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NH RESPONDS: RtI in Behavior (PBIS) Strand A: Readiness February 6, 2009


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Title: NH RESPONDS: RtI in Behavior (PBIS) Strand A: Readiness February 6, 2009

NH RESPONDS RtI in Behavior (PBIS) Strand A
ReadinessFebruary 6, 2009
  • Presented by
  • Eric Mann, LICSW
  • emann_at_seresc.net
  • (603) 206-6820

Professional Development for Excellence in
Education Presentation to School Faculty
Support for NH RESPONDSis provided by the NH
Bureau of Special Education, NH Department of
Education under a grant from the US Department of
Education, Office of Special Education and
Rehabilitation Services
NH RESPONDS Lead Partners
  • NH Department of Education- Bureau of Special
  • NH Center for Effective Behavioral Interventions
    and Supports at SERESC (NH CEBIS)
  • Expertise in Positive Behavior Supports
  • Expertise in integration of mental health and
    school supports
  • Institute on Disability at University of NH
  • Expertise in Literacy within an RtI model
  • Expertise in PBIS and Intensive Interventions
    (RENEW) for Secondary Transition and Dropout

RtI in Behavior Strand A
  • Strand A is for schools considering using PBIS as
    a multi-tiered RtI system for behavior support.
  • Presumes participants need basic info about PBIS
    the features it addresses in order to decide
    whether to pursue implementation
  • Topics covered in the 2-day workshop
  • PBIS as a multi-tiered RtI continuum of behavior
  • System, data practices features of Tier 1
    (primary) supports, Tier 2 (secondary) supports,
    Tier 3 (tertiary) supports.
  • How PBIS promotes positive school climate
    academic and behavioral outcomes
  • Assessing school readiness our experiences in
    gaining commitments for implementing PBIS
  • Building a credible, representative Universal
    (primary systems) Leadership Team

Broad Outcome
  • After the 2-day session, participants will have
    information necessary to determine whether PBIS
    as an RtI framework is a good match for their
    school and whether to work on an action plan to
  • Build a universal leadership team
  • Address school readiness and commitments for
    implementation, and
  • Access training and support

Two-Day Agenda
  • Introductions
  • Why Systems Change?
  • RtI and PBIS
  • PBIS Primary RtI Systems
  • Universal Team Development
  • Prevention and Response Features
  • Data-based Decision Making
  • Primary Systems Check
  • Systematic Screening
  • PBIS Secondary RtI Systems Features
  • PBIS Tertiary RtI Systems Features

Discussions Protocol
  • Every so often there will be a Discussion slide
  • Discussion Process
  • Take 5 minutes to discuss with your school
  • Please invite folks who are here without a
    teammate and nearby into your discussion
  • Jot key notes/ideas/questions/concerns that
    emerge from your discussion
  • 5 minute group share (share as you are
  • Jot action items on your planning sheet if these
    arise from the discussion

We Know that Schools are Faced with Increasing
  1. The Challenge of Educating an Increasingly
    Diverse Student Population
  2. The Challenge of Providing a Safe, Orderly,
    Positive School Climate Conducive to Learning
  3. The Challenge of Improving Academic Achievement
  4. The Challenge of Producing Students Capable of
    Competing within a Global Economy
  5. The Challenge of Accomplishing These Outcomes
    with Diminishing Resources

Guiding Principle Social Behavior and
Achievement are Linked
To improve the academic success of our children,
we must also improve their social success.
Academic and social failures are reciprocally
and inextricably related. As a result, systems to
support behavior and literacy should be integrated
How Full is Your Plate?
Schools and educators are bombarded with
changing mandates, competing initiatives and
often a train and hope approach to professional
development that is not aligned to a few core
priorities and outcomes
How Full is Your Plate?
  • We believe programs need to be philosophically
    aligned and thoughtful in determining a small
    number of priorities and using a train and
    sustain approach aligning professional
    development activities to those few core
    priorities and outcomes

RtI Implementation Starts From Where You Are
  • RtI is a process, not a set curriculum
  • Its a roadmap with a set of guiding principles
  • Effective RtI systems require buy-in and
    commitment from staff, administration and
    district leadership

Will RtI Match Your Student Outcomes?
  • Improving Literacy and Social Competence
  • Improving Reading Proficiency on Statewide
  • Decreasing Problem Behavior, Office Discipline
    Referrals, Suspensions and Expulsions
  • Reducing Drop Out Rates
  • Increasing Graduation Rates
  • Reducing the Gap between Students with
    Disabilities and Peers
  • Improving Post-Secondary Outcomes

Will RtI Match Your Teacher Needs?
  • Creates systems of behavior and literacy support
    for teachers
  • Promotes streamlined processes working smarter
    not harder
  • Requires efficient access to data for
  • Aligns professional development to teacher needs,
    student needs and district needs
  • Promotes improvements in consistency of practices

Responsiveness to Intervention (RtI)
  • A systematic framework for improving social,
    emotional, behavioral academic outcomes for
    children in K-12 schools ECE Programs.
  • A broad set of evidence-based systemic
    individualized strategies to effectively prevent
    respond to academic and behavioral problems.
  • A strategic approach in which collaborative teams
    use effective group processes data-based
    decision-making to achieve desired outcomes.

