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Greek Tragedy, Euripides and Medea

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Title: Greek Tragedy, Euripides and Medea


1
Greek Tragedy, Euripides and Medea
  • Week 15

2
The fifth century BCE and intellectual revolution
  • Most of these plays date from the last half of
    the fifth century B.C. they were written in and
    for an Athens that, since the days of Aeschylus,
    had undergone an intellectual revolution.
  • It was in a time of critical reevaluation of
    accepted standards and traditions that Sophocles
    produced his masterpiece, Oedipus the King, and
    the problems of the time are reflected in the
    play.

3
Mysterious contemporary
  • The use of the familiar myth enabled the
    dramatist to draw on all its wealth of
    unformulated meaning, but it did not prevent him
    from striking a contemporary note.
  • Oedipus, in Sophocles play, is at one and the
    same time the mysterious figure of the past who
    broke the most fundamental human taboos and a
    typical fifth-century Athenian.
  • His character contains all the virtues for which
    the Athenians were famous and the vices for which
    they were notorious.

4
Pericles and Oedipus
  • The Athenian devotion to the city, which received
    the main emphasis in Pericles praise of Athens,
    is strong in Oedipus his answer to the priest at
    the beginning of the play shows that he is a
    conscientious and patriotic ruler.

5
EURIPIDES
  • 480-406 B.C.

6
Euripides
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7
The Works of Euripides
  • Hecuba    Written 424 B.C.E  Helen    Written
    412 B.C.E    Translated by E. P. Coleridge The
    Heracleidae    Written ca. 429 B.C.E
       Translated by E. P. Coleridge
  • Alcestis    Written 438 B.C.E   Andromache
       Written 428-24 B.C.E  The Bacchantes
       Written 410 B.C.E

8
Works of Euripides
  • Rhesus    Written 450 B.C.E The Suppliants
       Written 422 B.C.E    Translated by E. P.
    Coleridge The Trojan Women    Written 415
    B.C.E
  • Iphigenia At Aulis    Written 410 B.C.E
    Iphigenia in Tauris    Written 414-412 B.C.E
       Translated by Robert Potter Medea
       Written 431 B.C.E    Translated by E. P.
    Coleridge

9
Medea
  • an ancient Greek tragedy written by Euripides,
    based upon the myth of Jason and Medea and first
    produced in 431 BC.
  • The plot centers on the barbarian protagonist as
    she finds her position in the Greek world
    threatened, and the revenge she takes against her
    husband Jason who has betrayed her for another
    woman.

10
Jason bringing Pelias the Golden Fleece
11
Medea
  • Euripides Medea, produced in 431 B.C., the year
    that brought the beginning of the Peloponnesian
    War, appeared earlier than Sophocles Oedipus the
    King, but it has a bitterness that is more in
    keeping with the spirit of a later age.

12
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14
Prologue of Medea
  • NURSE
  • Oh how I wish that ship the Argo      had never
    sailed off to the land of Colchis,      past the
    Symplegades, those dark dancing rocks     which
    smash boats sailing through the Hellespont.     
    I wish they'd never chopped the pine trees
    down      in those mountain forests up on
    Pelion,      to make oars for the hands of those
    great men      who set off, on Pelias'
    orders,      to fetch the golden fleece.

15
Nurse
  • Then my
    mistress,      Medea, never would've sailed
    away       to the towers in the land of
    Iolcus,      her heart passionately in love with
    Jason.      She'd never have convinced those
    women,      Pelias' daughters, to kill their
    father.      She'd not have come to live in
    Corinth here,         with her husband and her
    childrenwell loved      in exile by those whose
    land she'd moved to.      She gave all sorts of
    help to Jason.

16
Jason and Medea fled to Corinth.
  • When Jason and Medea returned to Iolcus, Pelias
    still refused to give up his throne. Medea
    conspired to have Pelias' own daughters kill him.
  • She told them she could turn an old ram into a
    young ram by cutting up the old ram and boiling
    it (alternatively, she did this with Aeson,
    Jason's father).
  • During the demonstration, a live, young ram
    jumped out of the pot. Excited, the girls cut
    their father into pieces and threw him into a
    pot.
  • Having killed Pelias, Jason and Medea fled to
    Corinth.

17
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20
??? Medea
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    ?,??,?????????????
  • ????????????,?????????????,?????????????
  • ??????????????,??????,????????????????????,???????
    ?,?????????????,????????????,????????,????????????
    ????????????,???????????

