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Project Planning

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Project Planning Techniques U08784 Software Project Management Rosemary Phillimore Project Planning Phase Plan Levels of Breakdown Project Plan Stage Plan Products ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Planning


1
Project Planning Techniques

U08784 Software Project Management Rosemary
Phillimore
2
  • Project Planning

Project
Start
End
Client Requirements
Project Stages
(may be one phase of a larger development)
Start
End
Outline Project Plan
Stage Plan
3
  • Phase Plan

Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep
Projects
Maternity Pathology Accidents Others
4
  • Levels of Breakdown

Project
Stage 1
Stage 2
Task/Activity/Deliverable checklists should be
defined
Task A
Task B
Task X
Task Y
Deliverables
Activities
5
  • Project Plan

Maternity Phase Define Interface Needs Design
Interface Prototype Interface Implement in
Admissions Implement for Doctors
Mar Apr May Jun
End of Stage
End of Stage
End of Stage
End of Stage
End of Stage
Requirements Definition
Evaluation Report
Product Acceptance
Deliverables/Milestones
6
  • Stage Plan

Week
Design Stage of Maternity Phase
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Staff Task MP Design Interface All Review with A
Team MP/DV Test Design on PDA Modules All Review
and Update MP Specify Changes DV Implement
Prototype DV/RS Test with Midwives RS Test with
Dr. Medway All Review and Update All Progress
Meeting

7
  • Products/Tasks/Reviews

Progress Reviews
Stage Plan
Baseline Products
Task
Task
Test Review Accept
Task
Task
Starting Products
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Mid-Stage Reviews
End-Stage Review
8
  • Product Breakdown

Project Products
Technical Products
Quality Products
Management Products
Reports
Software
Documents
QA Plans
QC Results
Plans
9
  • Stage Plans

Products
Task A Activity A1 Activity A2 Activity A3 Task
B Activity B1 Activity B2 Task C Activity C1
Quality
Technical
Man'ment
10
Making a Stage Plan
Inputs
Actions
  • Product Breakdown
  • Products to be Delivered
  • Quality Criteria
  • Quality Review Procedures
  • Work Breakdown
  • Tasks List
  • Dependency between Tasks
  • Estimate Time for Each Task
  • Consider Required Deadlines
  • Draw activity Network
  • Identify the Critical Path
  • Document the Plan

11
  • Documenting the Plan

Product Breakdown (Hierarchy Chart)
Stage Plan (Gantt Chart)
Risk Analysis (Matrix)
Project Schedule (Network Diagram)
Task
Risk
12
Bar Charts ( Gantt Charts )
  • Easy to understand
  • Drawn to scale
  • Can show resources against tasks
  • Can show milestones
  • Can show holidays/regular meetings
  • Can plot 'actuals' against predictions

T a s k s
Time
13
Networks
  • Not Drawn to Scale
  • Illustrate dependencies between tasks
  • Highlight those tasks on the critical path
  • Highlight slack (or float) in the process

14
Networks
  • Not Drawn to Scale
  • Illustrate dependencies between tasks
  • Highlight those tasks on the critical path
  • Highlight slack (or float) in the process

15
Network Notation
Critical Path
Dummy Activity
16
Network Notation
Activity Name By carefully analysing all aspect
of the project both the technical and
non-technical, a list can be made of the
activities that need to be completed in order to
achieve the project aims. This list is the basic
data for drawing up the project network.
Duration The time required for the completion of
the activity. This may be calculated knowing the
resources available or may be calculated knowing
how much time is available to complete the
activity (the appropriate resources may be
allocated later). See notes on activity timings
at the end of this tutorial
17
Network Notation
ACTIVITY TIMINGS Each activity in the network is
given a time. It is estimated as being the time
required for the work to complete the task. In
PERT (programme evaluation and review
techniques), three such estimates are required
for every activity   Optimistic time i.e. the
best time possible for completing the
activity Pessimistic time i.e. worst possible
time The most likely time   These three times
are used to give a weighted mean from the
formula   Time Optimistic time 4Most
likely time Pessimistic time 6
18
Network Notation
The earliest time by which this event can be
reached and subsequent activities can begin. For
the first event this is zero, for other events it
is calculated by adding all the durations of
events leading up to that event. If there are two
or more paths into an event then the one with the
longest duration becomes the earliest event time.
Events (nodes)
Events or nodes are points in time, do not have
duration but represent the start and finish of
activities. They often coincide with a
deliverable (some significant tangible products
that has to be completed) or a milestone (a point
in the project where an assessment of progress
made) of some sort. They are a point in time and
have no duration but they can be used to show the
earliest time at which following events may start
and the latest time at which preceding events may
finish.
The latest start time is the time at which an
event can occur if the total end date is not to
be affected. Working from right to left calculate
and enter latest event times by subtracting
duration times. Where there is more than one path
the correct latest time will be the smallest of
the alternatives.
19
Network Notation
The Critical Path This is a path through the
project where a series of tasks have no slack or
float in their duration such that if one task on
the path goes beyond its deadline then all the
subsequent tasks slip and the project deadline is
jeopardised. The critical path is the longest
path from start to finish. For all activities on
the critical path the Earliest Event time and the
latest start time are the same. There may be more
than one critical path in a system
Dummy Activities Dummies are added to a network
in order to clarify dependencies where an
ordinary arrow cannot reflect this correctly.
Dummy activities have no duration. They may be
used freely when first drawing the network.
Unnecessary dummies should be eliminated later to
simplify the diagram
Critical Path
Dummy Activity
20
  • Network Analysis

ACTIVITY DURATION DEPENDS (Months) ON 10 Req
uirements Analysis 3 15 Develop test
plan 2 20 Systems Design 4 10 25 Write test
drivers 6 15 30 Prepare test data 2 15,
10 40 Code system 4 20 50 System test 4 40,
30, 25 60 Document system 2 20 70 Install 4 50,
60
21
  • Network Analysis

22
Tools for Project Management
  • Planning Packages
  • Project Managers Workbenches
  • Work Recording Packages
  • Spreadsheets
  • Decision Support Packages
  • Estimators
  • Project Breakdown and Templates
  • IPSE / CASE
  • Microsoft Project Planner is on Brookes Network
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