Chapter 8 Training and Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 8 Training and Development PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 62f203-ODMyY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 8 Training and Development

Description:

Chapter 8 Training and Development 1. Training vs. Development. 2. Importance of Training. 3. Types of Training. 4. Training Process Model. 5. Learning Principles. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:73
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 51
Provided by: kerry73
Learn more at: http://up.edu.ps
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 8 Training and Development


1
Chapter 8 Training and Development
  • 1. Training vs. Development.
  • 2. Importance of Training.
  • 3. Types of Training.
  • 4. Training Process Model.
  • 5. Learning Principles.
  • 6. Training Methods.

2
1. Difference Between Training
1. Training vs. Development (Figure 8.1)
  • Training focuses on specific job knowledge and
    skill that is to be applied in the short run.
  • Development focuses on broad knowledge and
    insights that may be required for adaptation to
    environmental demands in the future.

3
2. Importance of Training
  • 1. Respond to technology changes affecting job
    requirements.
  • 2. Respond to organizational restructuring.
  • 3. Adapt to increased diversity of the workforce.
  • 4. Support career development.
  • 5. Fulfill employee need for growth.

4
Examples of Training Investments
  • Industry and government in the United States
    spend approximately 90 billion each year on
    employee training and education.
  • Average U. S. company spends about 1.4 of budget
    on training compared to 5 for German companies
    and 6 for Japanese companies.
  • Study of major automobile manufactures found U.
    S automakers spend about 40 hours training new
    employees compared to 300 hours for Japanese and
    German automakers.
  • In early 1980s, Motorolas CEO required all
    divisions to spend at least 2 of budget on
    training. Over next 7 years, profits increased
    47 and it was estimated that each 1.00 in
    training yielded 30.00 in return.

5
3. Types of Training
3. Types of Training (pp. 275-282)
  • 1. Skills Training.
  • 2. Retraining.
  • 3. Cross-Functional.
  • 4. Team Training.
  • 5. Creativity Training.
  • 6. Literacy Training.
  • 7. Diversity Training.
  • 8. Customer Service.

6
1. SKILLS TRAINING
  • Focus on job knowledge and skill for
  • Instructing new hires.
  • Overcoming performance deficits of the workforce.

7
2. Retraining
  • Maintaining worker knowledge and skill as job
    requirements change due to
  • Technological innovation
  • Organizational restructuring

8
3. Cross-Functional Training
  • Training employees to perform a wider variety of
    tasks in order to gain
  • Flexibility in work scheduling.
  • Improved coordination.

9
4. Team Training
  • Training self-directed teams with regard to
  • Management skills.
  • Coordination skills.
  • Cross-functional skills.

10
5. Creativity Training
  • Using innovative learning techniques to enhance
    employee ability to spawn new ideas and new
    approaches.

11
Figure 8.8 Creativity Training Methods
  • Analogies and metaphors Using comparisons and
    finding similarities.
  • Free Association Freely thinking of words
    linked to specific problems can give insight.
  • Personal Analogy Placing oneself as the source
    of a problem to gain insight.
  • Mind Mapping Generating issues and drawing
    lines to identify relationships among the issues.

12
6. Literacy Training
  • Improving basic skills of the workforce such as
    mathematics, reading, writing, and effective
    employee behaviors such as punctuality,
    responsibility, cooperation,etc.

13
7. Diversity Training
  • Instituting a variety of programs to instill
    awareness, tolerance, respect, and acceptance of
    persons of different race, gender, etc. and
    different backgrounds.

14
8. Customer Service Training
  • Training to improve communication, better
    response to customer needs, and ways to enhance
    customer satisfaction.

15
4. Training Process Model
I. Needs Assessment
II. Developing Conducting Training
III. Evaluating Training
16
I. Needs Assessment
  • 1. Organizational Level
  • 2. Job Level
  • 3. Individual Level

17
  • 1. Organizational Level
  • Sales and operating plans.
  • Productivity measures.
  • Technology change.
  • Organizational restructuring.
  • Change in workforce.

18
  • 2. Job Level
  • Job and task analysis.
  • Identify KSAs.
  • Review procedural and technical manuals.

Design Training Program
19
  • 3. Individual Level
  • Determine who needs training and what kind.
  • Tests.
  • Prior training and experience.
  • Performance review.
  • Career assessment.

20
II. Developing and Conducting Training
  • 1. Determine location and who will conduct the
    training.
  • Onsite facilities vs. offsite.
  • Inside training staff vs. outside vendors.
  • 2. Develop training curricula.
  • Based on job/task analysis and individual needs.
  • 3. Select training methods.
  • Considering learning principles.
  • Consider appropriateness and cost.

