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10: The Growth of Democracy, 1824


Title: Chapter Ten Author: UHASAEM Last modified by: Jack Brigham Created Date: 5/21/2002 1:53:11 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 10: The Growth of Democracy, 1824

10 The Growth of Democracy, 18241840
  • The utmost good faith shall always be observed
    towards the Indians their land and property
    shall never be taken from them without their
    consent and, in their property, rights, and
    liberty, they shall never be invaded or
    disturbed, unless in just and lawful wars
    authorized by Congress. . . Indian Treaties

Chapter Review Questions
  • Why would a person oppose universal white manhood
    suffrage? suffrage for free African American men?
    for women of all races?
  • Opponents believed that Andrew Jackson was
    unsuited in both political experience and
    temperament to be president of the United States,
    yet his presidency is considered one of the most
    influential in American history. Explain the
    changes in political organization and attitude
    that made his election possible.
  • Both the Nullification Crisis and Indian Removal
    raised the constitutional issue of the rights of
    a minority in a nation governed by majority rule.
    What rights, in your opinion, does a minority
    have, and what kinds of laws are necessary to
    defend them?
  • Why was the issue of government support for
    internal improvements so controversial? Who
    benefited from the transportation revolution? Who
    lost ground?
  • What were the key differences between Whigs
    Democrats? What did each party stand for? Who
    were their supporters? What is the link between
    the party's programs and party supporters?
  • What distinctive American themes did the writers,
    artists, and builders of the 1820s and 1830s
    express in their works? Are they still considered
    American themes today?

  • Albert Fishlow, American Railroads and the
    Transformation of the Ante-Bellum Economy (1965)
  • Robert Fogel, Railroads and American Economic
    Growth Essays in Econometric History (1964)
  • Oscar and Mary Handlin, Commonwealth A Study of
    the Role of Government in the American Economy
  • Robert Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Source of
    American Freedom (1981)
  • Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., The Age of Jackson

  • 1817     Erie Canal construction begins
  • 1818     National Road completed to Wheeling
  • 1819     Dartmouth College v. Woodward
  •             McCullough v. Maryland
  • 1821     Martin Van Burens Bucktails oust DeWitt
    Clinton in New York
  • 1824     Gibbons v. Ogden
  •             John Quincy Adams elected president
    by the House of Representatives
  • 1825     Erie Canal opens
  • 1826     First American use of the steam-powered
    printing press
  • 1828     Congress passes Tariff of Abominations
  •             Andrew Jackson elected president
  •             John C. Calhoun publishes Exposition
    and Protest
  • 1830     Jackson vetoes Maysville Road Bill
  •             Congress passes Indian Removal Act
  •             Baltimore and Ohio Railroad opens

  • 1831-32 Alexis de Tocqueville in US May to
  • 1832     Nullification Crisis begins
  •             Jackson vetoes renewal of Bank of the
    United States charter
  •             Jackson reelected president
  • 1833     National Road completed to Columbus,
  • 1834     Cyrus McCormick patents the McCormick
  •             Whig party organized
  • 1836     Jackson issues Specie Circular
  •             Martin Van Buren elected president
  • 1837     Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
  •             John Deere invents steel plow
  •             Ralph Waldo Emerson first presents "
    The American Scholar"
  •             Panic of 1837
  • 1838     Cherokee removal along "Trail of Tears"
  • 1840     Whig William Henry Harrison elected
  • 1841     John Tyler assumes presidency at the
    death of President Harrison
  • 1844     Samuel F. B. Morse operates first

A Martin Van Buren Forges a New Kind of
Political Community
  • The son of a tavern keeper, Martin Van Buren
    lacked the aristocratic connections necessary for
    political advancement in New York.
  • Van Buren built a democratically controlled,
    well-disciplined party organization that brought
    him political power.

B The New Democratic Politics in North America
Continental Struggles over Political Rights
  • In 1821, Mexico won independence from Spain.
  • Santa Anna was the strongest early president
    assuming dictatorial powers but was in office
    when Texas and northern provinces were lost to
    the United States.
  • In Haiti, independence destroyed the sugar
  • The British Caribbean islands experienced
    numerous revolts leading to the abolition of
    slavery and the subsequent decline of the sugar
  • A revolt in 1837 by Upper and Lower Canada led to
    the union of the two regions to make the
    French-speaking population a minority.

