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Gr 10 Health Nutrition


Title: Gr 10 Health Nutrition Author: Pam Last modified by: C36213 Created Date: 11/7/2007 5:28:49 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gr 10 Health Nutrition

Gr 10 Health Nutrition
Note - Nutrition
  • Involves the foods you eat and how your body uses
    those foods.
  • The quality of the foods you eat will play a
    large role in how your body functions, looks and

  • How does one achieve a desirable body size and
    weight without dieting?
  • Proper eating habits
  • Physical Activity
  • Acceptance of self

The Cycle of Dieting
  • Decision to restrict calories (resolution to
  • Weight starts to drop at beginning of diet
  • Honeymoon period happy for a bit
  • Plateau period weight no longer dropping as
    your bodys metabolism reacts to calorie
    restriction fight or flight!
  • Over time due to fatigue, loss of energy, loss of
    motivation, feeling of failure,diet ends and
    weight often is higher than that of when diet
    began because metabolism has been affected

The Cycle of Dieting
Note Basal Metabolic Rate
  • Is the number of calories it takes to
  • Basically keep you alive
  • You spend making new red blood cells, taking in
    air, maintaining body temperature and carrying on
    other basic metabolic processes.
  • In general, it is the largest component of what
    we call calorie burning and what scientists
    call energy expenditure

  • Heres a simple formula for estimating your BMR
  • Body Mass ___lbs x 10
  • Eg) 140lbs x 10 1400
  • Remember, this is the theoretical number of
    calories youd need to maintain your current
    weight, assuming that you never got out of bed in
    the morning.
  • Like every estimate, its going to be imperfect
    the more muscle you have , the higher your
    metabolic rate.

Note Using calories
  • Two thirds of the calories we spend a day go
    for basic metabolic functions
  • The second biggest calorie sapper is physical
    activity. Physical activity is also the most
    variable component, and estimating it can be
  • The third item on the calorie budget is the
    amount of calories it takes to process food. This
    refers to the number of calories needed to
    digest, absorb, transport and metabolize the
    nutrients from the food we eat. Generally this is
    estimated at about 10 of our daily caloric

Note Ways to affect your BMR
  • Physical Activity
  • Depending on the length and intensity of your
    activity, you can boost your BMR for several
    hours afterward.

  • Diet
  • Severe dieting can reduce your BMR as your body
    attempts to conserve calories. This is a survival
    tactic and not a good idea for a healthy

Note contd
  • Increased muscle mass
  • Muscle burns more calories, even at rest, than
    fat. The greater your ratio of lean to fat, the
    more calories you will burn.

Note contd
  • Caloric Needs
  • About 30 of your calories fuel any physical
    activity you do.
  • To figure out how many calories you need for your
    level of activity, multiply the calories needed
    for BMR by the percentage that matches your
    activity level

Note contd
  • 20, sedentary (mainly sitting all day)
  • 30, light activity (such as walking to and from
    the bus stop, cooking dinner, etc)
  • 40, moderate activity (very little sitting,
    heavy housework)
  • 50, very active (active and prolonged physical

  • EG)
  • 140LBS X 10 1400BMR
  • 1400 X 20 280 (additional calories your body
    needs each day)
  • Total number of calories you need to eat in a day
    to fuel your body 1680calories

Note Set Point Theory
  • A persons weight and body shape are determined
    by many factors, including physical activity,
    eating patterns, societal influences, and
    heredity. There is no ideal weight for someone of
    the same height/age due to different body shapes,
    frames and makeup.

Note Points of Theory
  • Each body has a particular weight it tends to
  • Genetics plays a key role in weight and shape.
  • Set point can fluctuate 5 to 10 pounds and cannot
    be permanently lowered through restrictive
  • If an individuals weight is below or above their
    set point range, their body will experience
    physiological and emotional changes in an attempt
    to reestablish itself.

Note contd
  • There is no ideal weight for those of the same
    height and age because people have different body
    shapes and frames.
  • There is a range of weights that is healthy for
    each height.
  • Healthy eating and regular physical activity will
    help lead to a healthy weight.

  • 95 of individuals who diet to lose weight regain
    the weight lost within one year.
  • You cant change your body type any more than
    your shoe size.
  • Engage in activities for the joy of feeling your
    body move, for the time it allows you spend with
    friends and family, for stress relief.
  • Scales are for fish. Do not live your life
    focused on a number. Love your body for what it
    can do, appreciate its strengths.