Responsiveness to Intervention? National Center
on Response to Interventionwww.rti4success.orgp
  • Response to intervention
  • Integrates assessment intervention within a
    multi-level prevention system to maximize student
    achievement reduce behavior problems. 
  • Schools using RtI
  • Identify students at risk for poor learning
  • Monitor student progress
  • Provide evidence-based interventions
  • Adjust the intensity and nature of those
    interventions depending on a students

Responsiveness to Intervention
  • RtI is based on a continuum of support and
    requires critical factors and components to be in
    place at the
  • Primary/ Universal (Tier 1),
  • Secondary/ Targeted (Tier 2), and
  • Tertiary/ Individual (Tier 3) levels.

Responsiveness to Intervention
  • The ultimate goal of an RtI model is a
    comprehensive and integrated approach to a
    continuum of academic and behavior support for

Tier Scope Focus Features Tools Data
Tier 1 Whole School, All students, Screening and Early Identification Literacy Literacy Standards Word ID Language Comprehension Print Processing Explicit instruction/modeling Systematic instruction/skill-building Ample practice opportunities Immediate corrective feedback Differentiated instruction Continuous assessment Research-based literacy curriculum Classroom-wide and small group Benchmark assessment Data-driven instruction DIBELS NWEA AIMSweb Other
Tier 1 Whole School, All students, Screening and Early Identification Behavior Behavior Expectations Promotion of positive behavior (define, teach, recognize) Response to problem behavior (define behaviors and response processes) Matrix of expected behaviors Teaching plan and practice Recognition plan Problem behavior definitions Response process Reporting/Data collection Weekly data reports of problem behavior Attendance, Periodic self-assessments
Big Outcomes for the 3 Tiers Primary System
  • Classroom teacher school-wide system supports
    as many students as possible using effective
    general structures, best instructional
    behavior management practices
  • As few students as possible require higher level

Tier Scope Focus Features Tools Data
Tier 2 Small Groups and Individual Supports Based on Similarities of Needs and Data Literacy Additional group instruction time to address specific skill needs Diagnostic assessment Small groups based on specific skill needs (e.g., comprehension, sight word recognition, vocabulary) DIBELS AIMSweb Other
Tier 2 Small Groups and Individual Supports Based on Similarities of Needs and Data Behavior Targeted group interventions based on function of behavior Teacher Check, Connect and Expect Check-In, Check-Out PASS (Preparing and Supporting Self-Managers) Social Skills Groups Interest/Strength based Groups Other group interventions Functional Behavioral Assessment and Support Weekly data reports of problem behavior or prosocial behavior Progress monitoring of group interventions Periodic self-assessments
Big Outcomes for the 3 TiersSecondary System
  • Increased opportunities for struggling students
    to succeed by providing additional time,
    strategies, approaches and tools
  • Strategic small group interventions support as
    many at-risk students as possible
  • Social, emotional or academic skill-building
  • Function-based support groups (designed to match
    student function of behavior)
  • Organized strength/interest based activities
  • Increased monitoring of targeted skills to
    measure intervention progress
  • Level of support is commensurate w/ level of need
  • As few students as possible require tertiary
    system supports

A 3-Tier ApproachLevel 3
  • Targets the 1-5 who are not responding to Tier I
    and Tier II efforts.
  • Intensive strategies or programs delivered in
    small group or 11 in addition to core
  • Increased monitoring of targeted skills to
    measure intervention progress
  • Student-centered and adapted to meet individual

Tier Scope Focus Features Tools Data
Tier 3 Individual Assistance Focused on Needs and Data Literacy Additional individual instruction time to address specific skill needs One-on-one instruction Explicit instruction/modeling Systematic instruction/skill-building Ample practice opportunities Immediate corrective feedback Alternative Education Planning (HS) DIBELS AIMSweb Diagnostic Assessment
Tier 3 Individual Assistance Focused on Needs and Data Behavior Individualized plan for behavior supports Functional behavioral Assessment Behavior Support Plan Person-Centered Planning Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) Wraparound RENEW School-to Career Planning (HS) Alternative Education Plans (HS) Weekly data reports of problem behavior Progress monitoring of student Periodic self-assessments Student Progress Tracker (HS)
Big Outcomes for the 3 TiersTertiary System
  1. Individualized interventions support students w/
    chronic or intensive needs their families
  2. Positive productive communications amongst
  3. Big needs identified addressed strategically
    respectfully (home, school community needs)
  4. Long-term, on-going adaptable supports addressed
    to sustain progress
  5. A fix or a cure for the student is not the
    expectation providers accept the complexity and
    challenges of meeting intensive needs
  6. Progress is measured over time frequent
    monitoring of target skills
  7. Assess symptom reduction or symptom management
  8. Assess reduction in frequency or intensity of
    concerning behaviors
  9. 4) Safety needs are met
  10. De-escalation strategies used
  11. Crisis intervention readily accessible
    insight-enhancing strategies used

Basic RtI Philosophy
  • When students demonstrate non-response to
    interventions (strategies, supports, instruction,
    etc), it is the intervention that must be
    changed in order to increase the likelihood of

Big Idea
  • PBIS RtI

PBIS is Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • PBIS is the Behavior Side of RtI
  • We know that social behavior, emotional
    development academic achievement are integrally
  • It follows that effective RtI systems must
    address social, emotional AND academic development

