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NBSS Strategies for developing positive behaviour North/South Conference 21st August 2008

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Title: NBSS Strategies for developing positive behaviour North/South Conference 21st August 2008


1
NBSSStrategies for developing positive
behaviourNorth/South Conference21st August 2008
2
NBSS
  • The NBSS is working with 63 secondary schools
    identifying, developing and disseminating current
    good practice and assisting with behaviour issues
    which impede teaching and learning.

3
NBSS Guiding Principles
  • Respect for the on-going work of schools
  • Belief that schools make a difference
  • Recognition that behaviour is intrinsically
    linked to teaching and learning
  • Awareness of inclusion as a core educational value

4
NBSS Team
5
Perspectives on Behaviour
  1. Biological
  2. Behavioural
  3. Cognitive-Behavioural
  4. Social Learning
  5. Psychodynamic
  6. Ecological
  7. Humanistic
  8. Ecosystemic

6
National Behaviour Support ServiceModel of
Support
Whole School Support
Customized Support
Intensive Support incl. BSC
7
Present Reality
  • The behaviour of a very large majority of pupils
    remains satisfactory or better
  • Most schools are successful at managing behaviour
    and creating an environment in which pupils feel
    valued, cared for and safe
  • The most common form of poor behaviour is
    persistent low-level disruption of lessons that
    wears down staff and interrupts learning.
  • Source School Matters 2006,Ofsted 2006

8
Present Reality
  • A significant proportion of pupils with difficult
    behaviour have special education needs and face
    disadvantage and disturbance in their family
    lives. Many have poor language skills. Problems
    with reading and writing often begin early and
    continue into secondary school, limiting
    achievement in a range of subjects.
  • Source Ofsted 2006

9
Most Successful Strategies for Improving Behaviour
  • Schools recognised that behaviour issues would
    not be resolved by just updating discipline
    policies
  • Behaviour was tackled as part of a wider school
    improvement strategy
  • Schools promoted honesty, ownership, teamwork

10
Most Successful Strategies for Improving
Behaviour (contd)
  • Schools identified behaviours that were most
    challenging and planned ?
  • Schools used external support effectively
  • Source Ofsted inspections of 35 schools in 2005
    and 2006

11
What is Behaviour?
  • Behaviour is anything a person does which can be
    observed
  • Behaviour has to be learned so is taught
  • Everyone can learn new behaviour
  • Behaviour which has been rewarded is more likely
    to be repeated
  • Behaviour is influenced by what happens before it
    and what happens after it.
  • Source South Eastern Education Library Board
    2006

12
First Principles of Behaviour Management
  • Behaviour
  • communicates information about needs
  • can result from tiredness, friendship hassles,
    hunger, sickness, loss etc
  • can be changed
  • is taught
  • Source Andy Vass 2006

13
Purpose of Misbehaviour
  • Attention
  • Power/control
  • Revenge
  • Display of inadequacy/task avoidance
  • Frustration/boredom
  • Source Rudolf Dreikurs

14
If a child doesnt know how to read, we
teach. If a child doesnt know how to swim, we
teach. If a child doesnt know how to multiply,
we teach. If a child doesnt know how to
behave, we ...teach? punish? Why cant
we finish the last sentence as automatically as
we do the others? Tom Herner (NASDE President )
Counterpoint 1998, p.2
15
Cloward and Ohlins Strain Model
16
Battle Zone or Learning Zone
Tim OBrien 1998
17
Why do young people seek to escalate?
  • To escape
  • To use anger as a substitute emotion
  • To deflect
  • To entertain
  • To save face
  • Due to boredom
  • For fun
  • To entertain their friends
  • To heighten their status/kudos
  • Family modelling
  • Lack of other strategies
  • Lack of emotional self-management
  • Hostile attribution bias

18
Why do adults seek to escalate?
  • Control
  • As a means of establishing position
  • As a means of maintaining position
  • To exert power
  • To gain kudos
  • Fear
  • Revenge
  • To save face
  • Lack of other strategies
  • Colleague modelling
  • Lack of emotional self-management
  • Hostile attribution bias
  • To get rid of a pupil

19
Cycle of acting out
  1. Calm
  2. Trigger
  3. Agitation
  4. Acceleration
  5. Peak
  6. De-escalation
  7. Recovery

5
4
6
3
Engage or Enrage
Intervention
2
7
1
Baseline behaviour
20
Consistency
  • Preliminary findings from a survey conducted by
    the NBSS on Low Level Disruption found that only
    5.8 of the 982 respondents agreed that school
    rules are enforced consistently by all staff,
    47 stating that enforcement was consistent most
    of the time, with 43.2 reporting that
    consistency ranges from some of the time to
    never.

