Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 639aad-MGE2O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy

Description:

Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy Symbiosis and Succession too! What is a Pioneer Species? The first species to colonize an area (usually lichens and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:256
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 38
Provided by: Jas5162
Learn more at: http://www.dentonisd.org
Category:
Tags: chain | chains | energy | food | transfer | webs

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy


1
Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of
Energy
  • Symbiosis and Succession too!

2
Autotrophs
  • A groups of organisms that can use the energy in
    sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into
    Glucose (food)
  • Autotrophs are also called Producers because they
    produce all of the food that heterotrophs use
  • Without autotrophs, there would be no life on
    this planet
  • Ex. Plants and Algae

3
Autotrophs
4
Autotrophs
  • Chemotrophs
  • Autotrophs that get their energy from inorganic
    substances, such as salt
  • Live deep down in the ocean where there is no
    sunlight
  • Ex. Bacteria and Deep Sea Worms

5
Heterotrophs
  • Organisms that do not make their own food
  • Another term for Heterotroph is consumer because
    they consume other organisms in order to live
  • Ex. Rabbits, Deer, Mushrooms

6
Heterotrophs
7
Heterotrophs
  • Consumers
  • 1. Scavengers/Detritivores feed on the tissue
    of dead organisms (both plans and animals)
  • Ex. Vultures, Crows, and Shrimp

8
Heterotrophs
  • Consumers
  • 2. Herbivores eat ONLY plants
  • Ex. Cows, Elephants, Giraffes

9
Heterotrophs
  • Consumers
  • 3. Carnivores eat ONLY meat
  • Ex. Lions, Tigers, Sharks

10
Heterotrophs
  • Consumers
  • 4. Omnivores eat BOTH plants and animals
  • Ex. Bears and Humans

11
Heterotrophs
  • Consumers
  • 5. Decomposers absorb any dead material and
    break it down into simple nutrients or
    fertilizers
  • Ex. Bacteria and Mushrooms

12
Transfer of Energy
  • When a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain
    all of the energy the grass has (much of it is
    not eaten)
  • When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of
    the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as
    heat)

13
Transfer of Energy
  • The two (2) previous examples of energy transfer
    show that no organism EVER receives all of the
    energy from the organism they just ate
  • Only 10 of the energy from one trophic level is
    transferred to the next this is called the 10
    law

14
Trophic Levels
  • Energy moves from one organisms to another when
    it is eaten
  • Each step in this transfer of energy is know as a
    trophic level
  • The main trophic levels are producers, consumers,
    and decomposers

15
Food Chains
  • The energy flow from one trophic level to the
    other is know as a food chain
  • A food chain is simple and direct
  • It involves one organism at each trophic level
  • Primary Consumers eat autotrophs (producers)
  • Secondary Consumers eat the primary consumers
  • Tertiary Consumers eat the secondary consumers
  • Decomposers bacteria and fungi that break down
    dead organisms and recycle the material back into
    the environment

16
Food Chain
17
Food Web
  • Most organisms eat more than JUST one organism
  • When more organisms are involved it is known as a
    FOOD WEB
  • Food webs are more complex and involve lots of
    organisms

18
Food Web
19
Food Web
  • Notice that the arrow points in the direction of
    the energy transfer, NOT what ate what

20
Food Web
21
Biomass
  • The total mass of the organic matter at each
    trophic level is called biomass
  • Biomass is just another term for potential energy
    energy that is to be eaten and used.
  • The transfer of energy from one level to another
    is very inefficient (10 Law)

22
Biomass
23
Ecological Pyramid
  • An ecological pyramid shows the relationship
    between consumers and producers at different
    trophic levels in an ecosystem
  • Shows the relative amounts of energy or matter
    contained at each trophic level
  • The Pyramid shows which level has the most energy
    and the highest number of organisms

24
Ecological Pyramid
25
Ecological Pyramid
26
Ecological Pyramid
  • Which level has the most energy?
  • Which level has the most organisms?
  • Which level has the least organisms?
  • Which level has the least energy?

27
Symbiosis
  • A close and permanent association between
    organisms of different species
  • Mutualism a relationship in which both
    organisms benefit from each other
  • Example Birds eating pest off a rhinos back
  • Commensalism a relationship in which one
    organism benefits and the other is not affected
  • Example Barnacles on a whale
  • Parasitism A relationship in which one organism
    benefits and the other is harmed
  • Example Ticks on a dog

28
In your Lab notebook complete the following
Symbiotic Relationship Textbook Definition My definition (less than 4 words) My example
Commensalism a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not affected
Mutualism a relationship in which both organisms benefit from each other
Parasitism A relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed
29
Ecological Succession Some Definitions
  • the gradual and directional process of species
    change in a community
  • biotic communities change through time in
    response to many influences
  • climatic change
  • disturbances
  • invasion of species from other areas
  • Eventually, succession leads to a climax
    community

30
Primary Succession
  • the processes and progress involved in changing
    an area from one lacking any community (no
    plants, no animals, no insects, no seeds, etc.)
    to one consisting of individuals, populations,
    communities, and ecosystems.
  • the arrival of life in an area where no community
    previously existed.

31
Example of Primary Succession
32
Secondary Succession
  • The arrival of new species in an area that
    already has life.
  • Results in the transition of a community from
    pioneer species to climax species.
  • Because soil may already be present, the rate of
    secondary succession is faster than primary
    succession.
  • Secondary succession also indicates changes in
    community composition following disturbances.

33
Example of Secondary Succession
This is an example of a secondary succession
following a disturbance (fire). It does not
completely wipe out life.
34
What is a Pioneer Species?
  • The first species to colonize an area (usually
    lichens and mosses but sometimes higher plants),
    beginning the process of soil formation.

35
What is Climax Community?
  • A community that remains fairly constant in
    species composition if the land and climate are
    undisturbed. These are the communities that
    characterize the various biomes.

36
A summary of changes that occur during succession
  • Pioneer species colonize a bare or disturbed
    site. Soil building.
  • Changes in the physical environment occur (e.g.,
    light, moisture).
  • New species of plants displace existing plants
    because their seedlings are better able to become
    established in the changed environment.
  • Newly arriving species alter the physical
    conditions, often in ways that enable other
    species to become established.
  • Animals come in with or after the plants they
    need to survive.
  • Eventually a climax community that is more or
    less stable will become established and have the
    ability to reproduce itself.
  • Disturbances will start the process of succession
    again.

37
Food Web of Biome_____this is your title
  • Choose a Biome from pg 99-104) to draw a food web
  • Draw, Color and Label your Food Web
  • Example on pg 71
  • A food web shows how two or more food chains
    interact
  • Must show arrows showing energy flow
  • What eats what
  • 4. Must label organisms as
  • Method of nutrition
  • Producer
  • Herbivore
  • Carnivore
  • Omnivore
  • Tropic Level
  • Producer
  • 1st Consumer
  • 2nd Consumer
  • 3rd Consumer
  • Decomposer or Scavenger
  • Dont forget about the SUN!
About PowerShow.com