were organized to break up Communist and
    radical groups.
  • Italian anarchists, Sacco and Vanzetti, were
    convicted and executed for the robbery and murder
    of a factory paymaster and his guard.

Sacco and Vanzetti
  • In the late 1920s a court case in Massachusetts
    proved nativist and anti-radical feelings.
  • Two men named Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo
    Vanzetti were arrested for armed robbery and
  • The two men were Italian immigrants and also
    proclaimed anarchists, or radicals who seek the
    destruction of government.
  • The evidence against the two men was weak, but it
    was apparent that the two were on trial for their
    beliefs as much as for the crimes.
  • Amid great publicity and protests in Europe and
    South America as well as in the U.S., the two men
    were convicted and sentenced to death.
  • Their 1927 executions were highly controversial,
    but by then the nation had largely recovered from
    the Red Scare and the turmoil of the postwar

Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Two Italian immigrants, who became unwilling
    martyrs for the struggle of equal justice for
  • Arrested for a hold up at a shoe factory in which
    one person was killed.
  • They had no criminal record but were anarchists.
  • Tried, found guilty and sentenced to die with
    real hard evidence.
  • Were they victims of fear and prejudice?
  • What happened to the 16,000? Who were the other
    three criminals? How can one explain the variety
    of bullets taken from the victims that do not
    match Sacco's gun? Why did the accused show no
    change in their behavior? Why were the members of
    the Morelli gang not questioned?

Restricting Immigration
  • Concerns about immigration
  • Some Americans believed there was a general fear
    of foreigners.
  • Many recent immigrants were poor and did not
    speak English.
  • Some Americans saw immigrants as a threat to jobs
    and culture.
  • Government responded to these concerns with new
  • Emergency Quota Act of 1921 limited total number
    of immigrants allowed into the country.
  • National Origins Act of 1924 banned immigration
    from East Asia entirely and reduced the number of
    immigrants allowed into the country.
  • Drastic drop in immigration to the United States

Fear and Violence
  • Identify What two types of people were treated
    with suspicion?
  • Recall What were Sacco and Vanzetti accused of
    having done?
  • Evaluate What are some possible reasons for
    Americans fear of foreigners at the time?

Main Idea 3 Competing ideals caused conflict
between Americans with traditional beliefs and
those with modern views.
  • The Eighteenth Amendment outlawed the
    manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic
  • Difficult to enforce
  • Many broke the law.
  • Law reduced consumption, but did not stop
    Americans from drinking.
  • Support strongest in rural areas
  • Opposition strongest in cities
  • By the end of the 1920s, the nation was weary of
    the effects of prohibition.
  • Believed that it would be better to have a legal
    alcohol trade with
  • government monitoring
  • The Twenty-first Amendment was passed in 1933,
    which ended prohibition.

Religious Ideals
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  • Throughout U.S. history, groups like the Womans
    Christian Temperance Union worked to outlaw
    alcohol, but the drive strengthened in the early
    1900s, as Progressives joined the effort.
  • Over the years, a number of states passed
    anti-alcohol laws, and World War I helped the
    cause when grain and grapes, which most alcohol
    is made from, needed to feed troops.
  • The fight against alcohol also used bias against
    immigrants to fuel their cause by portraying
    immigrant groups as alcoholics.
  • Protestant religious groups and fundamentalists
    also favored a liquor ban because they thought
    alcohol contributed to societys evils and sins,
    especially in cities.
  • By 1917 more than half the states had passed a
    law restricting alcohol.

The Eighteenth Amendment banning alcohol was
proposed in 1917 and ratified in 1919. The
Volstead Act enforced the amendment.
Prohibition in Practice
  • Enforcing the new Prohibition law proved to be
    virtually impossible, as making, transporting,
    and selling alcohol was illegal, but drinking it
    was not.
  • Prohibition gave rise to huge smuggling
    operations, as alcohol slipped into the country
    through states like Michigan on the Canadian
  • Newspapers followed the hunt for bootleggers, or
    liquor smugglers, but government officials
    estimated that in 1925 they caught only 5 percent
    of all the illegal liquor entering the country.
  • Many people also made their own liquor using
    homemade equipment, and others got alcohol from
    doctors, who could prescribe it as medicine.
  • The illegal liquor business was the foundation of
    great criminal empires, like Chicago gangster Al
    Capones crew, who smashed competition, then
    frightened and bribed police and officials.
  • 3,000 Prohibition agents nationwide worked to
    shut down speakeasies, or illegal bars, and to
    capture illegal liquor and stop gangsters.
  • Millions of Americans violated the laws, but it
    would be many years before Prohibition came to an

  • Prohibition in the United States was a measure
    designed to reduce drinking by eliminating the
    businesses that manufactured, distributed, and
    sold alcoholic beverages.
  • The Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
    took away license to do business from the
    brewers, distillers, vintners, and the wholesale
    and retail sellers of alcoholic beverages.

