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An Era of Democracy, Reform and Imperialism

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Title: An Era of Democracy, Reform and Imperialism


1
An Era of Democracy, Reform and Imperialism
  • Pre-AP Unit 13 Chapters 26 27

2
Suffrage
  • The right to vote Suffrage was a goal of the
    middle and lower-classes in Western Europe and
    the United States during the mid-19th century and
    became the key goal of the worldwide Womens
    Rights Movement of the late-19th and early 20th
    centuries.
  • In 1800 women were mainly defined by their family
    and household roles. The vast majority of women
    throughout Europe and the United States had no
    legal identity apart from their husbands. Married
    women could not be a party in a lawsuit, could
    not sit on a jury, could not hold property in
    their own names, and could not write a will.
    Women in the early 19th century remained legally
    inferior and economically dependent on men. In
    the course of the 19th century and during the
    Second Industrial Revolution, women struggled to
    change their status. During much of the 19th
    century, working-class groups maintained the
    belief that women should remain at home to bear
    and nurture children and should not be allowed in
    the industrial workforce. The Second Industrial
    Revolution, however, opened the door to new jobs
    for women. There were not enough men to fill the
    relatively low-paid, white-collar jobs being
    created, so employers began to hire women. Both
    industrial plants and retail shops needed clerks,
    typists, secretaries, file clerks, and
    salesclerks. The expansion of government services
    created some job opportunities for women. They
    could be secretaries and telephone operators, and
    also took jobs in education, health, and social
    services. While some middle-class women held
    these jobs, they were mainly filled by the
    working class who aspired to a better quality of
    life.
  • Many people in the 19th century believed that men
    were responsible to work outside the home while
    women should care for the family. During the
    1800s, marriage remained the only honorable and
    available career for most women. The number of
    children born to the average woman began to
    decline the most significant development in
    the modern family. This decline was tied to
    improved economic conditions, as well as to
    increased use of birth control. In 1882 Europes
    first birth control clinic opened in Amsterdam.

Closure Question 1 Explain why the birthrate
declined during the 1800s. (At least 1 sentence)
3
Womens Suffrage Movement
4
Chartist Movement
  • A popular movement among workers and other groups
    who were not permitted to vote in Great Britain
    in the early 19th century. Leaders of the
    movement presented the demands to British
    Parliament first in 1838, though Parliament did
    not grant working-class urban men the right to
    vote until 1867. By the early 1900s most adult
    males in Britain had the right to vote.
  • The Peoples Charter called for suffrage for all
    men and annual Parliamentary elections. It also
    proposed to reform Parliament in other ways. In
    Britain at the time, eligible men voted openly.
    Since their vote was not secret, they could feel
    pressure to vote in a certain way. Members of
    Parliament had to own land and received no
    salary, so they needed to be wealthy. The
    Chartists wanted to make Parliament responsive to
    the lower classes. To do this, they demanded a
    secret ballot, an end to property requirements
    for serving in Parliament, and pay for members of
    Parliament.
  • Parliament rejected the Chartists demands.
    However, their protests convinced many people
    that the workers had valid complaints. Over the
    years, workers continued to press for political
    reform, and Parliament responded. It gave the
    vote to working-class men in 1867 and to male
    rural workers in 1884. After 1884, most males in
    Britain had the right to vote. By the early
    1900s, all the demands of the Chartists, except
    for annual elections, became law.

5
Queen Victoria
  • Ruler of England from 1837 to 1901 Victorias
    sense of duty and moral respectability
    demonstrated the attitude of the British during
    her rule, which came to be known as the Victorian
    Age.
  • The figure who presided over all this historic
    change was Queen Victoria. Victoria came to the
    throne in 1837 at the age of 18. She was queen
    for nearly 64 years. During the Victorian Age,
    the British Empire reached the height of its
    wealth and power. Victoria was popular with her
    subjects, and she performed her duties capably.
    However, she was forced to accept a less powerful
    role for the monarchy. The kings who preceded
    Victoria in the 1700s and 1800s had exercised
    great influence over Parliament. The spread of
    democracy in the 1800s shifted political power
    almost completely to Parliament, and especially
    to the elected House of Commons. Now the
    government was completely run by the prime
    minister and the cabinet.
  • About two years after her coronation, Queen
    Victoria fell in love with her cousin Albert, a
    German prince. She proposed to him and they were
    married in 1840. Together they had nine children.
    Prince Albert established a tone of politeness
    and correct behavior at court, and the royal
    couple presented a picture of loving family life
    that became a British ideal. After Albert died in
    1861, the queen wore black silk for the rest of
    her life in mourning. She once said of Albert,
    Without him everything loses its interest.

