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Title: www.met.sjsu.edu/~jin


1
METR 112 Global Climate Change Professor Menglin
Susan Jin San Jose State University, Dept of
Meteorology and Climate Science
www.met.sjsu.edu/jin
January 22, 2014
2
  • Outline of todays lecture
  • Introduction and Welcome
  • Discussion on the greensheet
  • Learning Contract
  • First glance on observations of Changing Climate

3
For greensheet, class ppt notes http//www.met.s
jsu.edu/jin/METR112spring2014.htm NOT
any other websites!
4
About Professor
A very good scholar www.met.sjsu.edu/jin
1.
Research projects funded by NASA, NSF,
Department of Defense On land surface climate
change, urbanization, remote sensing 20 leading
author papers on top journals
2. an effective teacher
  • Teaching philosophy teaching is your
    responsibility,
  • but a good professor makes things so easy for
    you

5
Goal METR112 will help you to know the
fundamentals of global climate system, climate
change, and gain appreciation of the
complexities involved with climate change issues

Being educated in Climate Change Issue
6
Homework 20 Midterm Exam 20 Class
Participation 5 Group Project 20 Final Exam
35 Scale 90 A, 80s B, 70s C, 60s D, lt60
F Homework will be assigned on in class
Submitted on time via canvas.
7
Content 1. Knowledge on Climate
System Atmosphere Structure Land Surface
Properties Land-Ocean-Atmosphere
Interaction Global Energy Balance Global
Hydrological Cycle C cycle Glacier Aerosols
and clouds Ozone 2. Past Climate Change 3.
Recent Climate Change 4. Climate Modeling Its
basics and Uncertainty 5. Climate Feedback 6.
Urban Climate Change Land Cover Change and
Human Impacts 7. Climate Change and Human
Health 8. Remaining Questions on Global Climate
Change Research 9. 10 Things You can do to Fight
Climate Change
8
Lecture Hour METR112-01 TTH 1030 -1145
AM METR112-03 TTH 130 PM 245 PM Place
DH515 Office Hour 1230 PM
-120 PM, TH more (set via email) Place
MSJs Office (DH613) TA TBD TAs office TBD
METR112
  • I will meet with you for extra office hour
    whenever you need.
  • send email for appointment.

I am approachable!!!
9
References (not a text book)
(cheap!)
Understanding Weather Climate by Edward
Aguado and James E. Burt (Third Edition)
Video collections http//www.met.sjsu.edu/metr112
-videos/
Useful materials will be assigned on
webpage/homework/class
10
Learning Contract
  • Instructor
  • On time and prepared.
  • Answers questions.
  • Approachable and friendly.
  • Fair with assignments and grades.
  • Genuinely concerned about your learning and
    intellectual development.

11
Learning Contract
  • Students
  • Make every effort to arrive on time and if
    late, enter class quietly.
  • Preserve a good classroom learning environment
    by
  • a) refraining from talking when other people
    are talking
  • b) turning off cell phones.
  • Be courteous to other students and the
    instructor.
  • Aware that learning is primarily their
    responsibility.
  • Aware of universities policy on academic
    integrity and pledge to abide by them at
    all times.
  • Have read and understand what plagiarism is and
    know how to cite sources properly.

12
Academic Integrity
  • Integrity of university, its courses and degrees
    relies on academic standards.
  • Cheating
  • Copying from anothers test, cheatsheet etc.
  • Sitting an exam by, or as, a surrogate.
  • Submitting work for another
  • Plagiarism
  • Representing the work of another as ones own
    (without giving appropriate credit)

13
Plagiarism
  • Judicial Affairs
  • http//sa.sjsu.edu/judicial_affairs/index.html
  • Look at the Student Code of Conduct
  • Read through SJSU library site on Plagiarism
  • http//www.sjlibrary.org/services/literacy/info_co
    mp/plagiarism.htm
  • http//turnitin.com/

14
GreenSheet (see handout)
  • Homework must online turnin (canvas)
  • Class Participation
  • Research Project
  • Final grade

15
Lets see some key global change observations.
.
.
16
A Sad Rainfall Extreme Events
17
July 21, 2012, Beijing
  • the heaviest rainfall in 61 years fell on the
    Chinese capital city of Beijing on July 21, 2012.
    The state news agency Xinhua at first said that
    37 people had been killed by floods during and
    after the downpour, but today (July 26, 2012) the
    official death toll was raised to 77