  • Speakeasies were actually illegal "nightclubs."
    They were created during the 20's when
    prohibition was lurking about and alcohol was
    ruled illegal.
  • They were usually opened late at night and
    served a playing field for the rebels that
    wanted to dance the night away and drink alcohol.
  • They would usually have code words for people to
    get into and would be run by the local cop on the
  • The Cotton Club in Harlem, New York was the most
    famous of these speakeasies.
  • They were a place where the prosperous could
    party, local cops could make a little extra cash.
  • In the speakeasies, discrimination was a problem.
  • Al Capone, notorious gangster, was the first
    person to open up soup kitchens after the 1929
    stock market crash and he ordered merchants to
    give clothes and food to the needy, which he paid
    for himself.

Prohibition - Problems
  • Alcohol became more dangerous to consume crime
    increased and became "organized" the court and
    prison systems were stretched to the breaking
    point and corruption of public officials was
  • No measurable gains were made in productivity or
    reduced absenteeism.
  • Prohibition removed a significant source of tax
    revenue and greatly increased government
  • It led many drinkers to switch to opium,
    marijuana, patent medicines, cocaine, and other
    dangerous substances that they would have been
    unlikely to encounter in the absence of

St. Valentines Day Massacre
Eliot Ness
Religious Ideals
  • Religious leaders were concerned abut the youth
    culture and the failure of prohibition in the
  • Wanted to return to traditional values
  • Led to a movement of fundamentalism
    characterized by the belief in a literal, or
    word-for-word, interpretation of the Bible
  • Used the radio and modern marketing tools to draw
  • Strong in rural areas and small towns
  • Believed that modern scientific theories
    conflicted with teachings of the Bible
  • Opposed the teaching of evolution in public
  • Laws were passed in many states and cities to
    prevent the teaching of evolution.

The Rise of Fundamentalism
  • Billy Sunday
  • Changing times caused uncertainty, turning many
    to religion for answers.
  • One key religious figure of the time was former
    ballplayer and ordained minister Billy Sunday.
  • Sunday condemned radicals and criticized the
    changing attitudes of women, reflecting much of
    white, rural Americas ideals.
  • Sundays Christian beliefs were based on a
    literal translation of the Bible called
  • Aimee Semple McPherson
  • Another leading fundamentalist preacher of the
  • Seemed to embrace the kind of glamour that other
    fundamentalists warned about
  • Her religion, however, was purely fundamentalist.
  • She was especially well known for healing the
    sick through prayer.

The Scopes Trial
  • Charles Darwins theory of evolution holds that
    inherited characteristics of a population change
    over generations, which sometimes results in the
    rise of a new species.
  • According to Darwin, the human species may have
    evolved from an ape-like species that lived long
  • Fundamentalists think this theory is against the
    biblical account of how God created humans and
    that teaching evolution undermine religious
  • Fundamentalists worked to pass laws preventing
    evolution being taught in schools, and several
    states did, including Tennessee in 1925.
  • One group in Tennessee persuaded a young science
    teacher named John Scopes to violate the law, get
    arrested, and go to trial.
  • Scopes trial in 1925
  • Tennessee teacher John T. Scopes put on trial for
    teaching evolution
  • Scopes convicted and fined 100 for breaking the
  • State supreme court later overturned conviction.
  • Scopes was represented by Clarence Darrow, and
    William Jennings Bryan, three-time candidate for
    president, represented the prosecution.
  • John Scopes was obviously guilty, but the trial
    was about larger issues.
  • Scopes was convicted and fined 100, but Darrow
    never got a chance to appeal because the
    conviction was overturned due to a technical
    violation by the judge.
  • The Tennessee law remained in place until the

Scopes Trial
  • The world's attention was riveted on Dayton,
    Tennessee, during July, 1925. At issue was the
    constitutionality of the "Butler Law," which
    prohibited the teaching of evolution in the
    classroom. Oklahoma, Florida, Mississippi, North
    Carolina and Kentucky already had such laws.
  • The ACLU hoped to use the Scopes case to test
    (and defeat)Fundamentalist meddling in politics.
  • Judge John Raulston began the trial by reading
    the first 27 verses of Genesis.
  • Clarence Darrow said "Science gets to the end of
    its knowledge and, in effect, says, 'I do not
    know what I do not know,' and keeps on searching.
    Religion gets to the end of its knowledge, and in
    effect, says, 'I know what I do not know,' and
    stops searching.

Competing Ideals
  • Intepret Americans from which two areas clashed
    over ideals and values?
  • Recall How did Al Capone gain control of the
    alcohol trade?
  • Summarize For what reasons did many people
    believe it would be better to have legal alcohol
  • Develop In what ways do you think rural and
    urban Americans differ today?

