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The History of Medicine


Title: The History of Medicine Author: gsarka Last modified by: MPS Created Date: 8/7/2007 4:26:43 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The History of Medicine

The History of Medicine
  • In September 1940, four French teenagers stumbled
    upon one of the most famous and astounding
    collection of Paleolithic art in the world the
    cave of Lascaux in the Pyrennes mountains.
  • It is the worlds oldest example of medicine in
    art, dating back 15,000 years.

  • The lone human figure among all the animals is
    the man with a head of a bird, who appears to be
    in a confrontation with a bull and beside him is
    a staff.
  • It is believed that the
  • human figure is some
  • sort of shaman
  • (medicine man).
  • Shaman were in charge of the knowledge of health,
    of life and of death.

  • Primitive man believed that headaches was the
    work of evil spirits who invaded the body of
    unfortunate individuals.
  • Letting the spirits out of the skull would bring
    relief. Thus, the surgical procedure
    trepanning was born.

  • Imhotep lived in Egypt 2900 BC
  • He seems to have been a successful physician.
  • He is one of the first medical men whose name is
    on record and became known as the God of
  • He began using simple surgery instead of just

Ebers papryus oldest collection of medical
writings 1600 BC
  • covered 200 diseases
  • extracted medicine from plants
  • knew position of vital organs
  • circulation of blood

The Two Great Names in the History of Greek
MedicineHippocrates and Galen
  • Hippocrates - dominated the beginning of
    scientific creativity, lasted more than 700
  • He was the first to attempt to separate the
    practice of medicine from religion and
  • Hippocrates taught against such improper conduct.
    He told his students to treat everyone the same.

The Hippocratic Oath
  • A statement describing proper conduct.
  • It was a pledge and is a guideline for honorable
    standards of action.
  • I will use treatment to help the sick according
    to my ability and judgment, but never with the
    view to injury and wrong doingInto whatsoever
    houses I enter, I will enter to help the sick.

Galen Described wounds as Windows to the Body
  • Galen, the great 2nd century physician and
    anatomist, spent his early medical career as a
    surgeon to the gladiators.
  • He employed as many as 20 scribes to write down
    all that he said in during his work.
  • He dissected animals in his medical research.
  • He thought that infections were caused by clouds
    of poisonous gases.

More on Galen
  • Galen believed that disease resulted from an
    imbalance of the vital fluids, or humors, of the
  • The body has in itself blood, phlegm, yellow
    bile, and black bileWe enjoy the most perfect
    health when these elements are in the right

Rome Falls in 476A.D.
  • As the Roman Empire ended, Europe fell into
  • the Dark Ages. Superstition crept back into
  • beliefs about medicine, and people were
  • that diseases were punishment from God.

Some saints were almost specialists
St. Hubert for suffering of rabies
St. Dymphna was favored for mental diseases
St. Roch for plague
St. Blaise for throat complaints
The Middle Ages
  • Europe was hit with a terrible epidemic that
    killed millions of people called the plague, or
    Black Death.
  • Two deadly forms of the plague.
  • pneumonic plague was spread in the air from
    person to person
  • bubonic plague was caused by bites from infected
    fleas. The fleas bit rats and then bit humans
    causing the disease to spread quickly in dirty

The Arab Influence
  • Much of what was learned from the Greeks and
    Romans was transferred to the new Islamic
    regions of Northern Africa, the Middle East and
  • Medical schools and hospitals were built to
    support the work of Arabic doctors who further
    explored medicine as a science.
  • Avicenna(980-1037 A.D.), the prince of
    physicians, is noted for his Canon of Medicine.

Avicenna(980-1037 A.D.) and the Canon of Medicine
The Development of University Medicine
  • First occurred in northern Italy, in the wealthy
    towns of Bologna and Padua, then in France and in
  • Germany lagged behind, but by 1400 AD, many areas
    of Western Europe had their own institutions of
    higher learning.