6
Third Republic
  • Government established by the French National
    Assembly in 1875. The Third Republic ruled France
    until World War II, but with a dozen political
    parties competing for power France remained
    divided.
  • In 1890, several industrial countries had
    universal male suffrage (the right for all men to
    vote.) No country, however, allowed women to
    vote. As more men gained suffrage, more women
    demanded the same. During the 1800s, women in
    both Great Britain and the United States worked
    to gain the right to vote. British women
    organized reform societies and protested unfair
    laws and customs. AS women became more vocal,
    however, resistance to their demands grew. Many
    people, both men and women, thought that woman
    suffrage was too radical a break with tradition.
    Some claimed that women lacked the ability to
    take part in politics.
  • After decades of peaceful efforts to win the
    right to vote, some women took more drastic
    steps. In Britain, Emmeline Pankhurst formed the
    Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU) in
    1903. The WSPU became the most militant
    organization for womens rights. Its goal was to
    draw attention to the cause of woman suffrage.
    Emmeline Pankhurst, her daughters, Christabel and
    Sylvia, and other WSPY members were arrested and
    imprisoned many times. When they were jailed, the
    Pankhursts led hunger strikes to keep their cause
    in the public eye. British officials force-fed
    Sylvia and other activists to keep them alive.
    Though the woman suffrage movement gained
    attention between 1880 and 1914, its successes
    were gradual. Women did not gain the right to
    vote in national elections in Great Britain and
    the United States until after World War I.

Closure Question 2 Why was the road to
democracy more difficult for France than for
England?
7
Dreyfus Affair / Anti-Semitism
  • Anti-Semitism Prejudice against Jews
    Anti-Semitism has played a prominent role in
    European society since the fall of the Roman
    Empire, with many European nations preventing
    Jews from owning land or participating in
    European politics.
  • Dreyfus Affair Controversy within France
    surrounding Captain Alfred Dreyfus, one of the
    few Jewish officers in the French army. In 1894,
    Dreyfus was accused of selling military secrets
    to Germany, found guilty and sentenced to life in
    prison on what was later found to be false
    evidence presented by other army officers. The
    Dreyfus Affair divided France, with many members
    of society arguing that Dreyfus case ought not
    to be reopened even when information proving that
    he had been framed was brought to light.
  • Public opinion was sharply divided over the
    scandal. Many army leaders, nationalists, leaders
    in the clergy, and anti-Jewish groups refused to
    let the case be reopened. They feared sudden
    action would cast doubt on the honor of the army.
    Dreyfus defenders insisted that justice was more
    important. In 1898, the writer Emile Zola
    published an open letter titled Jaccuse! (I
    accuse!) in a popular French newspaper. In the
    letter, Zola denounced the army for covering up a
    scandal. Zola was sentenced to a year in prison
    for his views, but his letter gave strength to
    Dreyfus cause. Eventually, the French government
    declared his innocence.

Closure Question 3 What was the Dreyfus Affair?
Summarize the event in your own words.
8
Zionism
  • Jewish national movement begun in the late 1800s
    Zionists immigrated to Jerusalem in Palestine in
    hopes of regaining control of the traditional
    Jewish homeland.
  • Anti-Semitism, or hostility toward and
    discrimination against Jews, was not new to
    Europe. Since the Middle Ages, the Jews had been
    falsely portrayed by Christians as the murders of
    Jesus Christ and subjected to mob violence. Their
    rights had been restricted. They had been
    physically separated from Christians by being
    required to live in areas of cities known as
    ghettos. By the 1830s, the lives of many Jews had
    improved. They had legal equality in many
    European countries. They became bankers, lawyers,
    scientists, and scholars and were absorbed into
    the national culture. Old prejudices were still
    very much alive, though, and anti-Semitism grew
    stronger in the late 1800s. The intensity of
    anti-Semitism was evident from the Dreyfus affair
    in France. In 1894, a military court found
    Dreyfus, a captain in the French general staff,
    guilty of selling army secrets. During the trial,
    angry right-wing mobs yelled anti-Semitic sayings
    such as Death to the Jews. After the trial
    evidence emerged that proved Dreyfus innocent. A
    wave of public outcry finally forced the
    government to pardon Dreyfus in 1899.
  • The Dreyfus case showed the strength of
    anti-Semitism in France and other parts of
    Western Europe. However, persecution of Jews was
    even more severe in Eastern Europe. Russian
    officials permitted pogroms, organized campaigns
    of violence against Jews. From the late 1880s on,
    thousands of Jews fled Eastern Europe. Many
    headed for the United States. For many Jews, the
    long history of exile and persecution convinced
    the to work for a homeland in Palestine. In the
    1890s, a movement known as Zionism developed to
    pursue this goal. Its leader was Theodor Herzl, a
    writer in Vienna. It took many years, however,
    before the state of Israel was established.