21
golden coronet, covered in poison
  • In Corinth, Jason abandoned Medea for the king's
    daughter, Glauce.
  • Medea took her revenge by sending Glauce a dress
    and golden coronet, covered in poison.
  • This resulted in the deaths of both the princess
    and the king, Creon, when he went to save her.

22

23
Luigi Cherubini Medea http//www.amazon.com/Luig
i-Cherubini-Medea/dp/B001JFKW8A/refsr_1_6?smusic
ieUTF8qid1293028145sr1-6
24
The golden chariot
  • According to the tragic poet Euripides, Medea
    continued her revenge, murdering her two children
    by Jason. Afterward, she left Corinth and flew to
    Athens in a golden chariot driven by dragons sent
    by her grandfather Helios, god of the sun.

25
Medea (about to murder her children) by Eugène
Ferdinand Victor Delacroix (1862).
26
Ironic expression
  • If Oedipus is, in one sense, a warning to a
    generation that has embarked on an intellectual
    revolution, Medea is the ironic expression of the
    disillusion that comes after the shipwreck.
  • In this play we are conscious for the first time
    of an attitude characteristic of modern
    literature, the artists feeling of separation
    from the audience, the isolation of the poet.

27
rejected by his contemporaries
  • The common background of audience and poet is
    disappearing, the old certainties are being
    undermined, the city divided.
  • Euripides is the first Greek poet to suffer the
    fate of so many of the great modern writers
    rejected by most of his contemporaries (he rarely
    won first prize and was the favorite target for
    the scurrilous humor of the comic poets), he was
    universally admired and revered by the Greeks of
    the centuries that followed his death.

28
Private and intellectual life
  • It is significant that what little biographical
    information we have for Euripides makes no
    mention of military service or political office
    unlike Aeschylus, who fought in the ranks at
    Marathon, and Sophocles, who took an active part
    in public affairs from youth to advanced old age,
    Euripides seems to have lived a private, an
    intellectual life.

29
Questioning the received ideas
  • Younger than Sophocles ( though they died in the
    same year), he was more receptive to the critical
    theories and the rhetorical techniques offered by
    the Sophist teachers
  • his plays often subject received ideas to
    fundamental questioning, expressed in vivid
    dramatic debate.

30
Euripides Medea
  • His Medea is typical of his iconoclastic
    approach his choice of subject and central
    characters is in itself a challenge to
    established canons.
  • He still dramatizes myth, but the myth he chooses
    is exotic and disturbing, and the protagonist is
    not a man but a woman.

31
The citizen rights?
  • Medea is both woman and foreignerthat is, in
    terms of the audiences prejudice and practice
    she is a representative of the two free-born
    groups in Athenian society that had almost no
    rights at all (though the male foreign resident
    had more rights than the native woman).

32
Anti-social
  • The tragic hero is no longer a king, one who is
    highly renowned and prosperous such as Oedipus,
    but a woman who, because she finds no redress for
    her wrongs in society, is driven by her passion
    to violate that societys most sacred laws in a
    rebellion against its typical representative,
    Jason, her husband.

33
Earth and Sun
  • All through Medea the human beings involved call
    on the gods two especially are singled out for
    attention Earth and Sun.
  • It is by these two gods that Medea makes Aegeus
    swear to give her refuge in Athens, the chorus
    invokes them to prevent Medeas violence against
    her sons, and Jason wonders how Medea can look on
    Earth and Sun after she has killed her own
    children.

34
The Magic Chariot
  • These emphatic appeals clearly raise the question
    of the attitude of the gods, and the answer to
    the question is a shock.
  • We are not told what Earth does, but Sun sends
    the magic chariot on which Medea makes her
    escape.

35
rejected by most of his contemporaries
  • Euripides is the first Greek poet to suffer the
    fate of so many of the great modern writers
    rejected by most of his contemporaries (he rarely
    won first prize and was the favorite target for
    the scurrilous humor of the comic poets), he was
    universally admired and revered by the Greeks of
    the centuries that followed his death.

36
Iconoclastic
  • His Medea is typical of his iconoclastic
    approach his choice of subject and central
    characters is in itself a challenge to
    established canons.
  • He still dramatizes myth, but the myth he chooses
    is exotic and disturbing, and the protagonist is
    not a man but a woman.
  • Medea is both woman and foreigner, that is, in
    terms of the audiences prejudice and practice
    she is a representative of the two free-born
    groups in Athenian society that had almost no
    rights at all (though the male foreign resident
    had more rights than the native woman).