21
III. Evaluating Training Effectiveness
  • 1. Four levels of training effectiveness.
  • 2. Four evaluation designs.
  • 3. ROI Return On Investment
  • (See Figures 8.11 and 8.12).

22
Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation
  • According to this model, evaluation should always
    begin with level one, and then, as time and
    budget allows, should move sequentially through
    levels two, three, and four. Information from
    each prior level serves as a base for the next
    level's evaluation. Thus, each successive level
    represents a more precise measure of the
    effectiveness of the training program, but at the
    same time requires a more rigorous and
    time-consuming analysis.
  • 1

23
Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation
  • . Four levels of training effectiveness.
  • Level 1 Evaluation - Reactions (measures how
    participants in a training program react to it.
    It attempts to answer questions regarding the
    participants' perceptions - Did they like it? Was
    the material relevant to their work? )
  • Level 2 Evaluation - Learning (assess the amount
    of learning that has occurred due to a training
    program, level two evaluations often use tests
    conducted before training (pretest) and after
    training (post test) )
  • Level 3 Evaluation Transfer (measures the
    transfer that has occurred in learners' behavior
    due to the training program. Evaluating at this
    level attempts to answer the question Are the
    newly acquired skills, knowledge, or attitude are
    used in the everyday environment of the learner?
    )
  • Level 4 Evaluation- Results (measures the success
    of the program in terms of business results. Such
    as increased production, improved quality,
    decreased costs, reduced frequency of accidents,
    increased sales, and even higher profits or
    return on investment.)

24
Types of Evaluation Designs
Train
Measure
Post Test Only Cannot tell if there is a change
in knowledge or skill.
Measure
Train
Measure
Pre-test with Post-test Detects a change, but
cannot tell if training was responsible.
25
Types of Evaluation Designs
Measure 2
Measure 1
Measure
Train
Measure
Measure 3
Measure 4
Measure 5
Measure 6
Multiple Baseline Design Compares trend in
performance Before and After training. A
significant change in the performance trend after
the training indicates the possibility of a
training effect.
26
Types of Evaluation Designs
Measure
Train
Measure
Measure
Measure
No Train
Scientific Method Training Group and Control
Group. Compare performance of Training Group and
Control Group after training. If Training Group
has higher performance, it can be attributed to a
training effect.
27
5. Learning Principles
Readiness
Practice
Feedback
Transfer
28
I. Readiness
  • 1. Assess trainee capability.
  • 2. Assess interest and perceived relevance.
  • 3. Enhance trainee motivation.

29
  • 1. Assess trainee capability i.e., ability and
    current level of knowledge and skill in order
    to insure success.
  • Tests.
  • Work sampling.
  • Performance appraisals.

30
  • 2. Assess trainee interest and perceived
    relevance of training.
  • Employee surveys.
  • Career development programs.
  • Performance appraisals.

31
  • 3. Insure motivation to learn through control of
    Expectancy Theory elements.
  • Effort E I V
  • E-Expectancy is the belief that effort will
    lead to success (i.e., learning).
  • I-Instrumentality is the belief that success
    (i.e., learning) will lead to rewards.
  • V-Valence is the value placed on rewards by the
    individual.


32
  • Increasing Expectancy
  • Match training design to trainee capability.
  • Enhance self-efficacy role modeling,
    encouragement, inactive mastery, etc.
  • Increasing Instrumentality
  • Indicate the link between training and (a) job
    success and (b) rewards -security, salary,
    promotions, etc.

33
  • Increasing Valence
  • Valence (value of rewards) is largely an
    individual matter based on ones personality and
    past experiences.
  • However, some studies have indicated that over
    the long-run, employees may come to value rewards
    that are consistently provided by the employer.

Bonuses, Promotions, Peer Relations, etc.
34
II. Conditions of Practice
  • 1. Meaningfulness.
  • 2. Active vs. Passive.
  • 3. Individual Differences.

35
  • 1. Meaningfulness
  • Refers to the characteristics of instructional
    concepts and tasks as being (a) comprehendible
    and (b) relevant to ones past experiences (i.e.,
    familiarity).

36
How to Increasing Meaningfulness
  • 1. Present concepts by using examples and
    illustrations that are related to the end use and
    trainee past experiences. Use multiple methods to
    enhance trainee attention.
  • 2. Parts vs. Whole - Subdividing complex concepts
    and tasks into components and treating
    interrelated concepts and tasks as a whole.
  • 3. Distributed vs. Massed - The more complex and
    extensive the learning task, the more time and
    repetition that will be needed.

