Urbanization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Urbanization PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 614c5a-NjcyN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Urbanization

Description:

Urbanization Indermit Gill and Chor-Ching Goh ... China: facilitating urbanization. The story of Shenzhen since 1980. South Korea: successful urbanization. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:205
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 54
Provided by: wb1080
Learn more at: http://worldbank.mrooms.net
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Urbanization


1
Urbanization
Indermit Gill and Chor-Ching Goh
2
Three places
  • Sriperumbudur. A town of about 100 thousand on
    the Chennai-Bangalore highway
  • In 1991, a village where Indias prime minister
    was assassinated.
  • By 2006, Hyundai had produced one million cars
    there.
  • Shenzhen. A city of 7 million near Guangzhou and
    Hong Kong
  • In 1980, not much more than a fishing village
  • By 2006, its port shipped exports greater than
    all of Indias.
  • Seoul. A metropolis of 12 million, for many years
    mainland Asias most prosperous city
  • In 1970, a squalid slum-ridden place.
  • By 2006, the largest originator of patents after
    the US, Germany, Japan and Taiwan (China).

2
3
Sriperumbudur in 1991
Just a small village where Prime Minister Rajiv
Gandhi was assassinated
Sources http//
4
Sriperumbudur today
The home of Hyundai and others on the
Chennai-Bangalore Highway
Sources http//
5
Shenzhen in 1980
A fishing village of several thousand near
Guangzhou
Source http//4.bp.blogspot.com/_Kp1mQeobrgo/SZvX
BdJBxlI/AAAAAAAAAJU/U7clXduYE9E/s1600-h/shenzhenf
arm.jpg
Source http//www.newsgd.com/specials/30yearsrefo
rm/achievments/content/images/attachement/jpg/site
26/20081126/0010dc53fa040a9730a527.jpg
6
Shenzhen today
A city of 7 million, specializing in electronic
manufacturing
Source http//www.littleredbook.cn/wp-content/upl
oads/2009/02/littleredbook_dot_cn_city-snapshot_sh
enzhen.jpg
Source http//al.china-embassy.org/eng/zggk/W0200
81223055375525157.jpg
7
Seoul in 1925
Gwanghwa Gate, the main entrance of Gyeongbokgung
palace
Sources http//
8
Seoul in 1962
Sejong-Ro Same location, same street
Sources http//
9
Seoul today
Same streetSejong-Rothe busiest in downtown
Seoul
Sources http//
10
Sriperumbudur and India
Economic density in India, a country still
ambivalent about urbanization
www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
11
Shenzhenand China
Economic density in China, a country in the midst
of an aggressive urbanization
www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
12
Seoul and South Korea
Economic density in South Korea, a country that
has seen the fastest urbanization of all time
www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
13
Economic Density
Clip Economic Density
Full Documentary at www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
14
The 2009 WDR
Chapters 1, 4 and 7 develop an Urbanization
Strategy
www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
15
An Urbanization Strategy
  • Should be realistic
  • Must recognize some stylized facts observed for
    early, recent, and late urbanizers
  • Should be rigorous
  • Must be informed by economic analysis that
    identifies the drivers of these changes
  • Should be implementable
  • Must identify a sequenced set of public policies
    for places at different stages of urbanization

15
16
The Elements of an Urbanization Strategy
  • Recognize stylized facts
  • A summary of Chapter 1 Density.
  • Utilize insights from analysis
  • A summary of Chapter 4 Scale Economies and
    Agglomeration.
  • Identify practical policies
  • A summary of Chapter 7 Policies for an Inclusive
    Urbanization.

16
17
The Facts
  • Urbanization is fastest at low income levels.
  • Because the sectoral transformation from
    agriculture to industry happens early.
  • Todays urbanization is not unprecedented.
  • The pace and pattern of urbanization is similar
    for early, middle, and late developers.
  • Portfolios of settlements tend to be stable.
  • Metropolises, cities, and towns appear to serve
    fundamental economic functions.