PBIS Its not just about behavior!
Good Teaching
Behavior Management
Increasing District State Competency and
Investing in Outcomes, Data, Practices, and
PBIS is Response to Intervention (RtI)
  • RtI PBIS philosophy provide the lens through
    which we
  • Implement prevention strategies
  • Screen for risk factors (risk for school failure
    or social/ academic disengagement)
  • Implement early interventions to address needs
  • Gauge student response to interventions
  • Provide changes to interventions to increase
    likelihood of success

RtI Logic
  • Teach with Best Curriculum and Instruction
  • Screen Universally and Frequently

Intervene Early at All Levels
Modify and Specialize for Non-responders
Use Student Behavior as Progress Indicator
Implementing RtI Means
  • Knowing HOW to assess progress (methods must be
    efficient/effective use data-based decision
  • Knowing WHEN to assess progress (address
    frequency early)
  • Determining criteria /benchmarks for response
    (its working) and non-response (its not
  • Applying efficient effective supports along a
    continuum so that students receive support
    commensurate w/ their needs (effective/
    efficient/ early practices)

RtI as applied to Reading Instruction
  • Primary Reading Supports are in place.
  • Classroom Teachers provide
  • Prevention supports thru consistent quality
    teaching practices implement evidence-based
    reading curriculum w/ fidelity
  • Early Primary interventions/ strategies for
    students who demonstrate need for a little extra
    support in the classroom
  • Benchmarks/ Criteria are in place to determine
    students who are not responding to primary
  • Efficient access to effective secondary supports
    are in place (sm group supports to address areas
    targeted for improvement)
  • Progress monitoring occurs
  • Benchmarks/ Criteria are in place to determine
    students who are not responding to secondary
  • Efficient access to tertiary level
    individualized supports are in place

Systemic Process of RtI
  • Primary Interventions
  • All students
  • Core curriculum
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Primary Interventions
  • All students
  • Core Curriculum
  • Preventive, proactive

  • Secondary (Targeted Group ) Interventions
  • Some students (at risk indicators)
  • Additional instruction
  • Progress monitoring
  • Secondary (Targeted Group) Interventions
  • Some students (at risk indicators)
  • Additional instruction
  • Progress monitoring

  • Tertiary (Intensive, Individualized)
  • Individual students
  • Specifically tailored instruction
  • Progress monitoring
  • Tertiary (Intensive, Individualized)
  • Individual students
  • Specifically tailored instruction
  • Progress monitoring

PBIS Principle
  • Apply the RtI Model to Behavioral Support

PBIS Continuum of Supports A System of Care
and Education
Effective SW Classroom Management Systems
Practices (Prevention Response) Ample
Opportunities for Student Mastery Use of
Strengths High Rate Positive Teacher-Student
Contacts (All Teachers-All Students) Positive
School-Parent Contacts
Frequent Check for Non-Responders to Primary
Systems Address Academic, Social, Emotional,
Physical Risk Factors Implement Teacher
Primary-Plus Interventions Implement an Efficient
Early Systematic Secondary Intervention ( e.g.
Teacher Check, Connect and Expect)
Primary Preven-tion 80
Array of Function-Based, Skill-Based,
Interest/Strengths-Based Group Interventions for
Non-Responders to Primary Systems and Efficient
Early Interventions
Secondary Preven- tion 15
Mann Muscott (2007)
Individualized Function-Based Support Plans for
School-Wide Group Non-Responders
School-based Intensive Supports Coordinator
Intensive Support Plans Crisis Intervention
Links to Wraparound Facilitation
Person-Centered Planning
School-based Intensive Supports
Tertiary Preven-tion lt5
Links to Community Collaboratives
Links to MH and other Community-Based Supports
PBIS-NH Supports
Supporting Decision Making
Supporting Adults/ Staff
Supporting Students and Families
2. Communication with Staff and Families
1. Universal Team and Processes
Primary Prevention Universal Approaches
8. Systematic Screening
3. School-wide Expectations for All Locations
9. Data-Based Decision Making
4. Classroom Management
7. Responding to Problem Behavior
5. Teach Expectations in Locations
6. Recognize Students for Exhibiting Expected
Muscott Mann (2006)
Steps for Implementing Universal Systems of PBIS
  • Create a representative, credible and influential
    universal leadership team which meets regularly
    and uses effective team processes.

Composition of the Universal School Leadership
Team by Role
  • Administrators
  • Curriculum/Assessment Director
  • General Education Classroom Teacher
  • Special Education Teacher
  • Behavior Specialist/Guidance/Psychologist
  • Reading/Literacy Specialist and/or Title I
  • Family Member
  • Paraeducator

Universal Leadership Team Membership
  • Person w/ school-wide decision-making influence
  • Person (people) w/ classroom experience
  • Person (people) w/ expertise in specially
    designed instruction
  • Person with behavioral expertise
  • Person with curricular expertise (literacy
  • Person (people) w/ skill experience in
    data-based decision making
  • Person (people) w/ expertise in family
  • Person (people) w/ expertise in student
  • Consider developing diverse student leadership

Effective Teams Have a Defined Mission
  • Team members know the mission, support the
    mission, and can easily articulate the mission to