37
  • 2. Active vs.Passive
  • Allowing trainees to progress from covert
    responses to concepts and tasks (i.e., mental
    imaging) to overt responses (i.e., active
    practice) allows one to develop the
    proprioceptive cues necessary to react
    spontaneously to real life events.
  • Active practice is particularly important for
    physical tasks and interpersonal communication.

38
  • 3. Individual Differences
  • Studies of learning indicate that different
    individuals have different learning curves
    i.e., advance at different speeds and use
    different learning styles.
  • Implications of individuals differences to
    training
  • Use a variety of training methods.
  • Provide feedback and encouragement at appropriate
    times.

39
III. Feedback
  • 1. Information vs. Reinforcement.
  • 2. Continuous vs. Variable.
  • 3. External vs. Learner Controlled.

40
  • 1. Information vs. Reinforcement
  • Information Refers to critique of learning
    performance, such as test results, observations
    of performance, coaching, etc.
  • Reinforcement Refers to rewards, punishment,
    or negative reinforcement. (Such as praise,
    responsibility, salary increase, job security,
    promotion, etc.)

41
  • 2. Continuous vs. Variable
  • Continuous It is important to provide
    relatively continuous feedback early in learning,
    to increase self-efficacy and motivation.
  • Variable It is best to provide intermittent
    feedback as learners master concepts and
    tasks.(Feedback begins to be internally
    generated).

42
  • 3. External vs. Learner Controlled
  • External Feedback provided by instructors or
    supervisors - is important in early stages of the
    learning process.
  • Learner Controlled Feedback resulting from
    active practice (I.e. task performance) such as
    computer-based instruction, simulators, or
    on-the-job.

43
IV. Transfer
  • Transfer refers to the trainees application of
    knowledge and skills gained in training on the
    job. It is affected by
  • Relevance and effectiveness of the training
    readiness, practice, and feedback principles.
  • Follow-up instruction and support.
  • Reinforcement to use new knowledge and skills.

44
6. Training Methods
Classroom
Video
Computer Assisted Instruction
CAI with Video
On-the-Job
Simulation
45
1. Classroom Instruction
PROS
CONS
  • Efficient dissemination of large volume of
    information.
  • Effective in explaining concepts, theories, and
    principles.
  • Provides opportunity for discussion.
  • Learner does not control pace or content
  • Does not consider individual differences.
  • Limited practice.
  • Limited feedback.
  • Limited transfer to job.

46
2. Video and Film
PROS
CONS
  • Provides realism.
  • Adds interest.
  • Allows scheduling flexibility.
  • Allows exposure to hazardous events.
  • Allows distribution to multiple sites.
  • Does not consider individual differences.
  • Limited practice.
  • Limited feedback.
  • Limited transfer to job.

47
3. Computer Assisted Instruction
PROS
CONS
  • Efficient instruction.
  • Considers individual differences.
  • Allows scheduling flexibility.
  • Allows active practice for some tasks.
  • Allows learner control.
  • Provides immediate feedback to tasks.
  • Limited in presenting theories and principles.
  • Limited discussion.
  • Transfer depends on particular job. (Good for
    computer work.)
  • High development cost (40-60 hours per hour of
    instruction at 100-300 per hour.)

48
4. Computer Assisted Instruction with Video
PROS
CONS
  • Same as basic CAI.
  • Adds realism.
  • Adds interest.
  • Allows exposure to hazardous events.
  • Same as basic CAI.
  • Adds additional cost.
  • 50,000-150,000 per hour of instruction due to
  • Script writers
  • Production specialists
  • Camera crews

49
5. Simulation/Vestibule
PROS
CONS
  • Provides realism.
  • Allows active practice.
  • Provides immediate feedback.
  • Allows exposure to hazardous events.
  • High transfer to job.
  • No job interference.
  • Lowers trainee stress.
  • Cannot cover all job aspects.
  • Limited number of trainees.
  • Can be very expensive (for example, aircraft
    simulators and virtual reality simulators).

50
6. On-The-Job Training
PROS
CONS
  • Provides realism.
  • Allows active practice.
  • Provides immediate feedback.
  • High motivation.
  • High transfer to job.
  • Lowers training cost.
  • Disruptions to operations.
  • May damage equipment.
  • Inconsistent across departments.
  • Inadequate focus on underlying principles.
  • Lack of systematic feedback.
  • Transfer of improper procedures.
  • Trainee stress.
About PowerShow.com