Competing Ideals
  • Identify What theory was developed by Charles
  • Recall What preacher used radio and modern
    marketing to draw followers to her beliefs?
  • Rate Do you think the Scopes Trial was
    concluded fairly?

Main Idea 4 Following the war, minority groups
organized to demand their civil rights.
  • Great Migration large numbers of African
    Americans left South to take jobs in northern
    factories after the war and through the 1920s.
  • Some white laborers feared competition for jobs.
  • Race riots broke out.
  • Ku Klux Klan gained more strength.
  • Harassed African Americans, Catholics, Jews, and
  • Worked against urbanization, womens rights, and
    modern technology
  • Became influential in politics
  • More than 5 million members

The Great Migration
  • Beginning around 1910, Harlem, New York, became a
    favorite destination for black Americans
    migrating from the South.
  • Southern life was difficult for African
    Americans, many of whom worked as sharecroppers
    or in other low-paying jobs and often faced
    racial violence.
  • Many African Americans looked to the North to
    find freedom and economic opportunities, and
    during World War I the demand for equipment and
    supplies offered African Americans factory jobs
    in the North.
  • African American newspapers spread the word of
    opportunities in northern cities, and African
    Americans streamed into cities such as Chicago
    and Detroit.
  • This major relocation of African Americans is
    known as the Great Migration.

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African Americans after World War I
  • Tensions
  • Many found opportunities in the North but also
  • Racial tensions were especially severe after
    World War I, when a shortage of jobs created a
    rift between whites and African American workers.
  • This tension created a wave of racial violence in
    the summer of 1919.
  • The deadliest riot occurred in Chicago, Illinois,
    when a dispute at a public beach led to rioting
    that left 38 people dead and nearly 300 injured.
  • Racially motivated riots occurred in about two
    dozen other cities in 1919.
  • Raised Expectations
  • Another factor that added to racial tensions was
    the changing expectations of African Americans.
  • Many believed they had earned greater freedom for
    helping fight for freedom overseas in World War
  • Unfortunately, not everyone agreed that their war
    service had earned them greater freedom.
  • In fact, some whites were determined to strike
    back against the new African American attitudes.

  • The name was constructed by combining the Greek
    "kuklos" (circle) with "clan." It was at first a
    humorous social club centering on practical jokes
    and hazing rituals but soon spread into nearly
    every Southern state, launching a "reign of
    terror" against Republican leaders both black and

  • The second Ku Klux Klan (KKK) sought to reverse
    the changes in gender and sexual norms.
  • The KKK worked to elevate white Protestant men
    and women while blaming the demise of America's
    moral standards on Catholics, Jews, and people of
    color. "pure Americanism."
  • As a result of pressure from western states and
    nativist organizations, the federal government
    enacted laws that specifically targeted Asian
    immigrants, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act in
    1882 and the "Gentlemen's Agreement" with Japan
    in 1907. Literacy Tests. Immigration Act of
    1924 (Quotas)
  • KKK hatred of Blacks, Jews, Catholics, Flappers
    and Immigrants. It established one of the
    largest social movements of the 20th century,
    enrolling nearly five million of ordinary,
    "respectable," middle-class Americans

Protecting Rights
  • African Americans began working to protect their
  • The NAACP placed advertisements in newspapers
    presenting harsh facts about lynchings in the
  • Marcus Garvey encouraged black people to express
    pride in their culture and establish economic
  • Black nationalism movement took root.
  • Hispanic Americans organized to fight prejudice
    and promote civil rights
  • Formed the League of United Latin American
    Citizens in 1929
  • Native Americans fought to establish their
  • In 1924 Congress passed the Indian Citizenship
    Act, granting citizenship to all Native
  • Successfully prevented the federal government
    from taking back reservation lands

Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. Du Bois
Minority Rights
  • Identify What did African Americans hope to
    escape by coming north?
  • Recall How did Marcus Garvey think black people
    should establish their independence?
  • Make Inferences Based on the activities of the
    Ku Klux Klan, what sort of people might their
    members have been? Why do you think so?
  • Predict Do you think the League of United Latin
    American Citizens has been successful in
    achieving its goals?

Minority Rights
  • Recall Which group was granted citizenship in
  • Explain Why do you think some black leaders
    were opposed to Garveys ideas?
  • Identify Cause and Effect What helped bring
    about Native American citizenship?

Jazz Age 518 min.
Scopes Monkey Trial Teaching Creationism or
Evolution in School (0256)
Prohibition and Gangsters- 431 min.
The Rise of Prohibition -431
Changing the Shape of American Organized Crime
Al Capone and Prohibition   (0452)
Capone Begins Long Jail Term (0047)
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