Global Trends in Vehicle Standards and Emissions for Unleaded Gasoline and Low Sulfur Fuels and Impact of Clean Fuels on Vehicles and Health - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Global Trends in Vehicle Standards and Emissions for Unleaded Gasoline and Low Sulfur Fuels and Impact of Clean Fuels on Vehicles and Health

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Global Trends in Vehicle Standards and Emissions for Unleaded Gasoline and Low Sulfur Fuels and Impact of Clean Fuels on Vehicles and Health Michael P. Walsh – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Global Trends in Vehicle Standards and Emissions for Unleaded Gasoline and Low Sulfur Fuels and Impact of Clean Fuels on Vehicles and Health


1
Global Trends in Vehicle Standards and Emissions
for Unleaded Gasoline and Low Sulfur Fuels and
Impact of Clean Fuels on Vehicles and Health

Michael P. Walsh International Consultant Board
Chairman, ICCT
2
International Council on Clean Transportation
  • The goal of the ICCT is to dramatically reduce
    conventional pollutant and greenhouse gas
    emissions from personal, public and goods
    transportation in order to improve air quality
    and human health, and mitigate climate change.

http//www.theicct.org/
Slide 2
3
Bellagio Principles
  • Design Programs Policies That Reduce
    Conventional, Toxic, Noise and Greenhouse
    Emissions in Parallel
  • Treat Vehicles and Fuels As A System
  • Expect Require Best Technologies and Fuels
    Worldwide in Both Industrialized and Developing
    Countries

4
What pollutants are of concern?
Lead
Carbon monoxide (CO)
5
Health Impacts of Air Pollution
Premature Deaths
Cancer
Developmental Effects
Hospitalization
Asthma Attacks and Bronchitis
6
Health Effects Are Extremely Serious
  • World Health Organization Concludes 800,000
    Premature Deaths Each Year From Urban PM
  • Numerous Studies Consistently Link PM With
    Premature Deaths, Hospital Admissions, Asthma
    Attacks, Etc.
  • No Evidence of a Threshold
  • Ozone, NO2, Toxics Also A Serious Health Concern

7
RESPIRATORY EFFECTS
? Injure or stimulate cells Stimulate
production of reactive oxidant species Form DNA
adducts Injure mitochondria ? Cause
inflammation Induce pro-inflammatory
cytokines Stimulate neural pathways ? Enhance
airway constrictive responses Increase
epithelial permeability to stimulants Increase
reactivity of smooth muscle ? Increase response
to antigens (asthma, allergic rhinitis) Enhance
development of allergic state Enhance allergic
responses to antigen challenges ? Impair
pulmonary defenses Deplete antioxidants,
increase permeability of epithelium Retard
killing clearance of pathogens
8
CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS
? Alter cardiac electrophysiology Alter heart
rate Decrease heart rate variability Alter
conductivity Alter re-polarization rate or
pattern (local) ? Cause inflammation Induce
pro-inflammatory cytokines (local, or from
lung) Increase blood cell adhesion
? Reduce vascular blood flow Alter
vasodilator-vasoconstrictor balance Increase
reactivity of smooth muscle Enhance
atherosclerotic plaque formation Promote
clotting
9
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10
Why Are Fuels Important?
  • Fuel Constituents Directly Affect Emissions
  • Fuel Changes Can Immediately Impact on
    Emissions/Air Quality
  • Fuel Composition Can Enable/Disable Pollution
    Control Technology

11
Motivation For Improved Fuel Qualities - Gasoline
Improved fuel qualities
Improved air quality
Environmental benefits
Reduced emissions
  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Hydrocarbons (HC)
  • Nitrogen oxides (NOX)
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Sulfur (SO2)
  • Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
  • Greenhouse Gases
  • Improved human health
  • Reduced corrosion
  • Improved crop yield
  • Less acidification, eutrophication and forest
    damage
  • Climate Change
  • Gasoline - Lead
  • Gasoline Sulfur
  • Gasoline Other
  • RVP
  • Benzene
  • Olefins, etc

12
Is Any Lead Acceptable From A Health Standpoint?
13
The Three-way Catalytic Converter A Familiar
Technology Re-Engineered for High Performance in
Close-coupled and Underfloor Applications
  • Layered washcoat architectures and support
    materials with high thermal stability
  • Integrated HC adsorption functions
  • Mounting materials with improved durability
  • High cell density ceramic or metallic
    substrates
  • Insulation schemes for heat management