Closure Question 3 What was the connection
between anti-Semitism and Zionism?
9
Closure Assignment 1
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 26, Section 1
  • Why was the road to democracy more difficult for
    France than for England?
  • What was the Dreyfus Affair? Summarize the event
    in your own words.
  • What was the connection between anti-Semitism and
    Zionism?

10
Dominion
  • A nation which is self-governing in domestic
    (local) affairs but remains part of a larger
    empire. During the mid-1800s Canada became a
    dominion, with its own national government though
    it continued to be a part of the British Empire.
  • Canada was originally home to many Native
    American peoples. The first European country to
    colonize Canada was France. The earliest French
    colonists, in the 1600s and 1700s, had included
    many fur trappers and missionaries. They tended
    to live among the Native Americans. Some French
    intermarried with Native Americans. Great Britain
    took possession of the country in 1763 after it
    defeated France in the French and Indian War. The
    French who remained lived mostly in the lower St.
    Lawrence Valley. Many English-speaking colonists
    arrived in Canada after it came under British
    rule. Some came from Great Britain, and others
    were Americans who had stayed loyal to Britain
    after the American Revolution. They settled
    separately from the French along the Atlantic
    seaboard and the Great Lakes.
  • Religious and cultural differences between the
    mostly Roman Catholic French and the mainly
    Protestant English-speaking colonists caused
    conflict in Canada. Both groups pressed Britain
    for a greater voice in governing their own
    affairs. In 1791 the British Parliament tried to
    resolve both issues by creating two new Canadian
    provinces. Upper Canada (now Ontario) had an
    English-speaking majority. Lower Canada (now
    Quebec) had a French-speaking majority. Each
    province had its own elected assembly.

Closure Question 1 Why did Britain create Upper
Canada and Lower Canada, and who lived in each
colony?
11
Maori / Aborigines
  • Maori Polynesian people who settled in New
    Zealand around 800 A.D. and developed a culture
    based on farming, hunting, and fishing.
  • Aborigines Native peoples of Australia.
    Aborigines are the longest ongoing culture in the
    world and live as nomads, fishing, hunting and
    gathering food.
  • The British sea captain James Cook claimed New
    Zealand in 1769 and part of Australia in 1770 for
    Great Britain. Both lands were already inhabited
    however, when Cook reached Australia he
    considered it to be void of human life. Britain
    began colonizing Australia in 1788 with convicted
    criminals. The prisons in England were severely
    overcrowded. To solve this problem, the British
    government established a penal colony in
    Australia. A penal colony was a place where
    convicts were sent to serve their sentences. Many
    European nations used penal colonies as a way to
    prevent overcrowding of prisons. After their
    release, the newly freed prisoners could buy land
    and settle.

Closure Question 2 A) What was unusual about
the first European settlers in Australia? B) Why
do you think that Great Britain chose to send
these settlers to Australia?
12
Home Rule
  • A goal of many Irish citizens to gain local
    control over internal matters while remaining a
    part of the British Empire. Great Britain,
    fearful that British Protestants living in
    Ireland might become targets of the Irish
    Catholic majority, refused to allow the
    establishment of a democratic self-government in
    Ireland prior to World War One.
  • English expansion into Ireland had begun in the
    1100s, when the pope granted control of Ireland
    to the English king. English knights invaded
    Ireland, and many settled there to form a new
    aristocracy. The Irish, who had their own
    ancestry, culture, and language, bitterly
    resented the English presence. Laws imposed by
    the English in the 1500s and 1600s limited the
    rights of Catholics and favored the Protestant
    religion and the English language. Over the
    years, the British government was determined to
    maintain its control over Ireland. It formally
    joined Ireland to Britain in 1801. Though a
    setback for Irish nationalism, this move gave
    Ireland representation in the British Parliament.
    Irish leader Daniel OConnell persuaded
    Parliament to pass the Catholic Emancipation Act
    in 1829. This law restored many rights to
    Catholics.
  • In the 1840s, Ireland experienced one of the
    worst famines of modern history. For many years,
    Irish peasants had depended on potatoes as
    virtually their sole source of food. From 1845 to
    1848, a plant fungus ruined nearly all of
    Irelands potato crop. Out of a population of 8
    million, about a million died from starvation and
    disease over the next few years. During the
    famine years, about a million and a half people
    fled from Ireland. Most went to the United
    States others went to Britain, Canada, and
    Australia. At home, in Ireland, the British
    government enforced the demands of the English
    landowners that the Irish peasants pay their
    rent. Many Irish lost their land and fell
    hopelessly in debt, while large landowners
    profited from higher food prices.

