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Title: WORLD WAR II


1
WORLD WAR II
  • 1941-1945

2
Quiz
  • 1. 2. The expansionist and aggressive actions of
    two nations led to the outbreak of WWII. Name
    these two countries.
  • 3.What impact did World War II have on the U.S.
    economy?
  • 4. True or False American war production and
    factory output were key factors in the Allied
    victory of World War II.
  • 5. True or False World War II reduced the
    number of job opportunities for women, African
    Americans, and other minorities in the U.S.

3
What were the Primary Causes of World War II ?
  • 1. Terms of the Treaty of Versailles at the end
    of WWI-harsh terms for Germany
  • 2. Failure of appeasement
  • 3. The rise of dictators and the aggressive
    (expansionist) actions of Germany and Japan
  • 4. Failure of the League of Nations to keep world
    peace
  • 5. Global economic crisis of the 1930s led to
    problems in many countries.

4
WWII Allied and Axis Powers
  • Allied Powers
  • Axis Powers
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Soviet Union
  • U.S. (1941)
  • China
  • (Italy joins Allies after war begins)
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Japan

5
Statistics on WWII
  • No war in history killed more people or destroyed
    more property than WWII .
  • WWII was a TOTAL war. Over 70 nations took part
    in the fighting.
  • Over 70,000,000 people served the armed forces
    during the war.

6
What impact did WWII have on the U.S.?
  • 1. The U.S. emerged from the conflict with the
    most powerful military in the world.
  • 2. It ended the Great Depression and put
    Americans to work
  • 3. It changed the roles and expectations of
    women and minorities
  • 4. WWII increased the size and power of the
    federal government.
  • 5. The war marked the beginning of the nuclear
    age and the commitment of the U.S. to an active
    role in international affairs.

7
Mobilizing for War
8
How did U.S. industries help the Allies win WWII?
  • U.S. quickly converted factories to war
    production planes, rifles, tanks, ammunition,
    uniforms, etc
  • U.S. workers produced 2x more supplies than
    German workers and 5x the war materials as
    Japanese workers.
  • 3. Automobile factories produced tanks and trucks
    instead of cars.
  • 4. Ford Motor company set up an assembly line for
    B-24 bombers
  • 5. By the end of the war, the auto industry
    produced almost one-third of all military
    equipment for the war.
  • American war production (industrial power)
    turned the tide in favor of the Allies
  • NOTE America was a third rate military power in
    1940. By 1945 it was producing more weapons and
    firepower than the rest of the world put
    together.

9
Women workers groom lines of transparent noses
for deadly A-20 attack bombers (1942) At Henry
Ford's gigantic new plant at Willow Run, outside
Detroit, an assembly line a mile long poured out
B-24 bombers at a rate of a plane every 63
minutes.
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11
What steps did the U.S. Government take to
promote production?
  • 1. Cost Plus Contracts-the government offered
    companies the cost of production plus a
    guaranteed profit to produce war supplies
  • 2. Reconstruction Finance Corporation loaned
    money to companies to convert to wartime
    production

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14
What were Liberty Ships?
  • Liberty ship- basic cargo ship during WWII
  • Welded, not riveted, the ship was easy and cheap
    to build and much harder to sink than a riveted
    ship.
  • Damaged Liberty ships were easier to repair.

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  • Victory Ships ready for cargo

17
Line up of some of women welders including the
women's welding champion of Ingalls Shipbuilding
Corp., Pascagoula, MS.
18
What new agencies did the Government set up to
organized the war effort?
  • War Production Boardset priorities for war
    production and organized the distribution of raw
    materials and supplies to companies.
  • Office of War Mobilization settled arguments
    between different agencies over supplies
  • WWII increases the power and size of the
    federal government and its control over the
    economy.