Effective Teams Agree to Ground Rules
  • Effective PBIS-NH Teams Identify Ground Rules,
    Agree to Them,
  • and Stick to Them!
  • Ground Rules are Reviewed Regularly
  • But are Respected Until a Decision
  • is Made to Change

Effective Teams are outcome and action driven
  • Use action planning
  • Promote accountability

Purpose/Type of Meeting
Issue Decision Made/Action Task Person Responsible To Be Done by Date Additional Comments

Action Planning Steps
  1. Identify Issue (Team Meeting Process Where /
    Time to meet)
  2. Identify TASK(s) to Complete (Find
    distraction-free location / poll Team members for
    best time)
  3. Identify Person / People Responsible for
    Completing the Task (John H)
  4. Identify When the Task is to be Completed (2/2/05
    one week prior to next planned Team meeting)

Collaborative Team Process ChecklistMann and
Muscott, 2004
  • Tool to assess team functioning (14 items)
  • Assess status (In place, Partial, Not in Place)
  • Identify Priority (High, Medium, Low)
  • Develop action plan based on priorities
  • Should be completed 2xs a year (Fall, Spring)
  • Team functioning is priority 1!

  • How would you determine who would be on the
    Universal (Primary Systems) Leadership Team at
    your school?
  • How would you address family and student voice on
    this team?

Building the Positive Prevention Features of PBIS
  1. Identify desired outcomes and critical questions
    to address based on a review of existing (or
    additional) sources of data using data-based
    decision making processes.

Data-Based Decision-Making Process Mann
Muscott (2006) Adapted from Horner (2003)
  • Begin w/ Broad Outcomes and Key Questions
  • Broad terms What do we want to achieve? (e.g.
    Want Safe Classrooms)
  • Identify scope of Problem (scope context) using
  • (e.g. assess current safety of classrooms - who,
    what, when, where?)
  • Translate Broad Outcomes into Specific Objectives
    w/ Criteria for Success
  • With precision, what we want to achieve by when
    (e.g. 98 of students daily demonstrate safe
    hands and feet by 11/1)
  • Identify Action Plan to get to the outcomes
  • Who does what by when? (Strategic Plan)
  • Monitor and Evaluate progress
  • Use post-data to assess your progress (Did it

(Adapted for Webinar, 9/16/2008)
Broad Goals of PBIS
  • Regain instructional time lost to behavioral
  • Maximize academic engagement time and academic
    achievement for all students
  • Increase prosocial behavior
  • Enhance school climate for students and adults
  • Increase the willingness and ability of teachers
    to work with students with more complex behavior
  • Adapted from Sugai and Horner, 2000

Amherst Street Elementary SchoolNashua, NH (350)
Cohort 4 Year 1 2006-07 Referrals 152
  • What challenges do you experience in terms of
    school climate and discipline?
  • What outcomes related to climate, discipline or
    school culture would you want to achieve?

Building the Positive Prevention Features of PBIS
  1. Establish a clear set of (3-5) positively stated
    program or schoolwide behavioral expectations
    based on needs and culture.
  2. Clearly define expected behaviors in the
    different settings by location (e.g., classroom,
    bus, bathroom, hallway, playground) or routine
    (e.g., arrival, lunch, circle time).

Antrim Elementary School Eagle Soars
(No Transcript)
Amherst Street Elementary SchoolBe a Safe,
Respectful, Responsible YouPlayground
Playground Follow adult directions Be a good sport Use kind words Play fair Follow your Pledge Return everything you borrowed Walk quietly into the building Use playground equipment properly Report unsafe behavior Stay in the playground area
Hallway Expectations Thorntons Ferry Elementary
  • What are 3-5 core values or behavioral
    expectations that would you identify for your
  • Are these expectations easily translated into
    specific, observable behaviors that demonstrate

Building the Positive Prevention Features of PBIS
  1. Systematically teach the expected behaviors
    within locations using effective instructional
  2. Develop a strategy to acknowledge students for
    exhibiting desired behaviors to be used
    systematically when (a) targeting specific
    behaviors for improvement and/or (b) improving
    school climate

Dublin Consolidated ESTeaching the ABC
Recognizing Expected Behavior and Providing
Positive Adult-Student Contacts
  • When using praise, provide acknowledgement as
    quickly after the expected behavior as possible
  • Provide specific, verbal acknowledgement using
    words from the behavioral matrix
  • Target high rates of positive attention on
    problem routines
  • Provide a 41 ratio of positive contacts to
    corrective contacts
  • Provide acknowledgement to or positive contact
    with as many students as possible

  • What issues arise when thinking about how staff
    and administrators will respond to the idea of
  • Increasing positive contacts with students
  • Using a system for positive recognition following
    teaching of behaviors targeted for improvement

Building the Response to Problem Behaviors
Features of PBIS
  • Definitions of Problem Behaviors
  • a. Majors (office-managed) vs. Minors (staff
  • Office Discipline Referral Form or Form for
    Recording Problem Behaviors
  • Process for Responding to Problem Behaviors
  • Continuum of Consequences and Supports
    (Reteaching, Punishments) addressing Problem
  • Determine a Data Management System (SWIS)

Example Minor Language vs. Major Language
  • Inappropriate language Inappropriate verbal
    comments that are not directed toward an
    individual or group.
  • Abusive language Inappropriate verbal messages
    that include swearing, name calling and profanity
    overtly directed toward someone.

