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WORLD WAR I

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WORLD WAR I iRespond Graph 67% 33% 100% 100% 67% A* B* C D E 0 1 2 3 iRespond Graph 67% 33% 100% 100% 67% A* B* C D E 0 1 2 3 iRespond Graph 67% 33% 100% 100% 67% A* ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WORLD WAR I


1
WORLD WAR I
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WORLD WAR I
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Tensions High in Europe
  1. Nationalism
  2. different ethnic groups demanding self rule
    (Serbs, Croats, Czechs) too much foreign rule
  3. fervently devoted to interests of own nations
  4. Imperialism
  5. colonial competition for power
  6. Militarism
  7. preparing for war, military build up
  8. 1870-1914 military spending in Europe increased
    300
  9. Rival Alliances
  10. Triple Alliance - Germanys attempt to isolate
    France (Germany, Austria-Hungary)
  11. Triple Entente - Frances response (France, Great
    Britain, Russia)

6
Assassination
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand - June 28, 1914
  • Gavrilo Princip - Serbian nationalist
  • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia - July 28,
    1914

7
WWI ALLIANCES
  • Central Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Bulgaria
  • Romania
  • Allied Powers
  • Russia
  • France
  • Great Britain
  • Italy
  • Greece
  • United States

8
The Western Front
  • The Western Front was the name the Germans gave
    to a series of trenches that ran 700 kilometers
    from the Belgian coast to the Swiss border.
  • Both sides dug in.trenches were constructed and
    were used during the entire war

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The Western Front
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No Mans Land
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American Neutrality
  • Why Neutral?
  • Economy
  • 700 million GNP 1898
  • 3.5 billion in 1914
  • 1st three years of WWI---GNP increased 7x
  • Public Opinion?
  • 92 mil population
  • 30 mil immigrants
  • Whos for Allied Powers
  • Whos for Central Powers
  • Germans/Austrians, Irish, American Jews
  • President Woodrow Wilson

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The Trenches
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Trench Warfare
  • Size and strength of militaries were equal
  • New Technologies
  • Big Bertha, flame thrower, hand grenades, tanks,
    chemical weapons etc.
  • Stalemate
  • Trench Warfare
  • living conditions
  • trench foot
  • over the top
  • no mans land

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The Technology of War
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The Technology of War
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The Technology of War
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The Technology of War
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Causes of US Entering the War
  • Unterseeboot - U-Boats
  • Germany violates international law p. 571
  • went undetected and attacked without warning
  • Wilson issued two warnings about cutting off
    diplomatic relations with Germany
  • British used propaganda in US

24
  • Lusitania
  • British liner carrying weapons
  • 128 Americans on board perished
  • Sussex Pledge
  • Germans promised that U-boats would warn ships
    before attacking
  • Zimmerman Telegram
  • From Arthur Von Zimmerman To German Ambassador
    in Mexico
  • Russian Revolution - if US entered war they did
    not want to support a czar or king - 1917

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  • Events and contributing factors that led the U.S.
    into the war were
  • The United States strong pro-English leanings,
  • Wilson's belief in democracy as the most humane
    and Christian form of government,
  • American investments in Allied countries,
  • The interception of the Zimmerman telegram-which
    revealed Germany's attempt to bring Mexico into
    the war on their side,
  • Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare, which
    cost the United States heavily in lives and goods
  • The necessity of keeping the trade doors open for
    the economic survival of the United States, and
    primarily,
  • Wilson's fear of a German victory, a victory
    which would mean the domination and conquest of
    countries that would bring an end to all of
    Wilson's dreams of peace and democracy.

27
Supplying the Allies
  • The American entry into the war made an immediate
    difference. ?
  • The United States Navy helped the British find
    and destroy German submarines. ?
  • Convoysteamsof navy destroyers escorted groups
    of merchant ships across the Atlantic, reducing
    Allied shipping losses from 900,000 to 300,000
    tons a month.

28
Russian Withdrawal
  • In November 1917, the Bolsheviks, a group of
    communists, overthrew the democratic Russian
    government. ?
  • Led by Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks wanted to
    end Russias participation in the war. ?
  • In March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was
    signed with Germany, surrendering territory to
    the Germans. ?
  • The Germans were able to move troops from the
    Eastern Frontline of battleto the Western Front
    in France.