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 to 1519)
  • Artist in the Renaissance period interested in
    the human form, so he studied anatomy.
  • Da Vinci made hundreds of anatomically
    correct drawings.
  • He dissected bodies in secret.

Andreas Versalius (1514-1564)
  • Was the first master of human anatomy.
  • His careful studies provided doctors with
    accurate information.
  • Versalius did not accept the teachings of Galen
    without experimenting on his own.
  • Versalius kept a copy of Galens books on hand
    and made changes in them. He found over 200
    mistakes in the ancient book!

The Fabric of the Human Body
  • Varesalius was just 28 when he published his
  • It was published in 1543, contained 663 pages and
    300 illustrations.
  • Versalius spent his personal fortune and all his
    enthusiasm on it.
  • The publication of Fabric marked a turning point
    in the history of medicine.

(No Transcript)
The Origins of Modern Surgery
  • Professors in medical schools seldom performed
  • They did not think that it was proper for a
    professional man to do such work.
  • Surgeon is from a French word meaning one who
    works with his hands.
  • In the Europe of the 1500s, barbers, not
    doctors, performed minor operations, pulled
    teeth, and treated cuts.
  • Barbers who gained skill in closing wounds were
    called barber-surgeons.

Ambroise Pare (1510-1590)
  • Pare used ointments and silk thread to repair
    injuries in place of burning oil and hot pokers.
  • Pare did not have a formal education. He never
    earned a medical degree. Yet he became Frances
    most skilled surgeon. In 1562, he was given the
    dignified title, First Surgeon of the King.

Shortage of Cadavers
  • No one donated bodies to science churchgoers
    believed in rising from grave, so dissection
    spoiled chances of resurrection.
  • Became a tradition to rely on executed prisoners,
    even up to 18th and 19th centuries.
  • The added punishment of being dissected after
    death was considered another deterrent from
  • Ex. Steal a pig you were hung
  • Kill a person you were hung
    and dissected
  • Anatomists were often associated with

Grave Robbing
  • Some medical students raided grave yards some
    professors did also. In certain Scottish schools
    in 1700s, you could trade a corpse for your
  • By 1828 in London, body snatchers provided
    medical schools with corpses. Not a crime a
    dead body could not be owned or stolen.
  • Anatomy studies were only conducted from October
    to May to avoid the smell of decomposition.
  • Wealthy people chose to be buried in iron cages,
    some covered in concrete. Also churches built
    dead houses which were locked and guarded.

Medicine in the 17th Century
  • The greatest advance of the 17th century was the
    discovery of the circulation of blood.
  • Credit goes to the Englishman William
  • Harvey dissected his own freshly dead family
    members (his father and sister) before burial.

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
  • Developed the most powerful microscopes of his
  • He discovered one-celled protozoans and bacteria.
  • His work eventually led to the discovery of the
    causes of diseases, such as the Black Death.

Edward Jenner (1749-1823)
  • Jenner was ridiculed and resented by his fellow
    doctors. He unknowingly created the 1st vaccine.
  • This cartoon makes fun of Jenners inoculations.

The Birth of Anesthesia
A 19th century physician administering chloroform
prior to surgery. Ether was one of the earliest
anesthetics to be used but it was difficult to
administer as it usually made the patients choke.
Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829)
  • Humphry Davy discovered laughing gas (nitrous
    oxide) which has made going to the dentist much
    less painful.

James Lind (1716-1794)
  • In James Linds experiment, those that ate citrus
    fruit stayed healthier.
  • Captain Cook took Linds advice and his crew
    stayed health for a four-year journey.
  • The British Navy finally ordered sailors to drink
    lime juice.
  • Lind had found the cure for scurvyvitamin C.

Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe Laennec and the
stethoscope 1821
Ignaz Phillipp Semmelweiss
  • Discovered that the doctors were spreading
    childbed fever. More women were dying under the
    care of doctors than midwives.
  • He proved that doctors were carrying the disease
    from corpses to their patients.
  • He proved that cleanliness could prevent childbed

Joseph Lister (1827-1912) and Infection
  • Discovered that carbolic acid prevented infection
    on compound infections.
  • By insisting that everything be kept clean and
    disinfected, he lowered the death rate in his
  • He discovered it was not the presence of acid but
    the absence of germs that mattered in surgery.

Louis Pasteur(1822-1895)
  • Louis Pasteur argued that diseases were caused by
    germs and so effectively established bacteriology
    as a science.

What Was It Like to be a Medical Student 140
years ago?
  • No one worried about admissions, for entrance
    requirements were lower than they are for a good
    high school student.
  • Instruction was superficial and brief.
  • The terms lasted only 16 weeks, and after the
    second term the M.D. was automatically given,
    regardless of a students academic performance

What Was It Like to be a Medical Student 140
years ago?
  • Teaching was by lecture alone.
  • Thus, students were spared the hassle of
    attending labs, clinics and hospital wards.
  • It was not uncommon for students to graduate
    without ever having touched a patient.

The Birth of Johns Hopkins University and
Medical School
  • At Hopkins, a new era of American medicine was
    born, with rigorous admission requirements and a
    quality of training that set new standards in the
    United States and compared favorably with the
    European institutions.

At Johns Hopkins University and Medical School
  • Candidates for admission to Hopkins were required
    to have a four-year college degree, including
    two years of premedical training in biology,
    chemistry and physics, and a reading knowledge of
    French and German.

Evolution of Disease
  • In the 19th century, diarrheal diseases were the
    biggest killer of children, and tuberculosis was
    the leading cause of adult mortality.
  • In the 20th and 21st centuries, diseases are now
    the leading cause of disease and death in adults.

Technology Reigns Supreme
  • Wilhelm Roentgen invented the x-ray machine
  • Because of its ability to see inside the body,
    x-ray photography is one of the most important
    medical discoveries.

The Birth of the EKG
  • Sir Thomas Lewis mastered the technology of the
    electrocardiogram in 1912.

Andrew W. Doc Fleischer
  • In 1921, he developed the mercurial
    sphygmomanometer that measured blood pressure
    away of assessing the health condition of the

The Beginning of Drugs
Dr. Gerhard Domagk(1895-1964) discovered sulfa
drugs. This drug became world famous when Dr.
Perrin H. Long used sulfa drugs to treat Franklin
Roosevelt Jr. Sulfa was called a wonder drug
because it killed bacteria but did not hurt the
cells of human tissue.
Mold Becomes A Medical Ally in the Battle
Against Bacteria
Alexander Fleming(1881-1955) discovered
penicillin which killed staphylococcal bacteria.
Technology Transform the Medical Arena
  • Dr. Richard Drew(1904-1950) established the use
    of transfusion and blood banks.

Technology Transform the Medical Arena
Dr. Christian Barnard(1922-2001) performed the
first heart transplant in 1967.
Technology Transform the Medical Arena
Dr. William Kolff developed an artificial kidney
Technology Transform the Medical Arena
James Watson and Francis Crick discovered DNA in
Technology and the 20th/21st Century
  • Antiseptics
  • Antibiotics
  • Antiepileptics
  • Antipsychotics
  • Chemotherapies
  • Vaccines
  • Aspirin
  • Blood Transfusions and Blood Banks

Technology and the 20th/21st Century
  • Electron Microscope
  • CT Scans
  • MRI Scans
  • Pet Scans
  • The Human Genome
  • Genetic Testing
  • Genetic Enzyme Replacements Therapy

Technology and the 20th/21st Century
  • Artificial Kidney MachineDialysisKidney
  • Coronary Artery Bypass
  • Angioplasty
  • Total Hip and Knee Replacements
  • Neurosurgery
  • Lasik Surgery
  • Organ TransplantsHeart, Kidney, Lung, Liver,
    Pancreas, etc.