  • How would you approach gaining consensus from
    staff on problem behavior definitions?
  • What challenges may arise?

Data-Based Decision-Making Process Mann
Muscott (2006) Adapted from Horner (2003)
  • Begin w/ Broad Outcomes and Key Questions
  • Broad terms What do we want to achieve? (e.g.
    Want Safe Classrooms)
  • Identify scope of Problem (scope context) using
  • (e.g. assess current safety of classrooms - who,
    what, when, where?)
  • Translate Broad Outcomes into Specific Objectives
    w/ Criteria for Success
  • With precision, what we want to achieve by when
    (e.g. 98 of students daily demonstrate safe
    hands and feet by 11/1)
  • Identify Action Plan to get to the outcomes
  • Who does what by when? (Strategic Plan)
  • Monitor and Evaluate progress
  • Use post-data to assess your progress (Did it

(Adapted for Webinar, 9/16/2008)
Gathering Discipline Data
  • Office Referral Data
  • Gather the information needed to make good
  • Evidence your progress
  • How will you know discipline system is working?
  • When will you check?

Components of a PBIS Office Referral Form
  • Date
  • Time of the Incident
  • Location of the Incident
  • Teachers Name/Name of Referring Staff
  • Students Name
  • Problem Behavior
  • Possible Motivation for the Behavior
  • Others Involved
  • Administrative Decision
  • Other Comments (Optional)

Sample Data Collection Form
Student Name____________________Grade
___ Behavior Location Date ______________ Time
________________ __ Classroom __Hallway
__ Library Referring Staff ___________________
_______ __ Bathroom __Field Trip
__Bus __ Other
Others involved __ None __Peers __ Staff
__Other __ Unknown
Behavior Motivation
  • _ Abusive language __ Obtain peer attention __
    Time in office
  • __ Defiance/Disrespect __ Obtain adult
    attention __ Redirection
  • __ Disruption __ Obtain items/activities __
    Ignore/ None
  • __Fighting/Physical aggression __ Avoid peers __
    Loss of privileges
  • __Harassment/Teasing __ Avoid adult __
    Conference with student
  • __Lying/Cheating __ Avoid task/activity __
  • __Property Damage __ Dont know __ Parent
  • __ Skip class/Truancy __ Other __ In-School
  • __ Individualized Instruction
  • __ Out of School Suspension
  • Major __ Expulsion
  • Minor

Amherst Street Elementary SchoolNashua, NH (350)
Cohort 4 Year 1 2006-07 Referrals 152
Amherst Street Elementary SchoolNashua, NH (350)
Cohort 4 Year 1 2006-07 Referrals 152
Amherst Street Elementary SchoolNashua, NH (350)
Cohort 4 Year 1 2006-07 Referrals 152
Amherst Street Elementary SchoolNashua, NH (350)
Cohort 4 Year 1 2006-07 Referrals 152
Primary System Check
  • A representative Universal Team that includes
  • Functions effectively and efficiently
  • Teams mission/ purpose is understood by team
  • Team regularly reviews school-wide data uses
    data to guide decision-making (data are shared
    with staff regularly)
  • Primary Prevention features are in place
  • Classroom teachers implement classroom behavior
    management instructional strategies at high
    level w/ school-wide consistency
  • Behavioral Expectations established taught
    (visible throughout school)
  • A Behavioral Matrix that displays specific
    expected behaviors in various school locations or
    routines is documented visible
  • Specific behaviors, driven by data, are
    periodically targeted for improvement
    systematically taught with full staff
  • A system to recognize positive behavior is in
    place used following teaching of specific
    behavior targeted for improvement
  • Recognition system is implemented w/ full staff
  • Positive school climate is encouraged includes
    emphasis on high rates of positive contacts fm
    adults to students

Primary System Check
  • A strategy for proactive positive parent contact
    is implemented
  • Primary Response features are in place
  • Accurate data gathered and summarized for
    efficient decision making
  • An office referral form is in place that
    efficiently provides key information regarding
    discipline system violations
  • Problem behaviors are defined in Major
    (office-handled) Minor (staff-handled) versions
    is practiced accurately by staff
  • Procedures for responding to problem behavior for
    Majors Minors are established implemented
    with accuracy
  • Criteria for identifying students who are not
    responding to general primary supports (i.e.,
    early non-responders) as evidenced by at-risk
    indicators is established known by staff
  • Efficient access to an early secondary tier
    support with on-going progress monitoring is
    available for early non-responders

Assure Universal Supports Occur Prior to Focus on
Secondary Supports Mann (2008)
Primary Support Features A Continuum of Responses to Student Problem Behavior (sample)
High rate Adult-Student positive contacts Consistent language Behavioral Expectations and Behavioral Matrix Consistent process for teaching behavioral expectations response to problem behavior Systematic targeting teaching behaviors in need of improvement (based on data) Systematic recognition of specific expected behaviors that are targeted for improvement Effective classroom management practices Effective instructional practices Common definitions of desired behaviors Proactive positive parent contact Common definitions of problem behaviors Continuum of responses to problem behavior Acknowledge the positive behavior of a student who is exhibiting the behavior you want to see State the positive expectation (behavior) to class Physical proximity to student (stand closer) Humor or tangential comment or point of interest to distract Positive attention to student for prior performance Non-verbal cue Direct verbal reminder of the expectation Re-teach positive behavior Discreet 11 conference with student Administrative conference with student Phone converse w/ parent (promote partnership) Conference with parent (promote partnership) Detention and/or Suspension Referral to Guidance Early non-responder referral to secondary system
  • What Primary Systems features are in need of
    improvement at your school?

