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Title: Organizational Behavior:


1
Organizational Behavior Motivation Essence of
Life
2
Motivation Defined
Motivation Psychological processes that cause
the arousaldirection, and persistence of
voluntary actions that are goal directed.
  • Implications Associated with This Definition
  • Behavior is purposive rather than random- People
    exhibit both positive (work done on time) and
    negative (arrive late for work) behavior for a
    reason
  • Motivation arouses people to do something-
    People are unlikely to change a behavior or do
    something different unless they are motivated to
    do so
  • Motivation causes people to focus on a desired
    end-result or goal
  • Motivation fuels the persistence needed to
    exhibit sustained effort on a task

3
Types of Motives
1- Primary Motives Physiological, Unlearned 2-
General Motives Not Physiological, Unlearned 3-
Secondary Motives Learned, Psychological
4
Content vs. Process Motivation Theories
  • Content theories
  • explain why people have different needs at
    different times.
  • Implications of Content Theories
  • Match rewards with employee needs
  • Offer employees a choice of rewards
  • people have different needs at different times
  • Limit use of financial rewards as a source of
    motivation
  • Process theories
  • describe the processes through which needs are
    translated into behavior

5
The Motivation Process
Unsatisfied Need
Tension
Search Behavior
Drives
Satisfied Need
Reduction of Tension
6
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • Self-
  • actualization
  • Esteem
  • Social
  • Safety
  • Physiological

7
Needs Hierarchy Theory
Needs HierarchyTheory
  • Maslow arranged five needs in a hierarchy
  • Satisfaction-progression process
  • People who experience self-actualization desire
    more rather than less of this need

Self- Actualization
Esteem
Belongingness
Safety
Physiological
8
ERG Theory
ERGTheory
Needs HierarchyTheory
  • Alderfers model has three sets of needs
  • Adds frustration-regression process to Maslows
    model

Self- Actualization
Growth
Esteem
Belongingness
Relatedness
Safety
Existence
Physiological
9
Content Theories of Motivation
Motivator--Hygiene Theory
McClellands Learned Needs
ERGTheory
Needs HierarchyTheory
Self- Actualization
Growth
Motivators
Need for Achievement
Esteem
Need for Power
Hygienes
Belongingness
Relatedness
Need for Affiliation
Safety
Existence
Physiological
10
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene Factors
Motivational Factors
  • Quality of supervision
  • Rate of pay
  • Company policies
  • Working conditions
  • Relations with others
  • Job security
  • Career Advancement
  • Personal growth
  • Recognition
  • Responsibility
  • Achievement

High
High
Job Dissatisfaction
Job Satisfaction
0
11
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Model
No Satisfaction SatisfactionJobs that do
not Jobs offeringoffer achievement achievement,
recognition, recognition, stimulating
work, stimulating work,responsibility, responsi
bility,and advancement. and advancement.
Motivators
Hygiene Factors

Dissatisfaction
No DissatisfactionJobs with poor
Jobs with
goodcompany policies,
company policies,and administration,
and
administration, technical supervision
technical supervision,salary,
interpersonal
salary, interpersonalrelationships with
relationships
withsupervisors, and
supervisors, andworking conditions.
working conditions.
12
David C. McClelland and Achievement Needs
Characteristics of High Achievers
  1. Moderate Risk Taking
  2. Need for Immediate Feedback
  3. Satisfaction with Accomplishments
  4. Preoccupation with the Task

13
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14
Specific Goals
Goal-Setting Theory
Challenging Goals
Goals and Participation
15
Effective Goal Setting
16
Reinforcement Theory
17
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18
Elements of Equity Theory
  • Outcome/input ratio
  • inputs -- what employee contributes (e.g. skill)
  • outcomes -- what employees receive (e.g. pay)
  • Comparison other
  • person/people we compare ratio with
  • not easily identifiable
  • Equity evaluation
  • compare outcome/input ratio withthe comparison
    other

