Objectives Development Of The Kidney. Describe the development of kidney. Pronephros. Mesonephros. Metanephros. Discuss the congenital anomalies of kidney. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Objectives Development Of The Kidney. Describe the development of kidney. Pronephros. Mesonephros. Metanephros. Discuss the congenital anomalies of kidney.

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Discuss the congenital anomalies of ... in formation of the genital system. They disappear in the female. ... the most frequent anomalies of the urinary tract, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Objectives Development Of The Kidney. Describe the development of kidney. Pronephros. Mesonephros. Metanephros. Discuss the congenital anomalies of kidney.


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Objectives Development Of The Kidney. Describe
the development of kidney. Pronephros. Mesonephros
. Metanephros. Discuss the congenital anomalies
of kidney.
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  • UROGENITAL SYSTEM
  •  General Overview
  • Is derived from intermediate mesoderm
  • As the embryo folds, the intermediate mesoderm
    loses its connection with the somite and becomes
    the urogenital ridge.
  • Nephrogenic cord gives rise to the urinary
    system.
  • Gonadal ridge gives rise to the reproductive
    system.

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  • The Urinary System
  • Three distinct embryonic "kidneys" develop in a
    cranial to caudal direction
  • 1.Pronephros.
  • 2. Mesonephros.
  • 3. Metanephros.

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  • Pronephros
  • Forms at the beginning of the fourth week.
  • Represented by 7 to 10 solid cell groups in the
    cervical region.
  • These groups form vestigial excretory
    units,nephrotomes. By the end of the fourth week,
    all indications of the pronephric system have
    disappeared.

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  • Mesonephros
  • The mesonephros and mesonephric ducts are derived
    from intermediate mesoderm from upper thoracic to
    upper lumbar (L3) segments.

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  • In the fourth week first excretory tubules of the
    mesonephros appear.
  • A glomerulus forms at their medial extremity.
    Around the glomerulus, the tubules form Bowmans
    capsule, and together these structures constitute
    a renal corpuscle.
  • Laterally,the tubule enters the longitudinal
    collecting duct known as the mesonephric or
    wolffian duct.

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  • While caudal tubules are still differentiating,cra
    nial tubules and glomeruli degenerate.
  • By the end of the second month, the majority have
    disappeared.
  • In the male, a few of the caudal tubules and the
    mesonephric duct persist and participate in
    formation of the genital system.
  • They disappear in the female.

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  • Metanephros
  • The third urinary organ, the metanephros or
    permanent kidney, appears in the fifth week.
  • Its excretory units develop from metanephric
    mesoderm
  • in the same manner as in the mesonephric
    system.
  • The development of the duct system differs from
    that of the other kidney systems.

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  • The caudal porton of the mesonephric duct
    produces a ureteric bud.
  • The ureteric bud surrounded by a cap of
    mesenchyme.

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  • The ureteric bud will give
  • Ureter.
  • Renal pelvis.
  • Calyces.
  • Collecting tubules.

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  • The cap of the metanephric mesenchyme will give
    the
  • Bowmans capsule.
  • Proximal convoluted tubule.
  • Ascending descending of Henles loop.
  • Distal convoluted tubule.
  • The kidney "migrates" from its original location
    in the pelvis up into the abdominal cavity.
  • All nephrons are present at birth.

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Disorder of the
number of kidneys Renal agenesis Renal agenesia
can occur uni- or bilaterally, isolated or
combined with other abnormalities (1/4 of all
renal agenesias are associated with genital
abnormalities,
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Too many kidneys (doubling) This congenital
anomaly is extremely rare. Involved is an
independent kidney with its own vascular supply,
a capsule and its own urinary tract. The cause is
a very early division of the ureter bud.
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Rotationsanomalis This anomaly is relatively
frequent. One speaks of a malrotation if the
pyelo-ureteral connection is oriented ventrally
(missing rotation), dorsally (rotation of more
than 90) or laterally (inverse rotation). The
kidney and urinary tract are here anatomically
and histologically normal. Sometimes, though, one
observes anomalies in the connections between
ureter and renal pelvis, which can lead to a
hydronephrosis
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Disorder of the ascent of the kidneys or
ectopic kidneys A kidney is ectopic when, without
ptosis, it does not lie in the lumbar fossa. The
ectopia is the result of an incomplete or missing
ascent. It can occur in the upper or lower region
(pelvic kidney) or even crossed.
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In a crossed ectopia a kidney migrates to the
other side. Its ureter crosses the midline and
inserts normally into the bladder. The crossed
ectopia can occur unilaterally or bilaterally. In
the case of a unilateral crossed ectopia a fusion
of the two kidneys often occurs. Ectopias are
normally asymptomatic.
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Horseshoe kidney Its incidence is around 1/600.
It is assumed that it arises due to a joining of
both kidneys from both sides and during the 5th
week when both organs still lie very close
together in the small pelvis. The two kidneys are
most often bound together at the lower pole.
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Abnormal kidney size. Hypoplasia It results from
an embryonic developmental stop of the kidney,
the structure of which is otherwise normal.. The
kidney is small, whereby the renal hypoplasia
must be distinguished from a secondary atrophic
kidney, resulting from an infection (chronic
pyelonephritis). Aplasia In an aplastic kidney,
a fibroused kidney anlage with its own derivates
of the mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) is
present. It represents the extreme form of a
renal dysplasia and differs from agenesia, in
which absolutely no kidney primordium exists.
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Polycystic kidneys A renal dysplasia must be
distinguished from a simple hypoplasia in which
the histological structure is normal. Renal
dysplasia is characterized by a congenital
anomaly of embryonic renal tissue development.
The kidneys develop large epithelial cysts that
are localized in the renal parenchyma and lead to
the loss of the functional tissue, which can end
in renal insufficiency.
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Vascular anomalies of the kidney There are many
arterial and venous variants of the renal blood
supply, reflected in the changing blood supply of
the migrating kidneys during their development.
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Congenital
ureteral abnormalities Course anomalies of the
ureter Retrocaval / retroiliac ureter In this
abnormality the right ureter traces out an "S" at
the L4 level behind the vena cava (retrocaval
ureter).
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Anomalies of the ureteral diameter Primary
megaloureter due to an obstruction The cause of
this abnormality is a constriction in the
terminal part of the ureter, leading to a
dilatation.
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Abnormal number of ureters Disorders in the
number of ureters belong to the most frequent
anomalies of the urinary tract, whereby they are
often asymptomatic. They arise from a premature
branching of the ureter bud.
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Complete doubling Here a complete doubling of
the ureters with a second renal pelvis is
involved. The ureters empty into the bladder.
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