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e-Waste Management in Western Africa

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e-Waste Management in Western Africa Mathias Schluep, David Rochat EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology www.empa.ch – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: e-Waste Management in Western Africa


1
e-Waste Management in Western Africa
Mathias Schluep, David Rochat EMPA Swiss
Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and
Technology www.empa.ch St-Gallen / Switzerland
SBC Geneva, 16-17 May 2009
2
Introduction
  • A bit of History
  • The Problem
  • Assessment Process Components 1 and 2
  • Assessment Methodology
  • Conclusions
  • Tentative Project Approach

3
I. A bit of history (1)
  • EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials
    Testing Research
  • independent, neutral institution for
    multidisciplinary research into sustainable
    materials and systems engineering.
  • competence center for e-waste hosted by the
    technology and society laboratory
  • technical monitoring control centre for e-waste
    on behalf of the Swiss PRO
  • Experienced in e-waste since the mid-90s!
  • Managing the Swiss global e-waste programme
    knowledge partnerships in e-waste management.
    Projects in India, China, South Africa, Colombia,
    Peru

4
I. A bit of history (2)
  • The fight against digital divide results in
    massive imports of used and new computers in
    developing countries, especially in Africa
  • e-waste will become one of the major challenges
    in the field of waste management in developing
    countries
  • Several initiatives are looking for solutions to
    prevent the problem
  • Swiss e-Waste Programme (Seco/ Empa) in South
    Africa
  • e-Waste Management in Africa (HP/ DSF/ Empa in
    Morocco, Kenya, Senegal and South Africa.
  • Including Recycling in a refurbishment centre
    (Unido/ Microsoft/ Empa) in Uganda
  • and more.

5
II. The problem (1)
6
II. The problem (2)
7
II. The problem (3)
8
II. The problem (4)
9
II. The problem (5)
  • Before implementing a suitable e-waste
    management system, it is necessary to assess the
    current situation in a relatively short time
  • Questions what to assess?
  • How does e-waste and 2nd hand EEE enter the
    country?
  • Component 1
  • How is imported and domestic e-waste managed
    within the country?
  • Component 2
  • E-waste assessment methodology developed by Empa
    for component 2
  • Methodology for component 1 to be developed (life
    experience)

10
III. The assessment process (1)
  • defining the organizational setup of the
    assessment study

11
III. The assessment process (2)
  • Mission of the international expert (approx. 1
    week)
  • Mobilisation of local stakeholders and
    constitution of the national e-waste strategy
    group
  • Technical training of the local expert (general
    knowledge on e-waste and training for assessment)
  • Public announcement of the project
  • Assessment study (approx. 12 months)
  • Collection of data Field visits
  • Technical report
  • Workshop organised by the national strategy group
  • Conclusions of the assessment study are discussed
  • Design of a roadmap or implementing an e-waste
    management system
  • ? The technical report and the roadmap are used
    for further actions

12
IV. Assessment methodology (1) - Project scope
and objectives
  • Explicit definition of the projects objectives
  • Define geographical scope (cities, regions,
    transboundary movements, etc)
  • Define which are the studied equipments (PC,
    laptops, TVs, mobile phones)
  • Modes of data acquisition
  • Literature reviews and statistical data
    (websites, publications, statistics,)
  • Meetings and workshops (resource people,
    stakeholder meetings, focus groups)
  • Field investigation (wild dump sites, 2nd hand
    markets, informal recycling sector, etc)

13
IV. Assessment methodology (2) country
background
  • Understanding of the countrys characteristics
    (WDI)
  • Allows better interpretation of the assessments
    results
  • Shows which alternatives are possible for the
    countrys e-waste problem
  • Allows comparisons with other countries

14
IV. Assessment methodology (3) country
background
  • e-waste related policies and legislations
  • General environment legislations (air, water,
    solid waste, hazardous waste, etc.)
  • Specific laws applying to e-waste, if any
  • Social legislations / policies (child labor,
    workers rights, programs fostering employment,
    etc.) ? informal sectors
  • Institutional framework
  • Organization of the legislative, executive and
    judiciary systems in the context of waste
    management
  • Governmental bodies related to environmental
    management, at local and national level
    (ministries, municipalities, administrations,
    etc.)

