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Training for Performance

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Last modified by: College of Education Created Date: 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Training for Performance


1
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2
Training for Performance
3
Training Principles
  • Overload
  • Increased capacity in response to training
    overload
  • Specificity
  • Specific muscle involved
  • Energy systems that provide ATP
  • Reversibility
  • When training is stopped, the training effect is
    quickly lost

4
Influence of Gender, Initial Fitness Level, and
Genetics
  • Men and women respond similarly to training
    programs
  • Training improvement is always greater in
    individuals with lower initial fitness
  • Genetics plays an important role in how an
    individual responds to training

5
Components of a Workout Session
  • Warm-up
  • Increases cardiac output, blood flow to skeletal
    muscle, and muscle temperature
  • Believed to reduce risk of injury
  • Workout
  • Cool-down
  • Return blood pooled in muscles to central
    circulation

6
Training to Improve Aerobic Power
  • Three methods
  • Interval training
  • Long, slow distance
  • High-intensity, continuous exercise
  • Intensity appears to be the most important factor
    in improving VO2max

7
Interval Training
  • Repeated exercise bouts
  • Separated by rest periods
  • Work interval
  • Intensity 85-100 HRmax
  • Should last longer than 60 seconds to improve
    VO2max
  • Rest interval
  • Light activity such as walking
  • Should be as long as the work interval

8
Long, Slow Distance
  • Low-intensity exercise
  • 57 VO2max or 70 HRmax
  • Duration greater than would be expected in
    competition
  • Based on the idea that training improvements are
    based on volume of training

9
High-Intensity, Continuous Exercise
  • Appears to be the best method of increasing
    VO2max and lactate threshold
  • High-intensity exercise
  • 80-90 HRmax
  • At or slightly above lactate threshold
  • Duration of 25-50 min
  • Depending on individual fitness level

10
Training Intensity and Improvement in VO2max
11
Injuries in Endurance Training
  • Most injuries are a result of overtraining
  • Short-term, high-intensity exercise
  • Prolonged, low-intensity exercise
  • The ten percent rule for safely increasing
    training load
  • Intensity or duration should not be increased by
    more than 10 per week

12
Training for Improved Anaerobic Power
  • ATP-PC system
  • Short (5-10 seconds), high-intensity work
    intervals
  • 30-60 second rest intervals
  • Glycolytic system
  • Short (20-60 seconds), high-intensity work
    intervals

13
Training to Improve Muscular Strength
  • Strength-training exercises
  • Isometric or static
  • Dynamic or isotonic
  • Includes variable resistance exercise
  • Isokinetic
  • Increase in muscle size
  • Due to hypertrophy (? fiber diameter)
  • Due to hyperplasia? (? fiber number)

14
Progressive Resistance Exercise
  • Improvements in strength via progressive overload
  • Periodically increasing resistance (weight
    lifted) to continue to overload the muscle
  • Basis for most weight-training programs

15
Principles of Strength Training
  • Muscles must be exercised near peak tension for
    increases in strength
  • There is no optimum training program
  • 3-4 days per week with rest days in between is
    recommended
  • Strength training should involve the same
    muscles as competition
  • Movement pattern, speed of shortening

16
Free Weights vs. Machines
  • Strength gains are similar following training
    using free weights and machines
  • Argument for free weights
  • Data exist showing that free weights produce
    greater strength gains
  • Free weights produce greater movement variability
    and specificity
  • Free weights force control of balance and
    stabilization

17
Combining Strength and Endurance Training
  • Combined strength and endurance training may
    result in lower gains in strength than strength
    training alone
  • Recommended that strength and endurance training
    be performed on alternate days for optimal
    strength gains

18
Gender Differences in Response to Strength
Training
  • Untrained males have greater absolute strength
    than untrained females
  • Strength related to cross-sectional area of
    muscle
  • There does not appear to be a gender differences
    in response to strength training

19
Strength as a Function of Muscle Cross-Sectional
Area
20
Training-Induced Strength Changes in Men and Women
21
Muscle Soreness
  • Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
  • Appears 24-48 hours after strenuous exercise
  • Due to microscopic tears in muscle fibers
    resulting in inflammatory response

22
Training for Improved Flexibility
  • Static stretching
  • Continuously holding a stretch position
  • Preferred technique
  • Less chance of injury or soreness
  • Less muscle spindle activity
  • Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
  • Isometric contraction of muscle being stretched
  • Dynamic stretching
  • Ballistic stretching movements

23
Year-Round Conditioning for Athletes
  • Off-season conditioning
  • Prevent excessive weight (fat) gain
  • Maintain muscular strength or endurance
  • Maintain bone and ligament strength
  • Maintain skill level
  • Preseason conditioning
  • Increase to maximum the energy systems used in
    particular sport
  • In-season conditioning
  • Maintenance of fitness level

24
Year-Round Conditioning for Athletes
25
Common Training Mistakes
  • Overtraining
  • Undertraining
  • Performing non-specific exercises
  • Failure to schedule a long-term training plan
  • Failure to taper before a performance

26
Symptoms of Overtraining
27
Tapering
  • Short-term reduction in training load prior to
    competition
  • Allows muscles to resynthesize glycogen and heal
    from training-induced damage
  • Improves performance in both strength and
    endurance events

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