17
18
Urbanization happens early
Much of urbanization happens before countries get
to 5,000 per capita
Source WDR 2009.
18
19
The pace of urbanization has not changed much
Urbanizations speed is not different from that
in the 19th century
Source WDR 2009, Chapter 1.
19
20
Nor has its distribution
The relative size distribution of urban
settlements is stable over time
Source WDR 2009, Chapter 1.
20
21
Primate cities are similar
A rapid rise in size, then a leveling off
Source WDR 2009, Chapter 1.
21
22
What is different? Size
The absolute size of the worlds largest cities
is much larger today
Source WDR 2009.
22
23
What is not? Slums
Early, middle, and later urbanizers all had slums
The houses are poky and ugly, and insanitary and
comfortless distributed in incredibly filthy
slums in London. --George Orwell
The first encampments of Baltimores poor were
at the waters edge. Time and again, outbreaks
of yellow fever, malaria, cholera, typhoid fever
swept the town. By the 1890s, Polish immigrants
had supplanted the Irish and Germans, creating a
ghetto of a new dimension.
In the 15 years between 1930 and the end of the
war, the population of Singapore doubled to a
million people. The physical condition of much
of the existing housing was dismal.
24
Slums have precedents
Early, middle, and later urbanizers all had slums
Although this is a hugely expensive area in
Paris to live today, in Victor Hugos day it was
a slum area, close to the Bastille Prison.
Katajanokkas transformation from a low-income
housing area of Helsinki. A former slum had
become a prestigious residential area for the
privileged classes.
Melbourne's most infamous slum, Little Bourke
Street, by the 1880s was completely filled up
with all kinds of filth comprising garbage tips,
putrid liquid, straw rags, and other rubbish
25
Urbanization is messy, but necessary
Clip The Industrial Revolution and Cities
Full Documentary at www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
25
Full Documentary at www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
26
The Analysis
  • Human settlements serve market needs.
  • Just as firms and farms provide goods and
    services, settlements provide services too.
  • Urban settlements are complements, not
    substitutes.
  • Most countries need a full complement of
    settlements.
  • Policies should address function, not size, of
    settlements.
  • Manage the full portfolio of places.

26
27
Settlements serve different market needs
  • Towns and small cities allow firms and farms to
    exploit internal scale economies, which are low
    in light and high in heavy industries.
  • Medium-sized cities facilitate localization
    economies which arise from sharing inputs and
    close competition among firms within the
    industry.
  • Metropolises facilitate urbanization economies
    which come from industrial and cultural diversity
    that fosters innovation.

27
28
Towns internal economies
Towns facilitate internal scale economies which
come from large plant sizes and are high in heavy
industries, and low in light industries
Source http//
28
29
Cities localization economies
Cities facilitate localization economies that
come from sharing inputs and infrastructure, and
competition among firms in the industry
Sources http//
29
30
Metropolises urbanization economies
Metropolises facilitate urbanization economies
which come from industrial and cultural diversity
that fosters innovation
Sources http//
30
31
The Policies
  • Recognizing complementary functions of places
    helps to make urbanization inclusive.
  • Principle maximize agglomeration economies
    through economic integration.
  • Policies become complex as urbanization advances.
  • Principle More policy instruments are needed in
    places where urbanization is advanced than where
    it has just begun.
  • Prioritization helps to facilitate inclusive
    urbanization at all stages of development.
  • Principle Start with common institutions, then
    also connective infrastructure, and only then
    targeted interventions.

31
32
Integration gets harder
. as urbanization advances, and more policy
instruments are needed
Institutions to encourage density in Popayan,
Colombia
Institutions and infrastructure to encourage
density and reduce distance in Bucaramanga,
Colombia
Institutions, infrastructure and interventions to
encourage density, reduce distance, and lower
divisions in Bogota
33
An Urban Strategy
For areas of incipient urbanization
  • Indicator Urban shares of 25 to 50 percent
  • Priority Neutrality between rural and urban
    areas
  • Instrument Spatially blind institutions
  • Provide basic social services such as schooling,
    sanitation, streets and security
  • Ensure functional rural and urban land markets
  • Principal responsibility Central government.

Areas in Korea
33
34
An Urban Strategy
For areas with intermediate urbanization
  • Indicator Urban shares of between 50 to 75
    percent
  • Priority Connectivity between urban and rural
    areas, and within urban areas.
  • Instruments Institutions, and spatially
    connective infrastructure
  • Provide basic social services
  • Ensure functional land markets
  • Invest in rural-urban and inter-urban
    infrastructure
  • Principal responsibilities Central and state
    governments

Changsha in China
34
35
An Urban Strategy
For areas with advanced urbanization
  • Indicator Urban shares of gt75 percent
  • Priority Livability of urban areas.
  • Instruments Institutions, infrastructure, and
    spatially targeted interventions
  • Institute basic social services and ensure
    functional land markets
  • Invest in rural-urban and inter-urban
    infrastructure
  • Intervene to integrate slums and improve the
    environment
  • Principal responsibilities Central, state, and
    local governments

Bogota in Colombia
35
36
Calibrating policies
An I for a DAn instrument per dimension of
urbanizations difficulty
Stages Incipient Intermediate Advanced
Goals Build density Build density Reduce distance Build density Reduce distance Eliminate division
Instruments 1 2 3
Institutions ? ? ?
Infrastructure ? ?
Interventions ?
36
37
Institutions
Land tenure security and property rights
  • England 16th century enclosure movement in 1500
    Enclosure Act 1604
  • Denmark 18th century Abolition of villenage
    in 1760 communal to private land holdings
  • USA 19th century 1862 Homestead Act the
    foundation of property rights