19
Negative and Positive Inequity
A. An Equitable Situation
Other
Self
20
Negative and Positive Inequity (cont)
21
Negative and Positive Inequity (cont)
C. Positive Inequity
Other
Self
22
Consequences of Inequity
  • Change inputs
  • Change outcomes
  • Change perceptions
  • Leave the field
  • Act on the comparison other
  • Change the comparison other
  • Equity Sensitivity
  • Benevolents
  • Tolerant of being underrewarded
  • Equity Sensitives
  • Want ratio to be equal to the comparison other
  • Entitleds
  • Prefer receiving proportionately more than others

23
Organizational Justice
  • Distributive Justice
  • The perceived fairness of how resources and
    rewards are distributed.
  • Procedural Justice
  • The perceived fairness of the process and
    procedures used to make allocation decisions.
  • Interactional Justice
  • The perceived fairness of the decision makers
    behavior in the process of decision making.

24
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
3
2
1
Organizational Rewards
Outcome 1 or -
Outcome 2 or -
Personal Goals
Outcome 3 or -
25
Vrooms Expectancy Theory Concepts
Expectancy Belief that effort leads to a
specific level of performance
Instrumentality A performance ? outcome
perception.
Valence The Value of a reward or outcome
26
Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory
  • Determine the outcomes.
  • Identify good performance so appropriate
    behaviors can be rewarded.
  • Make sure employees can achieve targeted
    performance levels.
  • Link desired outcomes to targeted levels of
    performance.
  • Make sure changes in outcomes are large enough to
    motivate high effort.
  • Monitor the reward system for inequities.
  • Expectancy Theory in Practice
  • Increasing the E-to-P expectancy
  • training, selection, resources, clarify roles,
    provide coaching and feedback
  • Increasing the P-to-O expectancy
  • Measure performance accurately, explain how
    rewards are based on past performance
  • Increasing outcome valences
  • Use valued rewards, individualize rewards,
    minimize countervalent outcomes

27
Organizational Implications of Expectancy Theory
  • Reward people for desired performance, and do not
    keep pay decisions secret.
  • Design challenging jobs.
  • Tie some rewards to group accomplishments to
    build teamwork and encourage cooperation.
  • Reward managers for creating, monitoring, and
    maintaining expectancies, instrumentalities, and
    outcomes that lead to high effort and goal
    attainment.
  • Monitor employee motivation through interviews or
    anonymous questionnaires.
  • Accommodate individual differences by building
    flexibility into the motivation program.

28
Goals
Goal What an individual is trying to accomplish.
Directing ones attention
Regulating ones effort
Task performance
Goals motivate the individual by...
Increasing ones persistence
Encouraging the development of goal- attainment
strategies or action plans
29
Insights from Goal-Setting Research
  • Difficult Goals Lead to Higher Performance.-
    Easy goals produce low effort because the goal is
    too easy to achieve.- Impossible goals
    ultimately lead to lower performance because
    people begin to experience failure.
  • Specific Difficult Goals Lead to Higher
    Performance for Simple Rather Than Complex
    Tasks.- Goal specificity pertains to the
    quantifiability of a goal.- Specific difficult
    goals impair performance on novel, complex
    tasks when employees do not have clear strategies
    for solving these types of problems.
  • Feedback Enhances The Effect of Specific,
    Difficult Goals.- Goals and feedback should be
    used together.
  • Participative Goals, Assigned Goals, and Self-Set
    Goals Are Equally Effective.- Managers should
    set goals by using a contingency approach.
    Different methods work in different situations.
  • Goal Commitment and Monetary Incentives Affect
    Goal-Setting Outcomes.- Difficult goals lead to
    higher performance when employees are committed
    to their goals.- Difficult goals lead to lower
    performance when employees are not committed to
    their goals.- Goal based incentives can lead to
    negative outcomes for employees in complex,
    interdependent jobs requiring cooperation.
    Employees may not help each other. Quality
    may suffer as employees pursue quantity goals.
    Commitment to difficult goals may suffer.

