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Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics

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Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics Global Problems in Geology Distribution of Continents Mid-ocean Ridges Trenches Orogenic Belts Deformation Metamorphism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics


1
Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics
2
Global Problems in Geology
  • Distribution of Continents
  • Mid-ocean Ridges
  • Trenches
  • Orogenic Belts
  • Deformation
  • Metamorphism
  • Volcanism
  • Earthquakes

3
Development of Continental Drift
  • Frank Taylor (1910)
  • Alfred Wegener (1912) Die Entstehung Der
    Kontinente Und Ozeane

4
The Permian Ice Age Problem
5
Wegeners Theory
6
Dating the Breakup
7
Frank Taylor
  • In some respects, Taylors ideas were more modern
    than Wegeners
  • Taylor always thought Wegener had stolen credit
    from him

8
Frank Taylor
  • Recognized role of Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  • Never reconstructed the continents like Wegener
    did

9
Confirmation of Continental Drift
  • World War II technology
  • International Geophysical Year (IGY) 1957-58
  • Worldwide Standardized Seismic Network 1963-

10
The Geomagnetic Reversal Time Scale
11
Discovery of Sea-Floor Spreading
12
Sea-Floor Spreading
13
Where Does Ocean Crust Go?
  • Hugo Benioff, 1954

14
Benioffs Interpretation
15
Benioffs Interpretation Updated
16
Worldwide Standardized Seismic Network
17
The Plate Tectonics Model
18
The Plate Tectonics Model
19
The Earths Plates
20
Global Plate Motions
21
What Drives It Convection
22
How Plates Move
23
Reconstructing Plate Movements
24
Fit of Continents Across the Atlantic
25
Present Day Atlantic
26
Atlantic 65 m.y. ago
27
Geology of Plate Margins
28
Ophiolites Oceanic Crust
29
Anatomy of a Mid-Ocean Ridge
30
FAMOUS Close-Up of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
31
Magnetic Stripes in the FAMOUS Area
32
A Subduction Zone
33
Why Mountains are High
34
Where the Plates Meet
35
Terrane Accretion
36
Terranes in Western North America
37
Plate Boundaries and Earthquakes
38
Hot Spots
39
Hot Spots Hawaii
40
Pacific Hot Spot Tracks
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