Closure Question 3 How was Britains policy
toward Canada in the 1700s similar to its policy
toward Ireland in the 1900s?
13
Irish Republican Army
  • Unofficial military force seeking independence
    for Ireland. Beginning in the middle of World War
    I, the IRA staged a series of attacks against
    British officials in Ireland. The attacks sparked
    a war between the nationalists and the British
    government. This conflict influenced British
    Parliament to divide Ireland and grant home rule
    to Irish Catholic southern Ireland.
  • One reason for Britains opposition to home rule
    was concern for Irelands Protestants. They
    feared being a minority in a country dominated by
    Catholics. Most Protestants lived in the northern
    part of Ireland, known as Ulster. Finally, in
    1914, Parliament enacted a home rule bill for
    southern Ireland. Just one month before the plan
    was to take effect, World War I broke out in
    Europe. Irish home rule was put on hold.
    Frustrated over the delay in gaining
    independence, a small group of Irish nationalists
    rebelled in Dublin during Easter week, 1916.
    British troops put down the Easter Rising and
    executed its leaders. Their fate, however,
    aroused wider popular support for the nationalist
    movement.
  • After World War I, the Irish nationalists won a
    victory in the elections for the British
    Parliament. To protest delays in home rule, the
    nationalist members decided not to attend
    Parliament. Instead, they formed an underground
    Irish government and declared themselves
    independent. In 1921, Britain divided Ireland
    and granted home rule to southern Ireland.
    Ulster, or Northern Ireland, remained a part of
    Great Britain. The south became a dominion called
    the Irish Free State. However, many Irish
    nationalists, led by Eamon De Valera, continued
    to seek total independence from Britain. In 1949,
    the Irish Free State declared itself the
    independent Republic of Ireland.

Closure Question 3 How was Britains policy
toward Canada in the 1700s similar to its policy
toward Ireland in the 1900s?
14
Closure Assignment 2
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 26, Section 2
  • Why did Britain create Upper Canada and Lower
    Canada, and who lived in each colony?
  • A) What was unusual about the first European
    settlers in Australia? B) Why do you think that
    Great Britain chose to send these settlers to
    Australia?
  • How was Britains policy toward Canada in the
    1700s similar to its policy toward Ireland in the
    1900s?

15
Manifest Destiny
  • Term used to describe the belief that God wanted
    the United States to own all of North America.
  • Expansionists strongly supported the idea of
    Manifest Destiny, envisioning the expansion of
    liberty for white Americans. This expansion would
    come at the expense of Indians and Mexicans.
  • Expansionists argued that God had created Native
    Americans and Mexicans as inferiors to White
    Americans, and that they did not deserve to keep
    lands that were badly needed for American
    settlement.
  • In addition, many Southerners hoped to add more
    slaves states in the west to strengthen their
    political position in Congress.
  • The American claim is by the right of our
    manifest destiny to overspread and possess the
    whole of the continent which Providence has given
    us for the development of the great experiment of
    liberty and self-government entrusted to us.
    John L. Sullivan, New York Morning News,
    December 27, 1845

Closure Question 1 Who might have agreed with
the idea of Manifest Destiny? Who might have
disagreed? Explain your answers.
16
Abraham Lincoln 1811-1865
  • Illinois Republican (Political party established
    to end slavery) and President from 1861 to 1865.
    The election of Lincoln directly led the
    slave-owning southern states to choose to secede,
    leading to the American Civil War.
  • Raised in rural poverty and largely self-taught,
    Lincoln began his political career at age 25,
    when he was elected to the Illinois State
    Legislature as a Whig.
  • By 1836, Lincoln was admitted to the Illinois bar
    as an attorney and practiced law in Springfield.
    There he gained a reputation for integrity and
    directness and was given the title Honest Abe.
  • Lincoln seemed to be opposed to slavery, but his
    political life was marked by a desire to steer a
    middle course. Lincoln served one term in the
    House of Representatives in the 1840s but gained
    national fame for his opposition to the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act which was promoted by his
    rival politician, Stephen Douglas.