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Westward Expansion
  • While the population of the United States more
    than doubled between 1800 and 1830, the
    trans-Appalachian population grew tenfold.

The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage
  • 1800, only white, male, property owners could
    vote in most states.
  • As new western states came into the Union
    suffrage expanded.
  • By 1820 most of the older states had dropped
    property qualifications.
  • By 1840, 90 percent of adult white males could
  • Women and African Americans were barred from

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The Election of 1824
  • The 1824 election marked an end to the political
    truce of the Era of Good Feelings. Four
    candidates ran for the presidency.
  • Though Andrew Jackson had the most popular votes,
    John Quincy Adams won as a result of the
    so-called corrupt bargain.
  • Hostile relations with Congress block many of
    Adams' initiatives.

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The New Popular Democratic Culture
  • A more popular form of politics was emerging.
  • New state organizations on the increased
    political participation helped elect Andrew
    Jackson president. New techniques of mass
    campaigning encouraged increases in participation.

The Print Revolution
  • The print revolution was most evident in the
    growth of newspapers.
  • It also helped democratize politics by
    publicizing the new political pageantry.
  • Tightly-organized, broad-based political groups
  • Party loyalty among politicians and the public
    was stressed as politics became a feature of
    everyday life.

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The Election of 1828
  • In the 1828 election, Jackson triumphed as his
    supporters portrayed the contest as a struggle
    between democracy and aristocracy.
  • His victory showed the strength of the new
    popular democratic culture and system of national
    parties made up of a coalition of the North,
    South, and West.

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C The Jackson Presidency
A Popular Figure
  • Jackson symbolized the personal advancement that
    the frontier offered.
  • His inauguration brought out a mob of
    well-wishers whose unruly behavior led critics to
    fear that this was the beginning of the reign of
    King Mob.

A Strong Executive
  • Jacksons Democrats created a national coalition
    that transcended sectional identity.
  • Jackson was a strong executive who consulted with
    the "Kitchen Cabinet, largely ignoring his
  • Jackson strengthened the presidency by using the
    veto more frequently than had all of his
    predecessors combined.
  • His most famous veto of the Maysville Road Bill
    of 1830 was a defeat for western rival Henry Clay.

The Nation's Leader
  • Regional spokespeople included
  • Daniel Webster for the East
  • John C. Calhoun for the South and
  • Henry Clay for the West.
  • Jackson overrode sectional interests and had
    national appeal.
  • Whigs national bank, tariffs, and
    internal/infrastructure improvements

D Internal Improvements, Building an
The Transportation Revolution
  • By 1850, rivers, canals, road, and railroads tied
    the nation together.

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Travel Times
  • The transportation revolution dramatically
    reduced travel times and connected people to the
    outside world.

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The Transportation Revolution in Perspective
  • States provided more funding for roads, canals
    and railroads than the federal government.
  • Between 1800 and 1840, the building of roads and
    canals, and the steamboat stimulated the
    transportation revolution that
  • encouraged growth
  • promoted the mobility of people and goods and
  • fostered the growing commercial spirit.

  • Water transport was quicker and less expensive
    than travel by land.
  • The Erie Canal stimulated east-west travel and
    was built with New York State funds. The canal
    connected Buffalo on Lake Erie with Albany along
    the Hudson River. Constructing the canal was a
    vast engineering challenge and required a massive
    labor force, many of whom were contract laborers
    from Ireland.
  • The canal helped farmers in the west became part
    of a national market.
  • Towns along the canal grew rapidly.
  • A canal boom followed.

Steamboats and Railroads
  • Steamboats
  • made upstream travel viable
  • helped to stimulate trade along western rivers
  • turned frontier outposts like Cincinnati into
    commercial centers.
  • The most remarkable innovation was the railroad.
  • Technical problems included the absence of a
    standard gauge.
  • By the 1850s consolidation of rail lines
    facilitated standardization.

The Legal Infrastructure
  • The Supreme Court fostered economic growth by
  • asserting federal power over interstate commerce
  • encouraging economic competition by denying
  • State laws enabled businesses to protect
    themselves by granting charters of incorporation.