Handout Dieting Fact Sheet
  • 33-23-33 Average measurements of a contemporary
    fashion model
  • 36-18-33 projected measurements of a barbie doll
    in inches if she were a full sized human being.
  • 54 -142lbs Average height and weight of an
    American woman
  • 59 -110lbs average height and weight of a model
  • 33 of women who wear a size 16 or higher

Note Body Image
the mental picture I have of my body my
thoughts and feelings about that picture
Tips for improving your body image
  • Recognize that your body is your own, no matter
    what shape, size it comes in.
  • Identify which aspects of your appearance you can
    realistically change and which you cant.
  • If there are things about yourself that you want
    to change and can (such as how fit you are), do
    this by making goals for yourself. Keep track of
    your progress until you reach your goal. Meeting
    a challenge for yourself is a great way to boost

  • Remember..
  • You are beautiful
  • You are one of a kind
  • Real beauty comes from within

Note Body Image and Self Esteem
  • Self esteem describes the value and respect you
    have for yourself. If you have a healthy
    self-esteem, you feel good about yourself as a
    person and are proud of what you can do. However,
    it is normal to feel down sometimes.

Note What influences a persons self-esteem?
  • Puberty
  • The body goes through many changes. These changes
    combined with a natural desire to feel accepted,
    mean it can be tempting for people to compare
    themselves to others.
  • The changes that come with puberty can affect how
    both girls and guys feel about themselves. Some
    girls may feel uncomfortable or embarrassed about
    their maturing bodies. Others may wish that they
    were developing faster. Girls may feel pressure
    to be thin but guys may feel like they dont look
    big or muscular enough.

  • Media
  • Images of skinny girls and bulked-up guys
  • Family Life
  • Sometimes can influence self-esteem. Some parents
    spend more time criticizing their children and
    the way they look than praising them.
  • Peers
  • People may also experience negative comments and
    hurtful teasing about the way they look from
    classmates and peers.

Building your self-esteem
  • Give yourself 3 compliments every day
  • Focus on the good things you do and the positive
    aspects of your life, you can change how you feel
    about yourself!

  • Come up with 5 affirmations you have about
    yourselfthese can be physical or non physical
    eg) I love my smile, I love my laugh
  • Come up with 5 things you would like to change if
    you could. Eg) I wish I had blue eyes
  • Which did you find easier to do and why?

  • Media Literacy Power point
  • There will be questions following the power point!

Eating Disorders
  • Eating disorders are serious medical problems.
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Binge-Eating Disorder
  • Eating disorders frequently develop during
    adolescence or early adulthood, but can occur
    during childhood or later in adulthood.
  • Females are more likely to develop an eating
  • While there is no single cause, several things
    may contribute to the development of these

  • Culture North America has a social and cultural
    ideal of extreme thinness. Women partially define
    themselves by how physically attractive they are.
  • Personal characteristics feelings of
    helplessness, worthlessness, and poor self-image
    often accompany eating disorders.
  • Other emotional disorders other mental health
    problems like depression or anxiety, occur along
    with eating disorders.
  • Stressful events or life changes things like
    starting a new job or being teased to traumatic
    events like rape can lead to the onset of eating

  • Biology studies are being done to look at
    genes, hormones, and chemicals in the brain that
    may have an effect on the development of, and
    recovery from eating disorders.
  • Families the attitude of parents about
    appearance and diet affects their kids
    attitudes. Also, if your mother or sister has
    bulimia, you are more likely to have it.

Binge Eating Disorder
  • The persons binge consumes large amounts of food
    frequently and repeatedly
  • Feels out of control and unable to stop eating
    during binges.
  • May eat rapidly and secretly, or may snack and
    nibble all day long.
  • Feels guilty and ashamed of binge eating.
  • Has a history of diet failures
  • Tends to be depressed and obese

  • People who have binge eating disorder do not
    regularly vomit, over exercise or abuse laxatives
    like bulimics do. They may be genetically
    predisposed to weigh more than the cultural ideal
    so they diet, make themselves hungry and then
    binge in response to that hunger.

Anorexia Nervosa the relentless pursuit of
  • Person refuses to maintain normal body weight for
    age and height.
  • Weighs 85 or less than what is developmentally
    expected for age and height.
  • Young girls do not begin to menstruate at the
    appropriate age. Puberty is delayed for both
  • In women, menstrual periods stop. In men, levels
    of sex hormones fall.
  • Person denies the dangers of low weight

  • Is terrified of gaining weight even though s/he
    is alarmingly underweight.
  • Reports feeling fat even when emaciated.
  • Often includes depression, irritability,
    withdrawal, peculiar behaviours such as
    compulsive rituals, strange eating habits,
    division of foods into good/safe and
    bad/dangerous categories.

