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Life in New France


LIFE IN NEW FRANCE Alanna, Megan, Leasa Old vs. New France cont. New France was in Quebec, known to them as the new world, and old France was in actual France New ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Life in New France

Life in New France
  • Alanna, Megan, Leasa

  • Seigneuries
  • The Habitants
  • Early towns
  • Roles of Women
  • Old vs. New France

  • Seigneuries are lands arranged in long narrow
  • They were located along the banks of the St
    Lawrence River
  • All the land was
    owned by the King
    of France, but

    maintained by a
    landlord or
    (pronounced seg-nuur)

St Lawrence River
  • 67 Seigneuries were around the St. Lawrence River
    between 1634 and 1633.

They Lived Here!
Things the Seigneurs had to do
  • Some of the responsibilities of a seigneur were
  • Pay the King money for land and taxes
  • Provide habitants with land to work and live on
  • Organized recreational activities on the common
    land for the habitants in their spare time

They Built
  • Mill for the habitants to use
  • Churches for the people to worship in
  • A court house in his lot for his habitants to
    solve their problems and disputes

Feudal system VS Seigneural system
  • In the European feudal system, the lord could
    fine the workers
  • In the Seigneural system, only the Intendent who
    was appointed by the king had the power to fine

Habitants or Tenants
  • Each seigneur divided his land among habitants
  • The habitants paid taxes to the
    seigneur called cens.
  • Habitants were required to work
    for their seigneur 3 days a year,
    often building roads
  • The habitants would divide
    their land for their children
    once they had families of
    their own

Things they did
  • The Habitants did 5 main things. They would
  • 1. Clear the land,
  • 2. Build houses and other buildings,
  • 3. Farmed the land for the lord
  • 4. Built roads and
  • 5. paid rent to the seigneur (gave the seigneur
    some of their flour).

  • The habitant lived like the seigneur. The home
    was the same and the daily fare.
  • Becoming a seigneur was simple, just by saving
    enough money.
  • People took the social rank seriously, though the
    life pattern didnt change. Work would still be
    the same.
  • However, to be a seigneur was always an honor,
    for the manor-house was the social centre of
    every neighborhood.

The Housing -- Seigneurs
  • The manor-house was not a mansion. It was made of
    stone. Simple, but comfortable.
  • There were 3 or 4 rooms on the ground floor.
  • The furniture often came from France, and its
    quality gave it the sense of importance.

The Habitants home
  • The habitants houses were also of stone or
    timber. There were narrow structures, heavily
    built, and low.
  • The houses stood very near the roadway, with
    scarcely ever a grass plot or single shade tree
    before them.

Farm products that were abundant
  • wheat, corn, peas, vegetables and milk were a
    huge part of their diet. Habitants grew most of
    the food they ate.
  • Farms often had different types of animals
    oxen, chickens, pigs, goats, and cows. 
  • Mills were incredibly important for grinding
    wheat and corn.

  • The wealthiest of the habitants even had ice
    creamwhich was unheard of in old France
  • Free time was also a luxury, one that was not
  • They would use free time for recreational

Regular things they did
  • Smoking was a regular in New France
  • The men of New France smoked a great deal, and
    the women sometimes followed their example.
  • Children learned to smoke before they learned to
    read or write.
  • Tobacco was grown in the colony, and every
    habitant had a patch of it in his garden

Early towns
  • Only a small part of the population lived in the
  • At the beginning of the eighteenth century the
    census showed a total of 16,417 people in New
  • Less than 3000 were in the three main towns
     Québec, Trois-Rivières, and Montréal

Quebec and Montreal
  • Quebec, the capital and largest town, had a
    population of about two thousand in 1700 and grew
    to more than five thousand by mid-century.
  • Montreal rapidly developed
    into the
    second largest
    town in large part because
    became the center of the
    fur trade.

Town Life
  • Merchants located their
    buisness places near the
    waterfront in the Lower Town
  • The rich and the church were
    located in the Upper Town.
  • Most of the houses were made
    of stone because of many
    house fires with
    wood ones
  • Most of the buildings were
    lodgings, because most of
    the population was
    renting rather than
    owning homes because of high cost

Disadvantages of towns
  • Garbage was thrown into the streets
  • The dirt streets were narrow and bustling with
    people and animals.
  • In the heat, they turnedincredibly dusty
  • After a heavy rain they turned into mud bowls.
  • There was considerable violence, fire, and theft.