18
  • Extreme to 200mm
  • Affect 1.9million people, 10 billons damage

19
?10?????????????????,??????????????,?????????????4
60???????,?????10???,??????,?????
??10???,?????????,??????????????06?,???????????,??
?????????????,??10????06?,???????170??,?????215??,
????328??,?????213??,????????????,?????460???????
???????,??20??21?????????100.3???
????8???,???????????????????????????????????????
???????????????,???????????????????????,??????????
?????? ??????????,????????????????????????????
????????,?????????????????,?????????????????,?????
????,?????????????????????,???????????????????????
?,????????,???????????????????????????,?????????
???????,???????,????,??????
20

21

22

A car moves on the rain-inundated road in the
Daxing District of Beijing, capital of China,
July 21, 2012.
23
(No Transcript)
24
Mechanisms for extreme rainfall over BJ Why
Beijing? Why Now?
  • Urban landscape enhance rainfall via three
    processes
  • Aerosol-cloud interactions
  • UHI
  • Canyon effect

Knowledge abut climate sysetm and climate change
is needed
25
Change in surface temperature in 20th century
26
Two main points in this figure
  • Global mean surface temperatures have increased
    0.5-1.0C since the late 19th century
  • The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred
    in the last 15 years of the century

Note 1. why is global mean? 2. what
is surface air temperature? (see next few slides)
27
Temperature is measured by
therometer
Thermoeter is required by WMO (see next slide)
28
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
http//www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html
Weather station
http//www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/ImageTra
nslational-motion.gif
29
(No Transcript)
30
Observed temperature changes
Warming due to El Niño
1992-93 Cooling due to Mt. Pinatubo
Cooling due to La Niño
31
  • Global mean surface temperatures have increased
    0.5-1.0C since the late 19th century
  • The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred
    in the last 15 years of the century

Why does this matter? (important!)
  • Such an increase continues. The best scientific
    estimate is that
  • global mean temperature will increase between
    1.4 and 5.8 degrees C
  • over the next century as a result of increases
    in atmospheric CO2 and
  • other greenhouse gases. This kind of increase in
    global temperature
  • would cause significant rise in average
    sea-level (0.09-0.88 meters),
  • and other severe consequences
  • Mean increase means that many regions increases
    much higher, and these regions
  • have problems in terms of extreme heat, drought,
    flood.

32
(No Transcript)
33
1979
2003
34
The Land and Oceans have both warmed, but
35
Important point of this slide
  • Although global mean surface has been warming up,
    for each region the change can be different! (can
    be no change, warming, or cooling)

Class activity find out your grandpas hometown
and see how the temperature is changed there?
36
Antarctic Ice Shelves
  • Most common Ice Shelf Giant floating platform of
    ice formed from glaciers located along coastlines
  • 50-600 meters thick
  • Can last for thousands of years
  • 10 major ice shelves in Antarctica

37
Larsen Ice Shelf Break
38
Then and Now
  • Temperature rises have also led to the expansion
    of species ranges in Antarctica.
  • Long term monitoring of continental Antarctic
    terrestrial vegetation is crucial for accurate
    measurement and predictions of vegetation
    dynamics in response to future temperature
    regimes around the world

39
Video Antarctic Wilkins Ice Shelf Collapse
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vpoKX6OnehTc

40
The Keeling curve, a long-term record of
atmospheric CO2 concentration measured at the
Mauna Loa Observatory (Keeling et al.). Although
the annual oscillations represent natural,
seasonal variations, the long-term increase
means that concentrations are higher than they
have been in 400,000 years. Graphic courtesy
of NASAs Earth Observatory.
41