Bulimia Nervosa the diet-binge-purge disorder
  • Person diets, becomes hungry, and then binge eats
    in response to powerful cravings and feelings of
  • Feels out of control while eating.
  • Fears gaining weight and frantically tries to
    undo the binge. Vomits, misuses laxatives,
    exercises or fasts to get rid of the calories.
  • Swears to be good to never binge eat again, but
    then continues to restrict food intake which
    starts yet another repeat of deprivation-hunger-bi
    nge-purge cycle

  • May shoplift, be promiscuous, abuse drugs or
    engage in risk taking behaviour. Act with little
    thoughts of consequences.
  • Weight may be normal or near normal unless
    anorexia is also present.
  • Like anorexia, bulima can kill. They are often
    depressed, lonely, ashamed. Friends often
    describe the glamourous, adventurous, fun but
    underneath are hurting and feel unworthy.

Rotting Teeth
Swollen Salivary Glands
How do I know if Im eating enough?
  • There is no such thing as good foods or bad
    foods. You can enjoy all foods as part of a
    healthy diet. Its more a question of how much
    and how often you eat them.
  • You know youre eating well if you can answer
    yes to each of the following statements. These
    are based on Canadas Guidelines to Healthy

Note Healthy Eating
  • You enjoy a variety of foods.
  • Eating a variety of foods from each food group
    provides you with the nutrients you need to be
    healthy. The four food groups are
  • Grain products
  • Vegetables and fruit
  • Milk products
  • Meat and alternatives

Canadas Food Guide
Note contd
  • 2. You emphasize cereals, breads, other grain
    products, veggies,and fruit in your meals and
  • Eat breads, cereals and pasta that are enriched
    or whole grain.
  • Look for whole grain products made with wheat
    bran, oat bran, whole wheats, oats, rye, or flax.
    These give you more fibre than white grain
  • Choose dark red, orange or green veggies or
    fruits. That way, youll take in antioxidants
    like beta-carotene and vitamin C, along with many
    other substances that keep you healthy.

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Note contd
  • 3. You choose lower fat dairy products , leaner
    meats and foods prepared with little or no fat.
  • These choices can help you achieve and maintain a
    healthy weight. They may also play a role in
    preventing heart disease and some types of
  • Choose lower fat dairy products, leaner meats and
    legumes more often.
  • Make sure prepared foods have little or no added
  • Control the amount of fat you add when you cook,
    and at the table.

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Note contd
  • 4. You achieve and maintain a healthy body weight
    by enjoying regular physical activity and healthy
  • Along with healthy eating, regular physical
    activity also helps you maintain the weight
    thats healthy for you. Following the food guide
    serving sizes can also help you with this.

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Note contd
  • 5. You limit your salt, alcohol and caffeine.
  • You find caffeine in coffee, tea, cocoa and cola
    drinks. Limit how much you get to 400mg per day.
    This is equal to about 2 cups of coffee.
  • Canadians consume more salt than our bodies need.
    Try not to add too much salt during cooking or at
    the table. Cut down on highly salted snack foods

  • Classification Chart Check off which food
    groups the food items belong to.
  • Sample Food Records 2
  • Compare the chart on the leftcheck off the boxes
    to see if this female is following the food
    guideon the chart to the right add
    recommendations to her diet so she is meeting the
    daily needs. You can recheck the boxes to see
    that the requirements have been met.

  • In order to live a healthy life we must try to
    incorporate a good mixture of rest, exercise and
  • Eating a healthy diet means including the
    following parts
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Proteins
  • Water
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • You must not only include these things but in the
    right amounts.

  • A major energy source for the body (40-50 of our
    total energy intake)
  • They include starches, sugars, fruits, veggies,
    table sugar, pastas, breads and cereals
  • Best sources are root veggies, cereal and fruit.
  • Refined sugar has little or no nutritional value,
    lacks fiber, vitamins, minerals and proteins.
  • Contain empty calories
  • Processed foods have nutrients removed and extra
    sugar added.