Targeted (Secondary System) Readiness
  1. Identification of at-risk indicators (i.e.
    concerns that are predictive of risk future
    social, emotional, behavioral, academic problems)
  2. For at-risk indicators, identify primary
    interventions/supports that should exist in
    response to at-risk indicators
  3. Document the criteria/benchmarks for when a
    student demonstrates non-response to primary
    system interventions/supports (i.e. higher level
    supports are needed)

At-Risk Categories
  • What common categories of concern indicate risk
    for future chronic problem behavior, academic/
    social disengagement, or school failure?
  • Major office disciplinary referrals?
  • Attendance/ Late to school?
  • Frequent nurse visits?
  • Homework not completed?
  • Other academic indicators (literacy, numeracy
  • Behavioral concerns not addressed through
    discipline system (e.g. social withdrawal,
    internalizing) ?
  • Other?

What is Screening? Salvia Ysseldyke (1988)
  • Screening is an initial stage of assessment in
    which those who may evidence a particular
    problem, disorder, disability or disease are
    sorted out from among the general population.
  • Individuals who perform below standard thresholds
    on screening measures are considered at-risk.

Types of Screening Already used in Many School
  • Readiness
  • Academic
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Dental
  • Scoliosis
  • ________?
  • Why Not Behavior?

Why Screen for Behavior?Kauffman (2001)
  • To find youngsters whose problems are not
    immediately obvious and identify early problems
    with a high degree of accuracy.
  • Early identification leads to early intervention
  • Early intervention is effective, efficient and

ODRs Are Not Sufficient as a Screening
ToolCheney, et al.
  • Office discipline referrals typically involve
    acting out, noncompliance, and disruption, which
    are known as externalizing types of behaviors
  • Thus, students with less disruptive, more
    internalizing behavior problems such as extreme
    shyness, withdrawal, and depression, who are
    equally in need of supports and intervention, are
    often not identified

A Systematic Screening Process for Behavior
  • A multi-gated screening process to identify
    students at-risk for developing ongoing behavior
    concerns that includes teacher judgments and uses
    national norms to assess the level of risk
  • At each stage, level of risk is determined
  • Those with elevated risk who may require
    additional assessment or services continue to the
    next stage
  • Those who dont have an elevated risk exit the

Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders
  • The SSBD is a multiple gate screening process
    that identifies elementary aged students (grades
    1-6) at-risk for emotional and behavioral
  • The SSBD involves three gates, or stages, to
    identify students at-risk for developing ongoing
    behavior concerns.

Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders
  • The areas of concern are externalizing and
    internalizing behavior problems
  • Externalizing and internalizing account for
    nearly all of the behavior problems that underlay
    child adjustment problems in school and for which
    students are commonly referred to school
    psychological services

SSBD and the Beacons ProjectCheney, et al
  • Results suggest that students who receive early
    support and intervention have
  • fewer referrals to multidisciplinary teams for
    special education eligibility
  • shown improvements in their social and academic
    functioning based on reviews of both report cards
    and state achievement test scores
  • improved their on-task behavior
  • reduced the level of disruptive behaviors to a
    level comparable to their typically developing

Multiple Gate Screening
  • Stage 1 teacher nomination and rank ordering of
    students along two dimensions of behavior
    disorders internalizing externalizing.
  • Stage 2 teachers complete the BASC-2 Behavioral
    Emotional Screening System for each of the
    nominated students.
  • Students whose elevated scores exceed the
    established cut off are candidates for Stage 3.
  • Stage 3 the student is referred to the
    appropriate school-based team to determine
    additional diagnostic assessments and appropriate

SSBD Stage OneNominating Externalizing Students
  • Externalizing refers to all behavior problems
    that are directly outwardly, by the student,
    toward the external social environment.
  • Externalizing behavior problems usually involve
    behavioral excesses (i.e., too much behavior) and
    are considered inappropriate by teachers and
    other school personnel.

Stage OneNominating Externalizing Students
  • Displaying aggression towards objects or persons
  • Forcing the submission of others
  • Defying the teacher
  • Being out of seat
  • Not complying with teacher instructions or
  • Arguing
  • Having tantrums
  • Being hyperactive
  • Disturbing Others
  • Stealing
  • Not following teacher or school-imposed rules

Stage OneNominating Internalizing Students
  • Internalizing refers to all behavior problems
    that are directly inwardly (i.e., away from the
    external social environment) and that represent
    problems with self. Internalizing behavior
    problems are often self-imposed and frequently
    involve behavioral deficits and patterns of
    social avoidance.

Stage OneNominating Internalizing Students
  • Having low or restricted activity levels
  • Not talking with other children
  • Being shy
  • Timid and/or unassertive
  • Avoiding or withdrawing from social situations
  • Preferring to play or spend time alone
  • Acting in a fearful manner
  • Not participating in games or activities
  • Being unresponsive to social initiations by
    others and
  • Not standing up for ones self.

