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Early Modern Period

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Title: 1450-1750 Author: User Last modified by: NPSD Created Date: 5/3/2010 2:03:09 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Other titles: Arial Tahoma Times ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Modern Period


1
1450-1750
  • Early Modern Period

2
Major Points
  • 1. Shift in power to the West
  • 2. World becomes smaller
  • 3. New Empires
  • 4. Age of Gunpowder

3
End of Post-Classical
  • 1. Independent societies (Aztecs, Incas) falling
    apart
  • 2. Arab power declining
  • 3. New invasions Mongols
  • 4. Ottoman Empire gains power
  • 5. Chinese flirt with trade, but Ming bureaucrats
    pull back
  • 6. Europe enters age of exploration

4
Whats Happening in the West
  • 1. Unusual agricultural civilization
  • 2. New view of family nuclear
  • 3. Return to rational thought
  • 4. Stable political structures
  • 5. Religious reformers

5
The Global Economy
  • 1. By 1750, almost everyone knows everyone
  • 2. Food exchange
  • 3. Unequal relationships
  • 4. Slaves and serfs
  • 5. Diseases

6
Themes of this Unit
  • 1. Declining emphasis of nomads
  • 2. Direct relationships ambassadors replace
    intermediaries (Nomads)
  • 3. Gender relations remain patriarchal
  • 4. Labor relations change
  • 5. A few commercial leaders get rich
  • 6. Environmental changes
  • 7. Native vegetation
  • 8. Centralization of governments
  • 9. Nation-states began to emerge

7
Larger Trends
  • 1. Americas overwhelmed by outsiders
  • 2. Three trends
  • a. Western expansion
  • b. Globalization of trade
  • c. Gunpowder
  • 3. Reactions
  • a. Embrace by choice
  • b. Embrace by force
  • c. Choose to remain independent, involve in
    trade on own terms

8
Why 1450?
  • a. End of the Middle Ages
  • b. Beginning of the Northern Renaissance away
    from Italian city-states
  • c. English evicted from France
  • d. Unified France began to exercise its power
  • e. Globalization of trade begins
  • f. Direct contact between Europe and sub-Saharan
    Africa/Americas
  • g. End of the Byzantine Empire
  • h. Ottoman Turks rise to power

9
Why 1750?
  1. Europe on the cusp of the Industrial Revolution
  2. Shift in the global balance of power
  3. Self-imposed isolation about to end
  4. Colonization about to shift to imperialism
  5. New world order

10
What to Know?
  • Examples of What You Need to Know for M/C
  • Neoconfucianism, but not specific
    Neoconfucianists
  • Importance of European exploration, but not
    individual explorers
  • Characteristics of European absolutism, but not
    specific rulers
  • Reformation, but not Anabaptism or Huguenots
  • Ottoman conquest of Constantinople, but not the
    Safavid Empire
  • Siege of Vienna (168889), but not the Thirty
    Years' War
  • Slave plantation systems, but not Jamaica's
    specific slave system
  • Institution of the harem, but not Harem Sultan

11
Essay Topics
  • Compare colonial administrations
  • Imperial systems European monarchy compared with
    a land-based Asian empire
  • Coercive labor systems slavery and other
    coercive labor systems in the Americas
  • Analyze the development of empire (i.e. general
    empire building in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the
    Americas
  • Analyze the development of imperial systems a
    European seaborne empire compared with a
    land-based Asian empire.
  • Compare Russia's interaction with the West with
    the interaction of one of the following (Ottoman
    Empire, China, Tokugawa Japan, Mughal India) with
    the West
  • Compare Mesoamerican and Andean systems of
    economic exchange

12
Topics for Review
  • Changes in Trade
  • Changes in Technology
  • Global Interactions
  • Role of Gender
  • Slaves Coercive Labor systems
  • Demographic shifts
  • Cultural Intellectual Developments
  • Major Empires
  • Europe, Ottomans, China (Ming Qing), Spain
    Port., Russia (Peter Catherine), France,
    England, Tokugawa Japan, Mughal India, African
    kingdoms (Kongo, Songhai)

13
Changes in Trade European Exploration
  • Causes
  • Early Iberian
  • Late Northern
  • Colonization
  • Patterns of world trade
  • Regions outside the new trade patterns
  • Commercial Revolution

14
Changes in Technology
  • Navigational tecnology
  • Rudder
  • Lateen sails
  • Astrolabe
  • Compass
  • caravels

15
Global Interactions
  • Colonization of the Americas (north vs. south)
  • Columbian Exchange
  • Triangular Trade

16
Role of Gender
  • Remains patriarchal
  • Marriage primarily an eco. arrangement
  • Europe limited access for small s of women
  • Generalizations
  • China Influence of Confucianism
  • Middle East culture defines roles

17
Slaves Coercive Labor systems
  • Slave systems in the Americas
  • African slave trade
  • Effects on Africa

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18
Demographic shifts
  • Diseases
  • Animals
  • New Crops
  • Comparative Population Trends

19
Cultural Intellectual Developments
  • Renaissance/Reformations/Scientific
    Revolution/Enlightenment

20
Major Empires Europe
  • 1. Most monarchies
  • a. divine right ordained by God
  • 2. Retain pure bloodlines to God
  • a. intermarriage among royal families of
    different nations common
  • b. monarchies of one nation gained
    international influence
  • i. ties of marriage/inheritance led to
    alliances
  • 3. Strong national loyalties
  • a. Led to internal/external conflicts
  • i. religious fights between Protestants and
    Catholics
  • ii. internal civil wars between monarch and
    nobles
  • iii. battles stemming from trade disputes
    between rival nations
  • 4. Spain/Portugal start off strong
    England/France replace

21
The Ottoman
22
Ming Qing China
23
Tokugawa Japan
24
Russia
25
Mughal India
26
African Kingdoms
27
Conclusion
  • After 1400, a new world balance was being
    created. The Mongol conquest caused the decline
    of Arab strength and opened opportunities for new
    participants in the Islamic trade system. At
    first, the Ming dynasty of China appeared poised
    to take over the lead in world trade. When the
    Ming withdrew from international leadership, the
    nations of western Europe began to assert
    themselves. The emergence of western Europe was
    signaled by internal changes that prepared the
    way for leadership. Changes outside the Eurasian
    network in Africa, the Americas, and Polynesia
    also affected the nature of international
    relationships.
  • After 1750, the West underwent a series of
    dramatic transformations in politics,
    intellectual development, and industrialization.
    The latter revolution altered basic social and
    cultural patterns, enhanced Europe's position in
    the world, saw the rise of new powers, and found
    European culture exported to settler colonies
    such as the United States and Australia..

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