21
Consistency
22
Inconsistency
23
NBSS Preliminary Findings
  • NBSS preliminary findings show that only 36.6 of
    982 teachers surveyed stated that the Code of
    Behaviour and school rules are understood by all
    of the teaching staff, with only 17.6 indicating
    the same for members of non-teaching staff.
  • Almost a third (32.7) felt that school rules are
    not being taught to all students.

24
Encouraging Positive Behaviour
  • Structure
  • Predictability
  • Consistency
  • of approach
  • Firm but fair
  • management

RULES and ROUTINES
25
Rules should be
  • As few as possible
  • As short as possible
  • Positive emphasis on Do rather than Dont
  • Clear, explicit, specific
  • Associated with desirable behaviour
  • Personalised

26
Student Engagement10 As
  • A1 Atmosphere
  • A2 Attitude
  • A3 Adventure
  • A4 Activities
  • A5 Aspirations
  • A6 Assessment
  • A7 Awareness
  • A8 Agenda
  • A9 Acceptance
  • A10 Accessibility

27

28
Literacy, Learning and Behaviour
  • There is an extensive history of research studies
    internationally providing evidence that academic
    problems promote, or at least exacerbate
    behaviour problems
  • Research demonstrates that strategies that
    address literacy early in a students educational
    experience may have significant positive effects
    on behaviour and achievement.
  • (Miles Stipek, 2006 Nelson, Martela,
    Marchand-Martella, 2002 Verdugo Schneider,
    1999).

29
Other findings note
  • Many students with poor literacy skills exhibit
    significant behavioural and academic problems
    also.
  • Pupils entering secondary school in the UK, with
    very poor literacy skills, were five times more
    likely to be excluded from school and four times
    more likely to truant than pupils without
    literacy difficulties
  • Students who exhibit poor behaviour are more
    likely referred for special education supports
    than are their peers who function within
    behavioural expectations.
  • Sources (DfES Literacy Strategy (1997)
    Fleming, Harachi, Cortes, Abbott Catalano,
    2004 Larsen, Steele, Sailor (2004) KPMG
    Foundation, (2006) Morrison, Anthony, Storino,
    Dillon, 2001 Murdock, Anderman, and Hodge
    (2000) Nelson, Benner, Lane, Smith, (2004)
    Roeser, Eccles Sameroff, 2000 Tobin Sugai,
    1999).

30
NBSS literacy support and development for schools
  • To date, findings reveal that amongst students
    (chronologically aged 12 to 15 years) exhibiting
    disruptive behaviours that significantly obstruct
    effective teaching and learning -
  • 70.4 have reading ages of 10 years or less,
  • 84.5 have reading ages of 11 years or less
  • Of the 18.5 who are reading at age levels 12 to
    15 years, only 5.2 of these are reading at their
    chronological age.

31
Positive Behaviour Support Programmes
  • Framework for Intervention (FFI) Birmingham,
    Scotland, Norway
  • Restorative Approach Australia, New Zealand,
    United Kingdom, North America, Sligo and Donegal
  • Solution Oriented School Programme (SOS)
    Scotland, Jersey, United Kingdom attendance and
    behaviour strategy
  • School Wide Positive Behaviour Support (PBS)
    North America, Canada, Australia

32
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33
Positive Behaviour Support
34
Emotional Literacy
  • the ability to understand, manage and express
    the social and emotional aspects of ones life in
    ways that enable the successful management of
    life tasks such as learning, forming
    relationships, solving everyday problems and
    adapting to the complex demands of growth and
    development.
  • (Elias at al, 1997)

35
Emotional Literacy The Five Domains
  • Social skills
  • Empathy
  • Motivating oneself
  • Self Understanding/awareness
  • Managing feelings
  • Goleman, 1996 and DfES SEAL materials

36
The Six Week Strategy
  • Using the most severe sanction in the first
    instance leaves no room for properly planned
    intervention or fall back position.
  • Behaviour does not change overnight. All
    strategies should be followed through
    consistently for at least six weeks.

37
Sanctions/Procedures
  • Sanctions should
  • be immediate and discrete
  • provide school with opportunities to make low
    level response to pupil behaviour
  • have a hierarchy appropriate to behaviour
  • be fair
  • be consistent
  • be appropriate to meet individual needs

38
Some reasons why sanctions may not always be
appropriate
  • draws attention to bad behaviour
  • does not offer appropriate strategies
  • does not eliminate unacceptable behaviour
  • can lead to avoidance behaviours e.g. lying and
    truancy
  • can damage self-esteem
  • encourages emotional responses e.g. fear and
    withdrawal
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