29
German Offensive
  • The Germans now launched a powerful offensive
    against the Allies, pushing them back to within
    50 miles of Paris. ?
  • It suddenly looked as if Germany might win the
    war.
  • Although the first American soldiers had reached
    France in June 1917, many months passed before
    they were ready for battle. ?
  • When they finally began to fight, the Americans
    helped turn the war around.

30
Americans on the European Front
How did American troops help the Allies win the
war?
Women serve as drivers, nurses, and clerks
3 million Americans served with American
Expeditionary Force
Americans join the Allied counterattack against
Germans, forcing Germanys surrender in 1918
African American 369th Infantry Regiment fights
for the French Army. Entire regiment awarded
Frances highest combat medal
American troops help save Paris from German attack
31
American Expeditionary Force
  • General John J. Pershing led the American troops
    in Europe, the American Expeditionary Force
    (AEF). ?
  • The AEF reached full strength in Europe in the
    spring of 1918. ?
  • The French and British wanted to use the American
    soldiers to build up their own troops, but
    General Pershing preferred to keep the AEF a
    separate force.

32
Americans in Action
  • turned back a German offensive at Château-Thierry
    on the Marne River and then advanced to nearby
    Belleau Wood.
  • By the middle of July, the Allies had stopped the
    German offensive and began an offensive of their
    own.
  • In mid-September 550,000 American troops defeated
    the Germans at Saint Mihiel, east of Verdun.
  • Then, American troops joined the Allies in the
    Battle of the Argonne Forest (seven weeks)
  • In early November, the Allies finally pushed back
    the Germans and broke through the enemy lines.

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Section 3-4a
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Section 3-4b
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On the Home FrontTo strengthen the war effort,
the American government expanded its control over
the economy and brought changes to American
society.
Committee on Public Education Rallies popular
support for the war with films, posters, and
pamphlets
The Sedition Act of 1918 Makes it illegal to make
disloyal statements about the U.S. government
or military
Daylight Savings Time
Price Controls
ENFORCING LOYALTY
Espionage Act of 1917 Passed in response to fears
that German secret agents might try to weaken
American war effort. Act makes it illegal to
interfere with the draft
Literacy Test for Immigrants Law passed forcing
immigrants to prove they can read before entering
the country. Led to Anti-German feelings
Rationing
36
Controlling Public Opinion
  • Many Americans were opposed to the war. ?
  • Some German Americans and Irish Americans
    sympathized with the Central Powers.
  • Many socialistspeople who believe industries
    should be publicly ownedand pacifistspeople
    opposed to the use of violenceopposed the war.
  • Some of the strongest antiwar sentiment came from
    womens groups such as the Womens Peace Party.

37
Controlling Public Sentiment
  • In 1917 Congress passed the Espionage Act, which
    provided stiff penalties for espionagespyingas
    well as for aiding the enemy or interfering with
    army recruiting. ?
  • The Sabotage and the Sedition Acts of 1918 made
    it a crime to say, print, or write almost
    anything perceived as negative about the
    government. ?
  • Such actions would be considered sabotagesecret
    action to damage the war effort.

38
Wilsons 14 Points
  • As the world was ready to punish Germany, the US
    called for a peaceful solution
  • 14 points summarized
  • end secret agreements
  • freedom of seas, trade, limit on arms
  • peaceful settle of disputes over colonies
  • national self-determination
  • 14th point - general association of nations
    that would ensure the security and peace for all
    nations --- League of Nations

39
Global PeacemakerWilsons plan met opposition at
home and in Europe
American economy slows as wartime production ends
Returning troops face difficult adjustment to
civilian society
UNITED STATES AFTER THE WAR
Many women and minority workers faced with loss
of jobs as men return to workforce
Despite contribution to war effort, returning
African American troops continue to face
discrimination and segregation
Death and destruction of war leads to feeling of
gloom among Americans
40
Section 5-10a
41
Section 4-8a
42
Section 5-3a
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