  • Transportation within New France was very limited
  • The water highway, the St. Lawrence River and its
    tributaries, provided the best transit system.
  • The aboriginal peoples taught the French about
    the use of birch bark canoes, and they became
    greatly used in 3 out of 4 seasons. In winter
    they used snowshoes

Roles of Women
  • In 1633 half of the Seigneuries of New France
    were managed by women. This is when the
    immigration peaked, from around 1630-1662
  • The seigneruies were run by women because they
    were more literate, and
    women could inherit their
    husbands land if he died,
    taking it for their own
  • They still did all the
    things that you would
    expect a woman to do

Womens Jobs
  • Women were more literate then the men, so they
    handled all the business side of things,
  • They did the housework , sewing, cooking, and
  • They were responsible for the education of their
  • They worked in the fields and gardens beside
    their homes alongside their husbands as well.

First women in New France
  • When people first arrived in New France, there
    were very few women.
  • Some of the first women there were (Marie Anne)
  • Louise de Ramezey and Marie Lincarnation

Marie Lincarnation
  • Marie de L'incarnation was named Marie Guyart
    when she was born in Tours, France on October 28,
  • Her father was a successful baker,
    and her mother was of noble
    birth. Because of
    this, she was able to get a
    proper education.
  • Marie married a silk worker in 1617,
    but he died two years after their
    leaving her to care for her 6 month old son
  • She also took responsibility for her
    brother-in-laws carrier buisness, because she
    had remarkable buisness skills.

Maries religious life
  • At the age of 27, she decided to join the
    Ursulines, (more commonly known as nuns) a Roman
    Catholic order for pious women
  • She left her son in the care of her sister, and
    became a nun in 1633
  • When she became a nun, she changed her name to
    Marie Lincarnation

Marie Sails to New France
  • On May 4, 1639, she sailed to New France after
    God told her to in a dream.
  • All of her fellow nuns sailed there
    as well.
  • The nuns had built a huge convent
    under Maries leadership
  • Here they trained other young women
    to be nuns. Taught some
    native girls as well.
  • Marie died after being in New France about 30

Louise de ramezey
  • Louise de Ramezey was born on July 6, 1705, in
    New France. She was born into a noble family, as
    daughter of the governor.
  • She was educated in the convent that Marie
    Lincarnation had founded, so she was single all
    her life
  • Her father died in 1724, and
    she slowly began to become
    involved in the buisness side
    of the

The Sawmill
  • One thing that really grabbed
    her attention was the sawmill that her
    father had built on the Huron River
  • The sawmill took
    the rich timber
    of the
    River and Lake

    Champlain area,
    and was turned into
    lumber for
    ships at Quebec.
  • In 1745, she opened a new sawmill on the
    seigneury of Rouville with Marie-Anne Legras

Other Facts
  • She died on October 22, 1776
  • She loved New France so much that she stayed
    there even after most of the nobles fled to Old
    France, including her brother, because the
    British defeated them in Quebec

Filles de roi
  • There were a lot more women in 1663, when young
    women were given free passage to New France, and
    provided with a dowry. Some were shipped out as
    young as 12.
  • These women were know as filles de roi
  • The women were expected to bear and raise
    children in the colony
  • They also had to do the housework, both in the
    house, and in the garden

Unusual things they did
  • Some women were in charge of political afairs
  • Others were part of the military
  • They had some of the same responsibilities as the
  • Some of them owned their own properties

But their power wasnt unlimited
  • Married women couldnt be sued or sue other
    people. Not being sued was good, but they
    couldn't sue others, no matter how much they
    wanted or needed to.
  • They couldnt dispose of
    any of their husbands
    property either, unless
    they had
    the husbands permission.

Old vs New France
  • women did things that they never did before, like
    running businesses, which never happened in Old
  • Women could own things that never wouldve been
    possible before
  • Towns were smaller in New France than in Old

Old vs. New France cont.
  • In New France the Habitants could have free time,
    and the rich could even have ice cream!
  • In New France their obligations were few in
    number, and weren't burdening , unlike in Old
  • New France had better roads than Old France,
    incredibly better!
  • New France was in Quebec, known to them as the
    new world, and old France was in actual France

Old vs. New France cont.
  • New France was in Quebec, known to them as the
    new world, and old France was in actual France
  • New France was a lot more different than Old
  • It changed France in itself a ton, for the better

  • Any Questions?