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INDIA: A Quick Overview of Indian History

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... A Quick Overview of Indian History ... Pakistan = India Bangladesh and Pakistan did not exist as separate countries until ... 1900 BCE Culture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INDIA: A Quick Overview of Indian History


1
INDIA A Quick Overview of Indian History
2
FYI Fun Facts!
  • Historically, Indias geographic boundaries were
    bigger than they are today
  • Bangladesh India Pakistan India
  • Bangladesh and Pakistan did not exist as separate
    countries until after India gained independence
    from Great Britain in 1947
  • Northwest India generally means Pakistan
  • Ancient Indian cities, such as Harappa and
    Mohenjo-daro, are located in what is now Pakistan

3
Indias Geography
  • As large as Europe, minus Russia
  • Population 1.237 billion (2012 estimate)
  • Second only to China
  • Himalayan Mountains (northeast)
  • Separate India from Tibet and western China
  • Northwest
  • Historic route of land invasions
  • Alexander the Great
  • Indian Ocean (route of British conquest)
  • Climate
  • Hot (except in highlands)
  • Land very fertile to semi-desert

4
Ganges and Indus River Valleys
  • Northern Indian civilizations advanced for time
  • Early 1900s
  • Archaeologists discovered ruins of Mohenjo-daro
    (circa 2600 BCE) and Harappa (circa 2600 BCE)
  • Bronze and copper
  • Fired brick
  • Picture writing (un-deciphered)
  • Farming, jewelry-making, and woven cloth
  • Engineering drainage systems, irragation
  • Civilization ended circa 1900 BCE

5
  • Culture
  • Science
  • Kalidasa (6th century CE)
  • Playwright and poet
  • Fairy stories and animal fables
  • Art and architecture
  • Temples covered with designs and figures
  • Mathematics
  • Zero
  • Decimal point
  • Minus sign
  • Arabic numerals (Europe got them from Arab
    traders, who got them from India)
  • Gupta Period (320-467 CE)
  • Leaders in dyeing, tanning leather, soap and
    glass making
  • Textiles
  • Cotton, cashmere, calico, chintz all originally
    Indian terms

6
Aryan Invasion (ca. 1700-1300 BCE)
  • Invaders enter India
  • Ruled India for hundreds of years
  • Set up small kingdoms ruled by rajahs
  • Conquered natives (Dravidians)
  • Created modern Hinduism from Dravidian religious
    traditions and their own ideas
  • Established Indias caste system

7
Hinduism
  • Escape sins of life by attaining purity and
    perfection of the soul
  • Caste system
  • Process starts in lowest caste (Untouchables)
  • Soul reincarnated in person of higher caste
  • Must carry out duties of the caste
  • Repeated rebirths
  • Soul ultimately becomes perfect and merges with
    the soul of Brahma (principal god)

8
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9
Castes
  • Original castes
  • Brahmin (priests)
  • Warriors
  • Farmers and traders
  • Sudra (servants)
  • Eventually divided by occupation into thousands
    of castes
  • Lowest the Untouchables (5)
  • Strict purification rituals if others contact
    them
  • Today legal protections under Indian law, but
    prejudice still exists

10
Hinduism (Continued)
  • All life is sacred
  • Animals respected
  • Cow is sacred
  • Most Hindus are vegetarians
  • Basic beliefs
  • World is evil
  • Reincarnation after death (animal or human)
  • Soul purified by completion of caste duties
  • Reverence for animals
  • Escape worlds evils through prayer

11
Buddhism
  • Founded by Gautama (563-483 BCE)
  • Age 30 Gave up position and wealth to study the
    right way to live
  • Called Buddha (the enlightened one)
  • Life is evil and suffering
  • Can be avoided by good desires
  • Eightfold Path
  • Do not gossip, have impure thoughts, hate, lie,
    or steal
  • Rare in India today, but spread throughout East
    Asia

12
Buddhism (Continued)
  • The foundation beliefs of Buddhism are the Four
    Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path
  • These were taught by Buddha
  • The Four Nobel Truths
  • Life is full of suffering
  • No one gets what they want out of life
  • People suffer because they desire things
  • Wanting is the problem
  • To end suffering, end desire
  • Learn to not want Nirvana
  • Change your behavior to reach enlightenment
  • Follow the Eightfold Path

13
Buddhism (Continued) The Eightfold Path
  • Right View (Insight/Understanding) Learning the
    nature of reality and the truth about life.
  • Right Intention (Aspiration) Making the
    commitment to living in such a way that our
    suffering can end
  • Right Speech Speaking the truth in a helpful and
    compassionate way.
  • Right Action (Conduct) Living a life consistent
    with our values.
  • Right Livelihood Earning a living in a way that
    doesnt hurt others.
  • Right Effort Just Do It. No Excuses.
  • Right Mindfulness Recognizing the value of the
    moment living where we are.
  • Right Meditation (Concentration) Expanding our
    consciousness through meditation.

14
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15
Key Vocabulary
  • Polytheism Belief in two or more gods
  • Caste A social group you are born into
  • Reincarnation rebirth of the soul into
    different physical forms
  • Karma good or bad deeds you do throughout your
    life
  • Dharma
  • Hinduism the principle of cosmic order
  • virtue, righteousness, and duty, caste duty in
    accord with the cosmic order
  • Buddhism the teaching or religion of the Buddha
  • Nirvana In Buddhism, a transcendent state in
    which there is neither suffering, desire, nor
    sense of self, and the subject is released from
    the effects of karma and the cycle of death and
    rebirth. It represents the final goal of
    Buddhism.
  • Moksha In Hinduism, release of your soul after
    reaching enlightenment (after constant cycle of
    reincarnation)
  • Vedas sacred texts
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