Closure Question 2 How did Abraham Lincolns
life reflect the basis of American democracy?
17
Secede / U.S. Civil War
  • Secede To withdraw, in 1861 several southern
    states in the U.S.A. seceded from the union
    following the election of Abraham Lincoln, a
    Republican president who opposed slavery.
  • U.S. Civil War (1861-1865) Following southern
    secession, Lincoln ordered the army of the United
    States to bring the rebel states back into the
    Union. More than 600,000 American men lost their
    lives in the conflict. Though the South had
    superior military leadership, the North had a
    larger population, better transportation, greater
    resources, and more factories. As a result, the
    North emerged victorious and the Union was
    restored.
  • By the mid-19th century, slavery had become a
    threat to American unity. Four million enslaved
    African Americans were in the South by 1860,
    compared with one million in 1800. The Souths
    economy was based on growing cotton on
    plantations, chiefly by slave labor. The cotton
    economy and plantation-based slavery were closely
    related. The disagreement over slavery fueled a
    debate about the rights of the individual states
    against those of the federal government. Southern
    politicians argued that the states had freely
    joined the Union, and so they could freely leave.
    Most Northerners felt that the Constitution had
    established the Union once and for all.

Closure Question 2 What were the relative
resources of the North and South in the U.S.
Civil War?
18
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Formally announced on 9/22/1862, President
    Abraham Lincoln issued the military order
    proclaiming that all enslaves people in the
    Confederate states would be considered free by
    the United States on 1/1/1863.
  • The Proclamation did not apply to slaves in the
    loyal border states, nor did it truly give
    freedom to any slave in the Confederacy. It did
    give the Union army the authority to free any
    slave it came in contact with, but the slaves
    themselves had to escape from their masters to
    reach the army. Lincoln hoped that the order
    might convince some southern states to surrender
    before the January 1st deadline. The 54th
    Massachusetts Regiment was the first all African
    American unit in United States military history
    by the wars end more than 180,000 African
    American volunteers had served in the Union
    military. The Confederacy considered drafting
    slaves and free blacks in 1863 and 1864, but most
    southerners opposed the enlistment of African
    Americans.
  • In the aftermath of the war, the U.S. Congress
    passed the Thirteenth Amendment to the
    Constitution, which abolished slavery in the
    United States. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth
    Amendments extended the rights of citizenship to
    all Americans and guaranteed former slaves the
    right to vote. The need for mass production and
    distribution of goods during the Civil War
    speeded industrialization. After the war, the
    United States experienced industrial expansion
    unmatched in history. By 1914, it was a leading
    industrial power.

19
Segregation
  • Forced separation of individuals according to
    their race. In the aftermath of the Civil War all
    of the states which had seceded, and many states
    which had not, passed laws mandating that African
    Americans use separate public facilities than
    other citizens.
  • Mandated by Reconstruction state constitutions,
    public schools grew slowly, drawing in only about
    half of southern children by the end of the
    1870s. Establishing a new school was expensive,
    especially since southerners chose to establish
    segregated schools. Still, the establishment of a
    public school system in the south was a major
    achievement of the Reconstruction Era. From 1865
    to 1877, Union troops occupied the South and
    enforced the constitutional protections. This
    period is called Reconstruction. After federal
    troops left the South, white Southerners passed
    laws that limited African Americans rights and
    made it difficult for them to vote. Such laws
    also encouraged segregation, or separation, of
    blacks and whites in the South. African Americans
    continued to face discrimination in the North as
    well.

20
Closure Assignment 3
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 26, Section 3
  • Who might have agreed with the idea of Manifest
    Destiny? Who might have disagreed? Explain your
    answers.
  • How did Abraham Lincolns life reflect the basis
    of American democracy?
  • What were the relative resources of the North and
    South in the U.S. Civil War?