Commercial Agriculture in the Old Northwest
  • The transportation revolution helped farmers sell
    in previously unreachable markets. Government
    policy encouraged commercial agriculture by
    keeping land cheap. Regional specialization
    enabled farmers to concentrate on growing a
    single crop, but made them dependent on distant
    markets and credit.
  • Innovations in farm tools greatly increased

Effects of the Transportation Revolution
  • The transportation revolution
  • provided Americans much greater mobility
  • allowed farmers to produce for a national market
  • fostered a risk-taking mentality that promoted
    invention and innovation.
  • Americans increasingly looked away from the East
    toward the heartland, fostering national pride
    and identity.

E Jackson and his Opponents The Rise of the
The Nullification Crisis
  • Constitutional ambiguity, sectional interests,
    and the states rights issue caused political
  • The 1828 Tariff of Abominations elicited a
    strong reaction from South Carolina. Southerners
    argued that the tariff was an unconstitutional
    effort to enrich the North at Southern expense.
  • John C. Calhoun wrote a defense of the doctrine
    of nullification claiming states could refuse to
    enforce laws they deemed unconstitutional.
  • South Carolina nullified 1833 tariff threatened
    to secede.
  • Jackson considered South Carolina's action
    treason and passed the Force Bill.
  • Henry Clay engineered a compromise tariff that
    ended the threat of civil war.

Indian Removal
  • Jackson embraced the policy of Indian cession of
    their lands and removal west of the Mississippi
  • The five civilized tribes of the South were most
  • Even though the Cherokee had adopted white ways
    and accepted white culture, Jackson pressed for
    their removal.
  • Jackson defied the Supreme Court ruling in favor
    of the Cherokee.
  • The Cherokee removal was called theTrail of
  • The Removal Act of 1830 was strongly opposed by

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The Bank War
  • Chartered in 1816, the Second Bank of the United
    States was a quasi-private institution.
  • The Second Bank acted as a currency stabilizer
  • encouraging the growth of strong and stable
    financial interest and
  • curbing less stable and irresponsible ones.
  • Eastern merchants found the bank a useful
  • Western farmers and speculators feared the Bank
    represented a moneyed elite.
  • Jackson vetoed the bill when Clay and Webster
    pushed for early re-chartering.

Jackson's Second Term
  • In the election of 1832 Jackson soundly defeated
    Henry Clay.
  • After his victory, Jackson withdrew federal
    deposits and placed them in pet banks.
  • Jackson claimed that he was the direct
    representative of the people and could act
    regardless of Congressional opinion.

The Whigs, Van Buren, and the Panic of 1837
  • The Bank called in commercial loans, causing a
  • Jacksons opponents founded an opposition
    partythe Whigs.
  • The new party lost the 1836 election to Martin
    Van Buren.
  • The death of the Bank led to feverish speculation
    and the Panic of 1837.
  • The depression that resulted led to great
    hardship giving the newly formed Whig Party its

F The Second American Party System
The Campaign of 1840
  • In the election of 1840 Whigs portrayed their
    candidate, William Henry Harrison, as a humble
    man happy to live in a log cabin.

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Voter Turnout
  • The Whigs won a sweeping electoral victory in a
    campaign with 80 percent voter turnout in 1840.

The Tyler Presidency
  • The Whig triumph was short-lived as Harrison died
    a month after his inauguration. Vice-President
    John Tyler assumed office.
  • A former Democrat, Tyler vetoed a series of bills
    calling for a new Bank of the US, tariffs, and
    internal improvements.
  • The Whigs were unable to bridge the gap between
    North and South.

G American Arts and Letters
Creating a Popular Culture
  • Steam-powered presses, the transportation
    revolution, and the telegraph helped facilitate a
    communications revolution.
  • Newspapers and almanacs fostered popular culture.

Creating a National American Culture
  • An intellectual movement was stimulated by
    eastern societies and journals.
  • Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and
    especially Ralph Waldo Emerson created a
    distinctly American culture.

Artists and Builders
  • Artists such as Albert Bierstedt and George Caleb
    Bingham drew upon dramatic themes from the
    American landscape and lifestyles.
  • Neoclassical remained the architectural style for
    public buildings.
  • Balloon frame construction enabled Americans to
    build homes at a rapid clip.
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