Implementation Procedures Stage One General
  • Screenings are recommended twice a year in
    October and February
  • Group administration at a faculty meeting or
    training is efficient allow 90 minutes for
    Stage One and Two
  • Classroom teachers complete Stage One on all
    students in their class they have known for at
    least one month
  • A class list is needed

Systematic Screening for Behavior
DisordersHill Walker Herb SeversonOregon
Research Institute
BASC-2Behavioral and Emotional Screening System
Randy Kamphaus Cecil Reynolds Pearson
Stage Two Administration of BASC-2 Behavioral
Emotional Screening
  • Administer the BASC-2 BESS Teacher Form Level
    Child/Adolescent (K-12)
  • 27 Questions 5-10 minutes
  • Each item rated Never, Sometimes, Often and
    Almost Always
  • Never means that you have not observed it
  • Rater must be familiar with student daily
    contact for a month or more
  • Mark every item with best estimate

Stage Three Referral to Appropriate School-Based
  • Students who are deemed at elevated risk or
    extremely elevated risk should be referred to the
    appropriate school-based team

Antrim Elementary School (K-4th Grade)
  • Enrollment 133 students in 9 classrooms
  • 98 Caucasian 1 Hispanic 1 African American
  • 15 Free and reduced lunch
  • NECAP Reading 84 (3rd) 81 (4th) 71 (5th)

Antrim Elementary School Screening Example
  • 9 classrooms screened
  • 1st grade through 4th grade teachers used SSBD
    gate 1 and identified 3 internalizers and 3
    externalizers (Gate 1)
  • Six students from the 7 classrooms were assessed
    using the BESS
  • Kindergarten teacher screened all students using
    BESS in am and pm sections
  • 23 of 130 students or 18 scored elevated or
    extremely elevated

Antrim Elementary School Process
  • Team met with every teacher of the 22 students
    for 15-20 minutes to discuss results and other
    data including quick FBA (1 moved)
  • Attendance, tardies, nurse office visits, NWEA
    academic scores, office discipline referrals and
    teacher judgments about academic performance
  • All families contacted and decision made to offer
    group intervention support for all 22 students
  • 21 of 22 families agree to accept supports

Antrim Elementary School
  • This was the best public relations activity Ive
    ever done. I told the families we were offering
    their child support before there were problems at
    school, before they got frustrated and before
    they would lose ground academically and socially.
    The families were grateful.
  • James Elder, Assistant Principal

Antrim Elementary School Seven Group
  • Teacher Check, Connect and Expect
  • Check In and Check Out
  • Buddy Group 11 with Younger Child
  • Changing Families Groups (2)
  • Anxiety, stress, Coping Skills Group
  • Social Skills Using Direct Instruction Group
  • Self-Esteem Group

Targeted (Secondary) System of Support
  • Efficient access to supports for at-risk
  • At-risk for social, emotional, academic failure
    and/or disengagement

2. Data-Based Decision Making
1. Targeted Team and Processes
Secondary Prevention Targeted Approaches A
Function-Based Perspective
8. Behavior Support Planning
3. Communication with Staff and Families
7. Functional Assessment
4. Early Identification and Referral Processes
Muscott Mann (2007)
6. Targeted Group Interventions
5. Scheduled Feedback
Targeted (Secondary System) Readiness
  • 1. Determine how secondary system is activated
    and what happens with activation of secondary
    system (for example)
  • Information form data go to a Quick Integrated
    Screen Team to
  • Assign to an early systematic intervention (e.g.
    Teacher Check, Connect and Expect (TCCE)
  • Assign to Function-based or Skills-based or
    Strength/Interest-based Targeted Group
  • Request Functional Assessment or intensive
  • Monitor Progress Systematically

At-Risk Categories
  • What common categories of concern indicate risk
    for future chronic problem behavior, academic/
    social disengagement, or school failure?
  • Major office disciplinary referrals?
  • Attendance/ Late to school?
  • Frequent nurse visits?
  • Homework not completed?
  • Other academic indicators (literacy, numeracy
  • Behavioral concerns not addressed through
    discipline system (e.g. social withdrawal,
    internalizing) ?
  • Other?

Possible Behavior Categories to Address for
Non-Response Criteria (Benchmarks)Mann Muscott
Possible Category Consider Non-Response Criteria
ODR Disruption Disrespect/ Non-comply Language , Time Frame, Teacher/ Admin response continuum, parent partnership 3 Majors/ repeated minors - no improvement after steps on response continuum (includes parent connection)
Nurse Visits , Time Frame, Reason, Nurse response process 4 visits to nurses office in 1st month w/ soft signs of illness, followed nurse primary response procedures
Attendance or Tardies , Time Frame, Admin Response Process 4 absences in 1st month of school 8 overall SW response process in place
Homework Completion , Time Frame, Teacher Response Process, TGI Not complete 2/6 assignments 2 per wk teacher or team response process refer to HW club
Hygiene , time frame, intensity, response and support process, TGI Continued occurrence following parent contact, teacher conference, nurse consult referral to guidance Address frequency and intensity criteria, referral social skill club
Other Behavioral Concerns Includes retreat/ withdrawal/ internalizing (Teacher initiated or addressed through Systematic Behavior Screening) Behavior(s), teacher response, school system response (guidance, family worker), parent partnership Continued occurrence following parent contact, observation refer to guidance Address frequency intensity criteria
Discussion What are your schools at-risk
  • What categories of concern do you believe have a
    relationship to risk of future chronic academic,
    social, or behavioral failure or disengagement