  • Insulate the body
  • Protect the internal organs against injury
  • Are another major energy source in the body (30
    of energy-daily intake)
  • Fats are the excessive energy in an animal
  • Sources include meat, eggs, butter, cheese, ice

  • There are 2 main types of fat
  • Saturated fats
  • Are solid at room temperature (animal fats)
  • Associated with high rates of heart disease
  • Come from animal bi-products, eggs, cheese and
  • b) Unsaturated fats
  • Fats that are liquid at room temp
  • Decrease risk of heart disease
  • Come from animal plants such as veggie, corn,
    peanut oil and some margarines.
  • Polyunsaturated come from seeds and nuts.

  • Cholesterol is a substance found in fats that can
    lead to increased chances of artery blockage
  • it sticks to the walls of the artery gradually
    building up until it is blocked.
  • Having too much fat will make you overweight and
    put an extra strain on the heart muscles, bones
    and circulatory system.

  • Are essential for the building, repair and
    maintenance of body tissue.
  • It forms a major part of muscle, skin, organs,
    hair, etc.
  • Also needed to form hormones, enzymes and
  • Require about 10-20 of your daily intake
  • Are long chains of amino acids.
  • There are a total of 22 amino acids, our body
    produces all but 9
  • We get a variety of them from meat, fish, eggs,
    flour, rice, cereal, peas, beans, nuts

  • We must get a variety of amino acids, not just
    one type just to stay healthy.
  • Vegetarians really have to be careful what they
  • During times of growth, pregnancy, nursing or
    sickness a person will require increased amounts
    of protein.
  • Excessive amounts will be excreted from the body.

  • Are substances that can be produced by the body
    or obtained from food.
  • They allow the body to function normally
  • Too much of a vitamin in the body can also be
  • A well balanced diet will provide all the
    essential vitamins to the body.
  • Water soluble found in watery parts of the cell
  • Fat soluble found in fat parts of the cell

  • Dont peel skin off fruit and veggies
  • Dont overcook veggies
  • Vitamin A and D are stored in the body, while
    others are excreted if not used.

  • Are inorganic elements needed in small amounts by
    the body to assist its functioning.
  • Best source of minerals in the body are fruits,
    veggies, meats, milk, eggs, cereals and water.
  • Calcium and iron are the major two minerals.
  • Major Functions of mineral
  • Control water balance
  • Regulate acid base balance
  • Form bones and cartilage
  • Form red blood cells

  • Is an essential compound for life
  • It is possible to live without food for a few
    weeks but without water for only a few days.
  • What does it do
  • Helps dilute and dispose of body wastes and
    toxins in our system
  • Is an essential component of blood
  • Used to cool the body (sweat)
  • Used in some of the bodys chemical functioning

  • How do we lose water
  • Urine
  • Sweat
  • Excretion
  • Vomiting
  • Breathing
  • Water can be replaced by drinking fluids or
    eating foods high in water
  • The best beverages include water, natural fruit
    or veggie juice, milk

  • Case study

Nutrition Labeling
  • The nutrition facts table includes calories and
    13 nutrients.
  • The following are examples of some foods that are
    exempt from the nutrition labeling requirements
  • Fresh fruit and veggies
  • Raw meat and poultry (except ground), raw fish
    and seafood
  • Foods prepared or processed at the store
  • Foods that contain very few nutrients
    (coffee,tea, herbs and spices)
  • Alcoholic beverages

  • The first thing you should do when you read the
    nutrition facts is to
  • Look at the specific amount of food listed
  • Compare it to how much you actually eat.
  • The Daily value is
  • A bench mark for evaluating the nutrient content
    of foods quickly and easily.
  • Based on recommendations for a healthy unit
  • Used to determine whether there is a lot or a
    little of a nutrient in a specific amount of food.

What are the core nutrients listed?
  • Fat
  • Cholesterol
  • Sodium
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Sugars
  • Protein
  • Vitamin a and c
  • Calcium
  • iron

6 examples of nutrient claims
  • Source of fibre at least 2g
  • Low fat no more than 3g
  • Cholesterol free less than 2mg
  • Sodium free less than 5mg
  • Reduced calories at least 25 less calories
    than food it is being compared to
  • Light allowed in foods that are reduced in fat
    or calories or a description of a sensory

Terms to decrease the amount of certain nutrients
  • Free none or hardly any
  • Low A small amount
  • Reduced at least 25 less of a nutrient than a
    similar product
  • Light only allowed on labels that are reduced
    in fat or calories

Terms to increase the amount of nutrients
  • Source contains a useful amount of nutrient
  • High or good source contains a high amount of
    the nutrient
  • Very high or excellent contains a very high
  • Ingredients are always listed in descending order
    by weight