30
Guidelines for Writing SMART Goals
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Attainable
  • Results oriented
  • Time bound

31
Effect of Goal Difficulty on Performance
High
Area of Optimal Goal Difficulty
Task Performance
Low
Moderate
Challenging
Impossible
Goal Difficulty
32
Approaches to Job Design
1. The Mechanistic Approach focuses on
identifying the most efficient way to perform a
job. Employees are trained and rewarded to
perform their jobs accordingly.
2. Motivational Approaches these techniques (job
enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment, and
job characteristics) attempt to improve
employees affective and attitudinal reactions
and behavioral outcomes.
3. Biological and Perceptual- Motor Approaches
Biological techniques focus on reducing
employees physical strain, effort, fatigue, and
health complaints. The Perceptual-Motor Approach
emphasizes the reliability of work outcomes by
examining error rates, accidents, and workers
feedback about facilities and equipment.
33
The Job Characteristics Model
34
Skills and Best Practices Applying the Job
Characteristics Model
  1. Diagnose the level of employee motivation and
    job. satisfaction and consider redesigning jobs
    when motivation ranges from low to moderate.
  2. Determine whether job redesign is appropriate in
    a given context.
  3. Redesign jobs by including employees input.

35
How Satisfied are You with Your Job?
Job satisfaction is an effective or emotional
response toward various facets of ones job.
  • What is your level of job satisfaction with
    recognition, compensation, and supervision?
  • Is satisfaction across various aspects of your
    job equally important? Explain.

36
Causes of Job Satisfaction
  • Need Fulfillment Satisfaction is based on the
    extent to which a job satisfies a persons needs.
  • Discrepancies Satisfaction is determined by the
    extent to which an individual receives what he or
    she expects from a job.
  • Value Attainment Satisfaction results from the
    extent to which a job allows fulfillment of ones
    work values.
  • Equity Satisfaction is a function of how
    fairly an individual is treated at work.
  • Trait/Genetic Components Satisfaction is partly
    a function of personal traits and genetic factors.

37
Correlates of Job Satisfaction
  • Variables Related Direction
    of Strength of
  • with Satisfaction
    Relationship Relationship

Motivation Positive
Moderate Job Involvement
Positive Moderate
Organizational Citizenship behavior Positive
Moderate
Organizational Commitment Positive
Strong Absenteeism
Negative
Weak Tardiness
Negative
Weak Turnover
Negative
Moderate Heart Disease
Negative
Moderate Perceived Stress
Negative
Strong Pro-Union Voting
Negative Moderate Job
Performance
Positive Weak Life
Satisfaction
Positive Moderate Mental
Health
Positive Moderate
38
What Is Management by Objectives?
Organizational Objectives
Divisional Objectives
Departmental Objectives
Individual Objectives
39
Key Elements of MBO
Goal Specificity
Participation in Decision Making
Explicit Time Period
Performance Feedback
40
Linking MBO and Goal-Setting Theory
41
Employee RecognitionPrograms
Recognition and Reinforcement
Defining Recognition
Recognition Plans in Practice
42
Employee InvolvementPrograms
Participative Management
Representative Participation
Employee Stock Ownership
Quality Circles
43
Variable Pay Plans
Piece Rate
Profit Sharing
Gainsharing
Bonus Plans
44
Skill-Based Pay Plans
  • Promotes Flexibility
  • Facilitates Communication
  • Satisfies Ambitious Workers

Advantages
  • Topping Out
  • Obsolescence of Skills
  • Performance versus Skills