  • Of the young children who show early signs of
    concerning behavior, it has been estimated that
    fewer than 10 receive services for these
  • Kazdin Kendall, 1998

Center for Evidence Based Practice Young
Children with Challenging Behavior
Primary to Secondary Supports Staff Needs
  • Staff implement primary systems and practices
    with fidelity
  • Staff know at-risk concerns that trigger
    secondary level supports
  • Staff know what steps to take (primary
    supports) prior to referral to secondary support
  • Staff know how to initiate referral process to
    secondary system what to expect when a student
    is referred
  • Staff know what function of behavior means
  • Staff think about how to influence predictors
    before a referral is made (part of primary
    response process)
  • Staff are trained in conflict cycle and implement
    de-escalation techniques with fidelity (initial
    response to conflict crisis prevention
  • Staff are trained in effective parent contact
    practices/ school addresses proactive positive
    contact strategies

Function of Behavior
  • Function of Behavior What is gained or avoided
    as a result of the behavior (i.e. what reinforces
    the behavior, making it likely the behavior will
    repeat given similar context)

Function To Get or Avoid, that is the question
To Get (gain access to) To Avoid (escape from)
Activity/ Task
Functional Assessment Looks at Repeated Patterns
of Behavior
  • Functional assessment answers the question
  • Why would the child continue to engage in problem
    behavior, rather than simply why did (s)he
    exhibit the behavior?

Functional AssessmentSugai, 1998
  • Functional Assessment identifies the reliable
    predictors of behavior resulting in a hypotheses
    of the function of behavior

Testable Hypothesis Simple Behavior Pathway
Maintaining Consequence
Triggering Antecedents
Problem Behavior
Setting Events

Function? (What is the child getting or avoiding
as a result of the behavior)
Testable Hypothesis Simple Behavior Pathway
Maintaining Consequence
Triggering Antecedents
Problem Behavior
Setting Events
Sent out of class to Hallway or Office
Teacher random call up to complete board problems
Escalating disruption throws object, calls out,
Weak Calculation Skills History of feeling
embarrassed when in front of class
Function (What is the child getting or avoiding
as a result of the behavior)?
Teacher Check, Connect and Expect (TCCE)
  • An Early Systematic Intervention for Primary

Teacher Check, Connect and Expect Process
Student is Nominated for Teacher Check, Connect
and Expect Meets a criterion for non-response to
primary systems of support
Mann Muscott (2007) Adapted from Crone, Horner
Hawken (2004)
Quick Screen is performed by Integrated
Screen-Team (academic behavioral sub-set of
Targeted Team)
Parental Permission/ Coach Assigned Review
Meeting Date Set Teacher(s) Coached in
Greeting, Feedback Review TCCE Implemented
TCCE Coach Summarizes Data Keeps Targeted Team
TCCE Card with Behavioral Expectations Provided
in AM
TCCE Coach meets after 20 School Days with
Student, Teacher, Parent to Review Progress
Classroom Teacher(s) provide feedback at set
intervals throughout day
One Minute Review at end of day with Last
Teacher or Lead Teacher TCCE Card to Coach
Consider Different Support
Exit Program
Revise Program
Targeted Group Interventions and Functions of
  • Access Adult Attention/Support. Examples
  • Check-In/ Check-Out
  • Adult Mentoring Programs
  • Access Peer Attention/Support. Examples
  • Social Skills Instruction
  • Peer Mentoring
  • Self-monitoring system with Peer Share Component
  • Academic Skills Support (function academic task
  • Organization/ Homework planning support
  • Homework Completion Club
  • Tutoring
  • Strength/ Interest Based Activities. Examples
  • Basketball Club
  • Mural Makers

Antrim Elementary School 07-08A Piloting of
Practices Year
  • Enrollment is approximately 150
  • The Triangle for 07-08
  • 85 Green 13 Yellow 2 Red
  • Teacher Check, Connect, Expect
  • Targeted Groups
  • Math Club Walking, Running Club, Mural Makers
  • Mural Makers Six students
  • 9/1 2/28 22 ODRS or 3.7 month
  • 3/1 5/21 1 ODR of .3 month

PBIS NH Big IdeaData-based Decision-Making
  • Where do we want to be?
  • How will we know weve gotten there?
  • When will we check?

Staff Trained in Intensive Supports MH Issues
Intensive Supports Coordinator
Emergency Planning Team
Tertiary Systems Features
School-Based Referral Processes
De-escalation Team
Community- Based Referral Processes
Date-Based Decision Making
Home-School-Mental Health Communication Processes
Person-Centered Planning Wraparound
Mental Health Primer
Systematic Screening
Community Resource Mapping
Tertiary Practice Features
Intensive FBA BSP
Facilitated Referrals to Community Supports
Conflict Cycle/ Escalation Cycle/ Life Space
Crisis Intervention
Build Relationships with Families Students
Emergency Response Plans
Next Steps What You Can Do if Interested in
Pursuing Training and Support
  • What information do you need to move from
    interest to readiness?
  • What other action steps would you need to move
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