19
What steps were taken to build up the U.S. Armed
Forces?
  • Selective Service and Training Act (1940) first
    peacetime draft in American military history
  • G.I. Bill of Rights granted benefits and rights
    those who served in the military
  • Basic Training camps were set up across the
    nation
  • Women and minorities served in the military

20
What was military service like for minorities?
  • Segregated Army African Americans served in WWII
    but in separate units and facilities. Blacks were
    often assigned to support units.
  • Double V CampaignAfrican Americans said they
    were fighting for double victory
  • victory over Hitlers
    racism
  • victory over racism at
    home
  • Native Americans used their language and served
    as code talkers to sent coded messages during
    the war.

21
Tuskegee Airmen
22
African American Soldier
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http//www.history.com/videos/tuskegee-airman-luth
er-smith
25
Native Americans in WWIICode Talkers
26
Comanche Code Talkers, WWII
27
What jobs did women perform the military during
WWII?
  • Womens Army Corps (WAC) women were barred from
    combat, but they were allowed to join the armed
    forces and take jobs to free men for combat. They
    worked as secretaries, drivers, nurses
  • WASPS-Women Air Force Service Pilots ferried
    planes across the United States freeing up male
    pilots for combat
  • WWII opened up many opportunities for women in
    the military and in the workforce that had been
    off limits to them before the war.

28
Women Air Force Service Pilots
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WACS Video
  • http//www.history.com/shows/wwii-in-hd/videos/wom
    en-in-the-cockpit

32
The Holocaust
  • was the genocide of approximately six million
    European Jews during World War II, a program of
    systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi
    Germany. Two-thirds of the population of nine
    million Jews who had resided in Europe before the
    Holocaust were killed.

33
Facts about the Holocaust
  • 6,000,000 Jews and 4,000,000 other Europeans were
    killed by the Nazis during WWII.
  • 2. Two-thirds of the population of nine million
    Jews who had resided in Europe before the
    Holocaust were killed.
  • 3. Nazis persecuted Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals,
    Slavs, and the disabled.

34
Nuremberg Laws (1935)
  • Stripped German Jews of their rights and freedoms
  • Took away their citizenship
  • Jews could not marry other Germans
  • Jews could not hold public office or vote
  • Passports were marked with a red J and they
    were required to wear the yellow star of David
  • Jews could not work in many jobsjournalists,
    farmers, teachers, doctors, attorneys, or operate
    businesses

35
An event unseen since the Middle Ages occurs as
German students from universities formerly
regarded as among the finest in the world, gather
in Berlin and other German cities to burn books
with "unGerman" ideas. Books by Freud, Einstein,
Thomas Mann, Jack London, H.G. Wells and many
others go up in flames as they give the Nazi
salute. May 10, 1933.
36
A hundred years earlier, the German-Jewish poet,
Heinrich Heine, had stated, "Where books are
burned, human beings are destined to be burned
too."
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38
What was Kristallnacht? Night of Broken Glass
  • The German police staged attacks against Jews.
  • One report stated 7500 businesses had been
    destroyed and 267 synagogues burned. 91 Jews lost
    their lives.

39
Jewish Refugees Try to Flee Germany
  • Albert Einstein escaped from Germany (Nobel Peace
    Prize, 1921) His scientific theories led to the
    creation of the first atomic bomb.
  • Anne Franks family went into hiding
  • Some fled Germany only to be turned away from
    other countries including Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay,
    Argentina, and Costa Rica.
  • In 1939, a ship full of Jewish refugees off the
    coast of Florida waited for days for permission
    to dock in the U.S. before they were turned away.

40
What was the The Final Solution to the Jewish
Problem?
  • Concentration CampsJews were loaded onto
    railroad cars and transported to camps where they
    worked as slave laborers.
  • Extermination camps the weak, elderly and
    handicapped were executed in gas chambers. These
    mass executions increased in number during the
    war.