Frihedsstøtten (the pillar of freedom) in
Copenhagen, commemorating the abolition of
villenage
37
38
Institutions
Ease of land use conversion, basic services
  • England 18th-19th century Land Enquiry
    Commission 1832 Reform Acts Land valuation
    decrees
  • Sweden, 1960s-70s Royal Housing Commission in
    1945 Million Homes Programme
  • Hong Kong, 1930s-70s 1935 Housing Commission and
    Town Planning Ordinances first land-use strategy
    Zoning Plan in 1963
  • Republic of Korea, 1980s-90s basic amenities and
    property rights

Frihedsstøtten today
38
39
Institutions and Infrastructure
Land markets, transportation
  • Greater London, 18th-19th century Land valuation
    decrees underground The Housing of the Working
    Classes Act 1890 and Cheap Trains for London
    Workers Bill 1890
  • New York Area, 19th-20th century 1916 zoning
    resolution 1938 City Planning Commission 1961
    zoning law.
  • Hong Kong, 1930s-80s 1935 Housing Commission and
    Town Planning Ordinance (amended overtime) 1963
    first land-use strategy Zoning Plan.
  • Bangkok Metro Area, 2000s zoning and parking
    spaces traffic demand controls.

39
40
Institutions, Infrastructure and Interventions
Land use conversion, transport, housing
  • London, 19th century ease of conversion rules,
    expansive transport infrastructure, affordable
    housing near London.
  • New York, 19th-20th century zoning rules which
    respond to market needs, integrated transport
    networks.
  • Hong Kong ,1930s-80s responsive land market
    institutions evolving Town Planning Ordinances
    amended over time to address transport and
    housing needs.
  • Singapore, 1960s-80s responsive zoning laws
    (reflected in rising floor-area ratios),
    expanding transport links, public housing
    programs.
  • Seoul, 1980s-90s universal basic amenities
    property rights and credit for slum dwellers to
    become home owners.

40
41
Conclusion 3 stories
  • India fighting urbanization.
  • The story of Mumbai since 1980.
  • China facilitating urbanization.
  • The story of Shenzhen since 1980.
  • South Korea successful urbanization.
  • The story of Seoul since 1950.

41
42
Fighting Urbanization
Clip Mumbais Slums
Full Documentary at www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
Full Documentary at www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
43
Facilitating Urbanization
Clip Shenzhen and China
Full Documentary at www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
Full Documentary at www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
44
Seoul in the 1950s
Cheonggye river, and the biggest slum in Seoul
Source Aving,network
45
Seoul in the 1970s
A highway is built on the river, through and over
the slums
Source Aving,network
46
Seoul in the 1980s
More infrastructure and new businesses next to
Cheonggye-cheon, the slums were moved to other
parts of the city
Source Aving,network
47
Seoul in 2009
Cheonggyecheon in 2005 Mayor Lee Myungbak, the
current president of South Korea, removed the
highway and recovered the riverfront
Source
48
Prioritization An I for a D
Calibrating the Policy Response
Stages Incipient Intermediate Advanced
Institutions ? ? ?
Infrastructure ? ?
Interventions ?
48
49
An Urbanization Strategy
Must recognize stylized facts
  • A large part of urbanization is over by the time
    a country reaches upper middle incomeviz.,
    levels of per capita income of about 3,500.
  • The relationship between income and urbanization
    is not different for early and later developers.
  • The relative size of urban settlements within a
    country is similar for countries at different
    levels of income, and so is stable over time.

49
50
An Urbanization Strategy
Must be based on rigorous analysis
  • Towns like Sriperumbudur enable firms and farms
    to exploit the advantages that come with size
    internal scale economies
  • Cities like Shenzhen allow firms in similar
    industries to localize and become
    efficientlocalization economies
  • Metropolises like Seoul encourage learning and
    innovation that comes from industrial
    diversityurbanization economies

50
51
An Urbanization Strategy
Must identify policy priorities
  • Incipient urbanizers should lay the institutional
    groundwork for the provision of basic and social
    services and to ensure functional land markets,
    in both rural and urban areas.
  • Intermediate stages of urbanization require, in
    addition, investments in connective
    infrastructure to widen access to advantages of
    growing economic density.
  • Advanced urbanization often requiresin addition
    to institutions and infrastructureplace-based
    interventions such as slum development programs.

51
52
Conclusion
  • Recognize that urbanization is necessary.
  • Dont fight, facilitate.
  • Recognize that urbanization becomes more complex
    as it advances.
  • First the institutions, then the infrastructure,
    then targeted interventions where necessary.
  • Recognize that urbanization will not be clean and
    orderly.
  • The goal should be an inclusive urbanization.

53
For more information
  • World Development Report 2009 Reshaping Economic
    Geography
  • www.worldbank.org/wdr2009
  • World Bank Urban Strategy 2009
  • www.wburbanstrategy.org
  • Chorching Goh
  • cgoh_at_worldbank.org

53
About PowerShow.com