Disadvantages
45
Skill-Based Plans and Motivation Theories
Hierarchy of Needs
Need for Achievement
Equity Theory
Reinforcement Theory
46
The Meaning of Money
  • Money and employee needs
  • affects several needs, not just existence needs
  • Money and attitudes
  • Money ethic -- not evil, represents success,
    should be budgeted carefully
  • Money and self-identity
  • Influences our self-perceptions
  • Evidence that men more than women identify with
    money

..
47
Types of Rewards in the Workplace
  • Membership and seniority
  • Job status
  • Competencies
  • Performance

..
48
Membership/Seniority Based Rewards
  • Fixed wages, seniority increases
  • Advantages
  • guaranteed wages may attract job applicants
  • seniority-based rewards reduce turnover
  • Disadvantages
  • doesnt motivate job performance
  • discourages poor performers from leaving
  • may act as golden handcuffs

49
Job Status-Based Rewards
  • Includes job evaluation and status perks
  • Advantages
  • job evaluation tries to maintain pay equity
  • motivates competition for promotions
  • Disadvantages
  • employees exaggerate duties, hoard resources
  • creates psychological distance across hierarchy
  • Inconsistent with flatter organizations

50
Competency-Based Rewards
  • Pay increases with competencies acquired or
    demonstrated
  • Skill-based pay
  • Pay increases with skill modules learned
  • Advantages
  • More flexible work force, better quality,
    consistent with employability
  • Disadvantages
  • Potentially subjective, higher training costs

51
Performance-Based Rewards
52
Problems with Performance Rewards
  • Shift attention away from motivation job itself
    to extrinsic rewards
  • Create a psychological distance with reward giver
  • Discourage risk taking
  • Used as quick fixes

53
Improving Reward Effectiveness
  • Link rewards to performance
  • Ensure rewards are relevant
  • Team rewards for interdependent jobs
  • Ensure rewards are valued
  • Beware of unintended consequences

..
54
Job Design
  • Assigning tasks to a job, including the
    interdependency of those tasks with other jobs
  • Technology influences, but does not determine,
    job design
  • Employability affects job design

.
55
Evaluating Job Specialization
Advantages
Disadvantages
  • Job boredom
  • Discontentment pay
  • Lower quality
  • Lower motivation
  • Less time changing tasks
  • Lower training costs
  • Job mastered quickly
  • Better person-job matching

56
Job Characteristics Model
Critical Psychological States
Core Job Characteristics
Outcomes
Work motivation Growth satisfaction General sati
sfaction Work effectiveness
57
Job Rotation vs. Job Enlargement
Job Rotation
Job 1 Operate Camera
Job 2 Operate Sound
Job 3 Report Story
Job Enlargement
Job 1 Operate Camera Operate Sound Report Story
Job 2 Operate Camera Operate Sound Report Story
Job 3 Operate Camera Operate Sound Report Story
58
Job Enrichment Strategies
  • Empowering employees
  • giving employees more autonomy
  • feeling of control and self-efficacy
  • Forming natural work units
  • completing an entire task
  • assigning employees to specific clients
  • Establishing client relationships
  • employees put in direct contact with clients

59
Obstacles to Job Design
  • Difficult to accurately measure job
    characteristics
  • Resistance to change
  • skilled workers
  • labor union leaders
  • supervisors
  • Problem finding optimal level of enrichment and
    specialization

60
A Job Performance Model of Motivation
Individual Inputs
Skills
Ability, Job knowledge Dispositions
Traits Emotions, Moods, Affect Beliefs Values
Motivational Processes
Arousal Attention Intensity

Direction Persistence
Motivated Behaviors
Job Context
Physical Environment Task Design Rewards
Reinforcement Supervisory Support
Coaching Social Norms Organizational Culture
Enable, Limit
61
A Job Performance Model of Motivation (cont.)
Skills
Individual Inputs
Motivated Behaviors
Focus Direction, What we doIntensity Effort,
how hard we tryQuality Task
strategies, the way we do
itDuration Persistence, how
long we stick to it
Motivational Processes
Performance
Job Context
Enable, Limit
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