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45
Victims of the Holocaust
46
Why Did the Holocaust Take Place? (Reasons why
the Holocaust Occurred)
  • 1. The German sense of injury after WWI
  • 2. Severe economic problems blamed on the Jews
  • 3. Hitlers control over the German nation
  • 4. Europe had a long tradition of anti-Semitism
    (prejudice and persecution of Jews)
  • 5. The lack of a strong tradition of
    representative government in Germany
  • 6. German fear of Hitlers secret police

47
USE YOUR NOTES AND ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS
ON NOTEBOOK PAPER
  • 1. List at least 5 ways WWII opened up
    opportunities for women and minorities.
  • 2. What factors contributed to the onset of the
    Holocaust?
  • 3. In what ways did the U.S. contribute to the
    Allied victory in WWII?
  • Place your work in the tray

48
WWII Early Battles
49
World War II
  • 1939- War begins in Europe
  • 1941-U.S. enters the war
  • 1945-WWII ends

50
Who were the primary political leaders involved
in WWII?
  • U.S.Franklin D. Roosevelt (Harry Truman)
  • Great Britain---Winston Churchill
  • Soviet Union---Joseph Stalin
  • GermanyAdolf Hitler
  • Italy Benito Mussolini
  • JapanHirohito and military leaders

51
Stalin, FDR, and Churchill
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53
Where did the U.S. Fight WWII on Two Fronts?
  • 1. In the Pacific against Japan
  • 2. In Europe and North Africa against Germany and
    Italy

54
  • Axis Powers
  • December 1939
  • Axis Powers
  • December 1940

55
  • Axis (Black)
  • December 1941
  • Axis
  • December
  • 1942

56
What were the important early battles of WWII?
(1941-1942)
  • U.S. entered WWII in 1941.
  • By late 1942, the Allies had stopped the German
    and Japanese advance.
  • The U.S. fought a war on two fronts and managed
    to gain the upper hand against Hitler and the
    Axis powers.
  • May 1942Fall of the Philippines
  • Battle of the Coral Sea
  • June 1942 Battle of Midway
  • February 1943Germans defeated at Stalingrad
  • May 1943 Germans driven out of North Africa

57
Pearl Harbor
58
  • US Enters WWII

59
Major Early Battles, 1941-1943
Pacific Europe and North Africa
Japan takes the Philippines 1942 U.S. wins the Battle of the Coral Sea U.S. wins the Battle of Midway Soviets defeat the Germans at Stalingrad 1943 Germans Driven out of North Africa
60
War in the Pacific How did the U.S. lose the
Philippines? (1942)
  • A few hours after Pearl Harbor the Japanese
    attacked American airfields in the Philippines.
  • General Douglas MacArthur was driven from the
    islands. He vowed to return.
  • Bataan Death March The Japanese captured 75,000
    POWs and forced them to walk 65 miles to a prison
    camp.

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  • Theyd halt us in front of these big
    artesian wells so we could see the water and
    they wouldnt let us have any. Anyone who would
    make a break for water would be shot or
    bayoneted. Then they were left there. Finally, it
    got so bad further along the road that you never
    got away from the stench of death. There were
    bodies laying all along the road in various
    degrees of decompositionswollen. Burst open,
    maggots crawling by the thousands.
  • --quoted in Death March The
    Survivors of Bataan

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What was the Doolittle Raid? (April, 1942 )
  • After the attack on Pearl Harbor, FDR was looking
    for a way to raise the morale of the American
    people.
  • He authorized a surprise bombing of Tokyo (Japan)
    using 16 bombers launched from an aircraft
    carrier in the Pacific.
  • Jimmy Doolittle and his men dropped their bombs
    and then crash-landed across the border in China.
  • The raid inflicted very little damage, but it did
    boost American morale.