15
IV. Assessment methodology (4) Stakeholder
analysis
  • Identify the actors involved and their role in
    e-waste management by groups of stakeholders
  • Who are they? How are they organised?
  • Whats their role?
  • What impact do they have on e-waste management?
  • Stakeholders interest in e-waste management
  • What are their motivations?
  • Possible coalitions and conflicts
  • ? Set of qualitative and quantitative indicators

16
IV. Assessment methodology (5) Stakeholder
analysis
Component 1
Component 2
v
v
17
List of stakeholders involved in e-waste
management (1)
IV. Assessment methodology (6) Stakeholder
analysis
18
List of stakeholders involved in e-waste
management (2)
IV. Assessment methodology (7) Stakeholder
analysis
19
IV. Assessment methodology (8) Mass flow
assessment
  • the stakeholder analysis allowed to
  • map the interconnections between the different
    actors
  • Gather indicators to quantify e-waste flows and
    stocks
  • Mass flow assessment is a way to describe and
    quantify flows and stocks in a simplified system,
    it obeys to 2 sets of equations
  • Mass balance equations ?S SFin SFout
  • Parametric equations Fi1 f (ki1, Fi, S)
  • F flow
  • S Stock
  • K is the transfer coefficient

20
IV. Assessment methodology (9) impact overview
  • The objective is to highlight in a qualitative
    way where the priorities are (environmental,
    social and economic)

21
IV. Assessment methodology (10) conclusions
recommendations
  • Participants from 6 African countries have
    participated to the Durban conference in Oct.
    2008
  • Formulation of Durban Declaration, recommending
    to
  • create a national work group including all
    relevant stakeholders
  • integrate the regional and international network
  • conduct a baseline assessment and publicly share
    the data
  • Propose a roadmap based on the findings of the
    national work group
  • examine synergies with neighbouring countries
  • develop feasibility studies
  • implement and evaluate pilot activities.

22
IV. Assessment methodology (11) conclusions
recommendations
  • Formulation of specific recommendations for the
    following fields
  • Policy and legislation
  • Industry involvement and producer responsibility
  • Technology and Infrastructures
  • Monitoring and Data collection
  • Awareness and education
  • National and international exchange platforms

23
Conclusions
  • The methodology provides a good overview of the
    situation ? allows to draw a roadmap for
    implementation
  • The methodology was improved after being tested
    in various countries
  • Some difficulties and necessary adjustments
    appeared
  • Need for a proper training to the methodology of
    the local expert
  • mass flow analysis often relies on poor data and
    provides a rough assessment
  • unregulated imports of e-waste and 2nd hand
    equipments remain difficult to assess ? need to
    dedicate time and resource (component 1!)
  • the standardized approach of the methodology
    sometimes leads to confusion, as some common
    expressions are understood differently among
    stakeholders and cultures

24
Tentative Project Approach (1/2)
  1. Start with Nigeria ( Benin) for Comp 1 2
  2. Realize synergies for Comp 3 (Öko Institut)
    especially with Comp 2 (national e-waste strategy
    group, stakeholder assessment)
  3. Generate life experience for Comp 1 and refine
    approach for other countries
  4. Include preleminary results from Comp 1 European
    harbours (Öko Institut)
  5. Execute Comp 1 in the other target countries

25
Tentative Project Approach (2/2)
  • Include the StEP network to improve quality of
    the work and include the major international
    stakeholders
  • Major industry involvement (manufacturer,
    recyclers, )
  • Broad participation of other UN organizations
  • Includes some relevant governmental bodies (US
    EPA, Seco, GTZ, )
  • Gives access to the scientific community active
    in research related to e-waste.

26
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
  • http//ewasteguide.info

mathias.schluep_at_empa.ch david.rochat_at_empa.ch
27
Tentative Timeplan
2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2011
Comp 1 EU
Comp 1 Nigeria
Comp 1 Benin
Comp 1 Ghana
Comp 1 Côte dYvoire
Comp 1 Liberia
Comp 2 Nigeria
Comp 2 Benin
Comp 2 (Ghana)
Comp 3 Nigeria
Comp 3 (Ghana)
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