Still going up!
42
CO2 Unit
atmospheric concentrations of CO2 in units of
parts per million by volume (ppmv). Each ppmv
represents 2.13 X1015 grams, or 2.13 petagrams of
carbon (PgC) in the atmosphere
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations rose from 288 ppmv
in 1850 to 369.5 ppmv in 2000, for an increase
of 81.5 ppmv, or 174 PgC. In other words, about
40 (174/441.5) of the additional carbon has
remained in the atmosphere, while the remaining
60 has been transferred to the oceans and
terrestrial biosphere.
http//www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/
43
Atmosphere Composition and Structure
44
Vertical Layers of the Lower Atmosphere
45
Atmospheric Properties vs. Altitude
46
Table 1 Composition of the Atmosphere
Percentage by Volume
Gas
Nitrogen 78.08 Oxygen 20.95 Argon
0.93 Trace Gases Carbon dioxide
0.038 Methane 0.00017 Ozone
0.000004 Chlorofluorocarbons 0.00000002 Water
vapor Highly variable (0-4)
47
Greenhouse Gases
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Methane
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons)
  • Others

Water vapor is one greenhouse house gas (GHG) In
fact, it is the most abundant GHG
48
The early Greeks considered "air" to be one of
four elementary substances along with earth,
fire, and water, air was viewed as a fundamental
component of the universe. By the early 1800s,
however, scientists such as John Dalton
recognized that the atmosphere was in fact
composed of several chemically distinct gases,
which he was able to separate and determine the
relative amounts of within the lower atmosphere.
He was easily able to discern the major
components of the atmosphere nitrogen, oxygen,
and a small amount of something incombustible,
later shown to be argon. The development of the
spectrometer in the 1920s allowed scientists to
find gases that existed in much smaller
concentrations in the atmosphere, such as ozone
and carbon dioxide. The concentrations of these
gases, while small, varied widely from place to
place. In fact, atmospheric gases are often
divided up into the major, constant components
and the highly variable components, as listed
below
49
Although both nitrogen and oxygen are essential
to human life on the planet, they have little
effect on weather and other atmospheric
processes. The variable components, which make
up far less than 1 percent of the atmosphere,
have a much greater influence on both short-term
weather and long-term climate. For example,
variations in water vapor in the atmosphere are
familiar to us as relative humidity. Water
vapor (H2O), CO2, CH4, N2O, and SO2 all have an
important property they absorb heat emitted by
the earth and thus warm the atmosphere, creating
what we call the "greenhouse effect." Without
these so-called greenhouse gases, the surface of
the earth would be about 30 degrees Celsius
cooler - too cold for life to exist as we know
it. Global warming, on the other hand, is a
separate process that can be caused by increased
amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
50
The Greenhouse Effect (Important concept)
www.eecs.umich.edu/mathscience/funexperiments/ages
ubject/lessons/images/diagrampage.html
51
Greenhouse gases (important!) CO2 CH4 N2O
(Nitrous Oxiode, so called laughing
gas) CFC O3 H2O by the early 21st century,
N2O had become nearly as important a greenhouse
gas as methane. Their best guess was 0.7C for
N2O, and 0.3C for methane. Wang et al. (1976).
52
atmosphere is not uniform
  • temperature decreased with altitude

division of the atmosphere into layers based on
their thermal properties.
Troposphere surface to1218Km
all weather occurs temperature decreases with
-6.5 C/kilometer (average!)
Stratosphere 18-50km temperature increase due
to ultraviolet (UV) absorption by Ozone (O3)
Mesosphere
50-80km
Thermosphere   The outermost layer of the
atmosphere, where gas molecules split apart into
ions.
http//www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewe
r.php?mid107
53
Vertical Layers of the Lower Atmosphere
54
Vertical Layers of the Lower Atmosphere
Greenhouse Gases are here
55
Methane
56
Anthropogenic Methane Sources
  • Leakage from natural gas pipelines and coal mines
  • Emissions from cattle
  • Emissions from rice paddies

57
Nitrous Oxide N2O
58
Anthropogenic Sources of Nitrous Oxide
  • Agriculture
  • Bacteria in Soils
  • Nitrogen fertilizers

59
CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons)
CFC-11
CFC-12
60
Sources of CFCs
  • Leakage from old air conditioners and
    refrigerators
  • Production of CFCs was banned in 1987 because of
    stratospheric ozone destruction
  • CFC concentrations appear to now be decreasing
  • There are no natural sources of CFCs

61
One World
62
World Population 6,446,131,400
Human activities change environment

63
Class Participation Name_________
  • 1. What is the surface temperature change from
    1990 2000? Is it consistent with the change of
    greenhouse gases?
  • 2. What are greenhouse gases? What is greenhouse
    effect?
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