70
Jimmy Doolittle
  • Medal of HonorDistinguished Service Medal
    (2)Silver StarDistinguished Flying Cross (3)
  • Air Medal (4)
  • Test Pilot
  • Instructor
  • Military Career
  • MIT

71
Why was the Battle of Midway an important turning
point in WWII? (1942)
  • The U.S. under the command of Admiral Chester
    Nimitz defeated Japan at the Battle of Midway.
  • (Most of the American pilots had never flown
    in combat.)
  • The Japanese Navy lost 4 of its largest aircraft
    carriers. They never fully recovered.
  • U.S. code breakers gave the Americans the
    advantage in the Battle of Midway and the Battle
    of the Coral Sea by giving them advance warning
    of the planned attacks.

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73
Europe and North Africa, 1941-1943
  • The Allies did not agree on the best way to
    defeat Hitler in Europe.
  • Joseph Stalin wanted the Americans and the
    British to attack Germany from the east to take
    pressure off the Soviet Union.
  • Churchill and FDR felt they should start at the
    edges of the Germany empire the periphery.
  • FDR sent troops to North Africa (Morocco and
    Algeria)

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North African Campaign
  • The Allies invaded North Africa.
  • Americans troops under General Dwight D.
    Eisenhower defeated the German troops in May
    1943.
  • http//www.history.com/shows/wwii-in-hd/videos/nor
    th-africa-campaignnorth-africa-campaign

76
Attack in North Africa
  • U.S. Tank Crew

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Generals MacArthur and George Marshall
79
War in Europe
  • General Montgomery
  • General George Patton

80
U.S. Fighting in Italy
81
What was the Battle of the Atlantic?
  • The Allies and Axis powers fought for control of
    the Atlantic.
  • America cargo ships were easy target for German
    submarines
  • By 1942, the U.S. had lost 360 shipsmany were
    oil tankers. In May and June over 1.1 million
    tons of shipping were sunk.
  • To protect their ships, the U.S. Navy used a
    convoy system groups of cargo ships were
    escorted by navy warships.
  • The U.S. used new technology to protect ships
    radar, sonar, and depth charges. The Americans
    also produced more ships than the Germans sank.

82
Battle of the Atlantic
83
Battle of Stalingrad
84
What Happened when the Germans Attacked the
Soviet City of Stalingrad? (1942)
  • For months the Germans bombed the city but Stalin
    refused to give up
  • The Germans took control of Stalingrad, but when
    winter came the Soviets trapped them in the city.
    Many starved or froze to death.
  • The Germans surrendered in Feb., 1943, and from
    this point on the Soviets moved steadily westward
    toward Germany.
  • Victory at Stalingrad was considered a turning
    point in the war against Germany.

85
Video Stalingrad
  • http//www.history.com/videos/battle-at-midwaycom
    mand-decisions-stalingrad-joseph-stalin-russian-fr
    ont-world-war-ii-world-war-2-the-history-channel
  • http//www.history.com/videos/battle-at-midwaycom
    mand-decisions-stalingrad---deserters
  • http//www.history.com/shows/wwii-in-hd/videos/
    north-africa-campaignworld-war-ii-battle-of-stali
    ngrad (COLOR)
  • http//www.history.com/shows/wwii-in-hd/videos/bat
    tle-iwo-jimaworld-war-ii-battle-of-stalingrad

86
Early Battles Why did they matter?
  • By 1943 the Allies had halted German and Japanese
    advances.
  • The Battle of Stalingrad in Europe and the Battle
    of Midway in the Pacific put the Axis powers on
    the defensive.

87
  • Axis Powers
  • December 1939
  • Axis Powers
  • December 1940

88
  • Axis (Black)
  • December 1941
  • Axis
  • December
  • 1942

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The Home Front WWII Transforms America
92
How Did WWII Transform the Nation?
  1. Massive industrial expansion and output
    prosperity
  2. Americans went back to WORK
  3. Rationing and managing the wartime economy
  4. Paying for the war
  5. Increase in science and technology
  6. Japanese Internment

93
How did Women and Minorities Benefit from WWII?
  • Women, blacks and Hispanics took jobs that had
    been filled by white males.
  • Women gained attention for their abilities to
    perform jobs many thought only men could do.
  • African Americans and other minorities served in
    the armed services.