Can Only Be Used With Lead Free Fuel
14
Low Sulfur Gasoline
  • Sulfur Poisons The Catalyst
  • Impact is Not Completely Reversible
  • Future Low Emissions Technologies Even More
    Sensitive
  • CO, HC NOx Emissions All Improve With Low
    Sulfur Gasoline
  • Enhances Prospects For Lean NOx Controls
  • GDI
  • N2O CH4 Minimized From TWC Cars

15
Very Stringent Light-Duty Vehicle Emission
Standards Only Possible With Low Sulfur Fuels
Note U.S. Tier 2, Bin 5 is equivalent to ARB LEV
II - LEV
mg/km
2005
2009/10
2014
2007/2009
2015?
Euro 5 (2011) and 6 include 6 X 1011/km particle
number limit Euro 6 PM mass limit uses revised
PMP mass protocol
16
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17
Impact of Sulfur on Emissions From 5 Euro 3
Chinese Cars After 80,000 Kilometers
18
Motivation For Improved Fuel Qualities - Diesel
Improved fuel qualities
Improved air quality
Environmental benefits
Reduced emissions
  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Hydrocarbons (HC)
  • Nitrogen oxides (NOX)
  • Particulate (PM)
  • Sulfur (SO2)
  • Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
  • Greenhouse Gases
  • Improved human health
  • Reduced corrosion
  • Improved crop yield
  • Less acidification, eutrophication and forest
    damage
  • Climate Change
  • Diesel Sulfur
  • Diesel Other
  • Cetane
  • Density
  • Polyaromatics

19
Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel
  • Lower Sulfur Lowers Direct PM Emissions and SO2
  • Lower Sulfur Allows the Use of Some Advanced
    Diesel NOx/PM Control Technologies
  • Lower Sulfur Improves Performance of Other
    Advanced Technologies
  • Enhances Retrofit Opportunities

20
PM Filter
Oxidation Catalyst
21
Stringent Heavy-Duty Engine Transient Cycle
Emission Standards Only Possible With Low Sulfur
Fuels
g/kWh
2005
2008
2013/14
Euro VI to include particle number limit
22
Close Linkage Between Vehicle Emissions Standards
and Fuel Sulfur Levels
2000 2002 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010
15 months
Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Volvo, Mack
Trucks/Renault Navistar
Consent Decree 10/02
EPA
Diesel 15 ppm
g/bhp-hr
EPA 98 NOx 4.0 P 0.10 EPA 04 NOx 2.5 P 0.10 EPA 07 NOx 0.25 P 0.01
EURO III NOx 5.0 P 0.10 Combined EURO III-IV EURO IV NOx 3.5 P 0.02 EURO V NOx2.0 P0.02
EURO
Diesel 50/10 ppm
g/kW-hr
10/05
10/08
23
U.S. Highway Nonroad Diesel Fuel Sulfur Specs
HWY
10/1993
06/2006
01/2010
NR
All Highway 15 ppm
6/2007
6/2010
6/2014
6/2012
gt80 15 ppm
Highway Diesel 500ppm
All Diesel 3400 ppm
NR 15 ppm
lt20 500 ppm
NR, LM Diesel 500 ppm
LM 500 ppm
LM 15ppm
All Off-Highway Diesel 3400 ppm
Small Credit 500 ppm
Small Credit 3400
Small 15 ppm
HHF 3400ppm
HHF 3400ppm
This figure is intended to illustrate the
timeline for the final highway and nonroad diesel
fuel sulfur control programs. It is not
drawn to exact scale. Refer to 40 CFR Part 80
for specific program dates.
24
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
25
Diesel Particulate Filter
26
PM and NOx Reduction Technologies
  • Majority of Engine Manufacturers will use Diesel
    Particulate Filters and SCR to meet US 2010 and
    Euro VI standards

from www.factsaboutscr.com
26
27
(No Transcript)
28
(No Transcript)
29
Dedicated ULSD Supply Beijing Diesel Retrofit
Project
30
Conclusions
  • Vehicle Emissions Cause Serious Health and
    Environmental Effects Worldwide
  • Technologies Now Exist That Can Dramatically
    Reduce These Emissions and They Are Spreading
    Rapidly
  • However, Clean Fuels Unleaded and Very Low
    Sulfur Levels Are Critical To Their Overall
    Performance
  • Retrofit Programs spreading along with low sulfur
    fuels
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