37
great intellectual power
  • She is not just a woman and a foreigner, she is
    also a person of great intellectual power.
  • Compared with her the credulous king and her
    complacent husband are children, and once her
    mind is made up, she moves them like pawns to
    their proper places in her barbaric game.
  • The myth is used for new purposes, to shock the
    members of the audience, attack their deepest
    prejudices, and shake them out of their
    complacent pride in the superiority of Greek
    masculinity.

38
Finds no redress
  • The tragic hero is no longer a king, one who is
    highly renowned and prosperous such as Oedipus,
    but a woman who, because she finds no redress for
    her wrongs in society, is driven by her passion
    to violate that societys most sacred laws in a
    rebellion against its typical representative,
    Jason, her husband.

39
Earth and Sun
  • All through Medea the human beings involved call
    on the gods two especially are singled out for
    attention Earth and Sun.
  • It is by these two gods that Medea makes Aegeus
    swear to give her refuge in Athens, the chorus
    invokes them to prevent Medeas violence against
    her sons, and Jason wonders how Medea can look on
    Earth and Sun after she has killed her own
    children.
  • These emphatic appeals clearly raise the question
    of the attitude of the gods, and the answer to
    the question is a shock. We are not told what
    Earth does, but Sun sends the magic chariot on
    which Medea makes her escape.

40
Cinema and television
  • In the 1963 film Jason and the Argonauts, Medea
    was portrayed by Nancy Kovack.
  • In the 2000 Hallmark presentation Jason and the
    Argonauts, Medea was portrayed by Jolene Blalock.
  • In 1970, the Italian director Pier Paolo Pasolini
    directed a film adaptation of Medea featuring the
    opera singer Maria Callas in the title role.

41
Latest films
  • In 2007, director Tonino De Bernardi filmed a
    modern version of the myth, set in Paris and
    starring Isabelle Huppert as Medea, called Médée
    Miracle. The character of Medea lives in Paris
    with Jason, who leaves her.
  • In 2009,"Medea" was shot by director Natalia
    Kuznetsova. Film was created by the tragedy of
    Seneca in a new for cinema genre of Rhythmodrama,
    in which the main basis of acting and atmosphere
    is music written before shooting. -?
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/22Medea22

42
??????? (1970) http//www.imdb.cn/title/tt0066065
  • ???,?????,?????????????,?????????????????????????
    ??????,????????????????????,??????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????,????????????????,??????
    ????????????,????????,?????????,????????????  

43
???????????? Pier Paolo Pasolini
  • ??????????,????????????Pasolini????????(?)????,???
    ?????????--?????????,?????????????????????,???????
    ??????????,????????????????????????????,???????,?
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????,????????????????

44
ending
  • ??,??????????????,?????????????--????????????,????
    ????????????????????????,???????????????????? 
      ????????????????,??????????????????????????,???
    ???????????????
  • http//video.mail.ru/mail/karelina-natalia/4815/28
    316.html

45
Jason
  • shouting into the house, as he shakes the
    doors                                         
    You slaves in there, remove the bar from this
    door at once,  withdraw the bolts, so I may see
    two things my dead sons and their murderer,
    that woman      on whom I shall exact
    revenge.      

46
The exodus of Medea
  • Jason shakes the doors of the house, which remain
    closed.
  • Medea appears in a winged chariot, rising above
    the house. The bodies of the two children are
    visible in the chariot

47
Medea
  • Why are you rattling the doors like that, trying
    to unbar them so you can findtheir bodies and
    me, the one who killed them? Stop trying. If you
    want something from me,      then say so, if you
    want to. But you'll never      have me in your
    grasp, not in this chariot,      a gift to me
    from my grandfather Helios,      to protect me
    from all hostile hands.

48
CHORUS Exit Chorus
  •       Zeus on Olympus,      dispenses many
    things.            Gods often contradict     
    our fondest expectations.      What we
    anticipate      does not come to pass.     
    What we don't expect      some god finds a
    way          
  • to make it happen.      So with this story.

49
Translation
  • https//records.viu.ca/johnstoi/euripides/medea.h
    tm

50
The Life and Death of Jason
51
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