94
Rosie the Riveter
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How did Americans at Home Support the War Effort?
  • Rationing of goods at home
  • Planted Victory Gardens
  • Bought E Bonds to help fund the war
  • Turned in scrap metal
  • Hollywood celebrities promoted the war effort
  • War posters and movies

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Sugar Rationing
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105
Why were Japanese Americans placed in internment
camps during WWII?
  • During WWII Japanese Americans were relocated to
    internment camps away from the West coast. Many
    were concerned that Japanese Americans were spies
    or supported the Japanese attack on the U.S.
  • The imprisonment of American citizens is
    considered one of the greatest infringement of
    the basic rights guaranteed by the U.S.
    Constitution.
  • Korematsu v United StatesU.S. Supreme Court
    ruled that the relocation was constitutional
    because it was based on military urgency, not
    race.

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109
German POWs in Mississippi
110
Analyze the Supreme Court Decision Korematsu v.
United States (1944)
  • Page 596
  • Decision of the Court
  • Significance of the ruling

111
The Final Years of War
  • 1943-1945

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Major Battles, 1943-1945
  • Pacific
  • Island Hopping
  • Europe
  • D-Day (June 1944)
  • Battle of the Bulge-last major offensive by the
    Germans. They were defeated
  • Tarawa
  • Guadalcanal
  • Leyte Gulf (Philippines)
  • Okinawa
  • Iwo Jima

116
Eisenhower gives orders for D-Day
117
D-Day invasion, June 6, 1944
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http//www.history.com/shows/america-the-story-of-
us/videos/d-day-invasiond-day-invasion Facts
http//www.history.com/videos/d-day-invasion-of-
europed-day-invasion-of-europe
123
Election of 1944
124
Battle of the Bulge Bloodiest Battle of
WWIIlost 19,000 Americans
125
Battle of the Bulge
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127
1945 The War Ends
  • 1. The Third Reich collapses (Germany)
  • 2. Franklin Roosevelt dies and Harry Truman
    becomes president
  • 3. The war is over in Europe (V-E Day)
  • 4. The first atomic bomb is used by the United
    States on Japan
  • 5. Japan is defeated (V-J Day)
  • 6. The United Nations is created
  • 7. German leaders are tried for war crimes The
    Nuremberg Trials

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Adolph Hitler Commits Suicide, April 30, 1945
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132
Churchill The War is Over
133
Harry Truman at Potsdam, Germany, 1945
134
The End of the War in the Pacific
  • 1945

135
War in the Pacific
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Japanese Kamikaze Pilots
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142
Atomic Bombs Little Boy and Fat Man
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V
145
End of the War
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147
Why was WWII the Deadliest War in World History?
  • 1. Cities were bombedcivilians died in numbers
    like never before
  • 2. 11,000,000 died in the Holocaust
  • 3. Improved technology led to higher death tolls
    (including the atomic bomb)
  • 4. Total military and civilian deaths were over
    between 60 and 70 million world wide (WWI10
    million)
  • 4. U.S. lost 320,000 and another 800,000 wounded

148
What was the long term significance of the Allied
victory WWII?
  • The U.S. emerged from WWII a global military,
    political, and industrial leader. The nations
    economy was very strong.
  • At the end of WWII the U.S. and the Soviet Union
    emerged as the two major world powers for the
    next 40 years.
  • WWII marked the beginning of the nuclear age
    (nuclear weapons)

149
Video
  • Japanese internment History Channel

http//www.history.com/shows/wwii-in-hd/videos/d-d
aysjapanese-internment-in-america
150
Video Concentration Camp Liberation-History
Channel
  • http//www.history.com/shows/wwii-in-hd/videos/d-d
    aysconcentration-camp-liberation

151
http//www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/videos
d-day-invasion-of-normandy
152
Allies attempt sabotage using exploding rats
http//www.history.com/videos/strange-nazi-sabotag
e
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