21
Assembly Line
  • Assembly Line An efficient manufacturing method
    pioneered by American Henry Ford in 1913
    Assembly Line production places a product on a
    conveyor belt and has individuals at various
    stations along the belt responsible to attach one
    specific part.
  • Mass Production is the business practice of
    producing large quantities of identical products
    which can be made quickly and cheaply. By the
    1880s, streetcars and subways powered by
    electricity had appeared in major European
    cities. Electricity transformed the factory as
    well. Conveyor belts, cranes, and machines could
    all be powered by electricity. With electric
    lights, factories could remain open 24 hours a
    day. The development of the internal-combustion
    engine, fired by oil and gasoline, provided a new
    source of power in transportation. This engine
    gave rise to ocean liners with oil-fired engines,
    as well as to the airplane and the automobile. In
    1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first
    flight in a fixed-wing plane at Kitty Hawk, North
    Carolina. In 1919 the first regular passenger air
    service was established.
  • Industrial production grew at a rapid pace
    because of greatly increased sales of
    manufactured goods. Europeans could afford to buy
    more consumer products for several reasons. Wages
    for workers increased after 1870. In addition,
    prices for manufactured goods were lower because
    of reduced transportation costs. One of the
    biggest reasons for more efficient production was
    the assembly line. In the cities, the first
    department stores began to sell a new range of
    consumer goods. These goods clocks, bicycles,
    electric lights, and typewriters, for example
    were made possible by the steel and electrical
    industries.

Closure Question 1 What effects did the
assembly line have on production costs?
22
Assembly Line
23
Charles Darwin / Theory of Evolution
  • Charles Darwin British biologist who, in 1859,
    published On the Origin of Species, teaching his
    Theory of Evolution, i.e. that each species, or
    kind, of plant and animal had evolved over a long
    period of time from earlier, simpler forms of
    life.
  • Natural Selection Part of Darwins Theory of
    Evolution Darwin believed that all organisms
    struggle for existence and that, in order to
    survive, they change to adapt to their
    environment. Those that dont adapt become
    extinct. According to Darwin, those organisms
    that are naturally selected for survival
    (survival of the fittest) reproduce and thrive.
    The unfit do not survive. The fit that survive
    pass on the variations that enabled them to
    survive until, according to Darwin, a new
    separate species emerges. In The Descent of Man,
    published in 1871, Darwin argued that human
    beings had animal origins and were not an
    exception to the rule governing other species.
  • Darwins ideas raised a storm of controversy.
    Some people did not take his ideas seriously.
    Other people objected that Darwins theory made
    human beings ordinary products of nature rather
    than unique creations of God. Others were
    bothered by his idea of life as a mere struggle
    for survival. Is there a place in Darwinism for
    moral values? they asked. Some believers felt
    Darwin had not acknowledged Gods role in
    creation. Some detractors scorned Darwin and
    depicted him unfavorably in cartoons. Gradually,
    however, many scientists and other intellectuals
    came to accept Darwins theory. His theory
    changed thinking in countless fields from biology
    to anthropology.

Closure Question 2 Besides competing for food,
what are some of the other conditions to which
species must adapt? Provide at least 3.
24
Radioactivity
  • Energy released by the elements radium and
    polonium. Marie and Pierre Curie, a French
    husband and wife team, discovered the two
    elements, earning the Nobel Prize for physics in
    1903.
  • Throughout much of the 1800s, Westerners believed
    in a mechanical conception of the universe that
    was based on the ideas of Isaac Newton. In this
    perspective, the universe was viewed as a giant
    machine. Time, space, and matter were objective
    realities existing independently of those
    observing them. Matter was thought to be made of
    solid material bodies called atoms. These views
    were seriously questioned at the end of the 19th
    century. The French scientist Marie Curie
    discovered that an element called radium gave off
    energy, or radiation, that apparently came from
    within the atom itself. Atoms were not simply
    hard material bodies but small, active worlds.
  • In 1803, the British chemist John Dalton
    theorized that all matter is made of tiny
    particles called atoms. Dalton showed that
    elements contain only one kind of atom, which as
    a specific weight. Compounds, on the other hand,
    contain more than one kind of atom. In 1869,
    Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, organized a
    chart on which all the known elements were
    arranged in order of weight, from lightest to
    heaviest. He left gaps where he predicted that
    new elements would be discovered. Later, his
    predictions proved correct. Mendeleevs chart,
    the Periodic Table, is still used today.
    Physicists around 1900 continued to unravel the
    secrets of the atom. Earlier scientists believed
    that he atom was the smallest particle that
    existed. A British physicist named Ernest
    Rutherford suggested that atoms were made up of
    yet smaller particles. Each atom, he said, had a
    nucleus surrounded by one or more particles
    called electrons. Soon other physicists such as
    Max Planck, Neils Bohr, and Albert Einstein were
    studying the structure and energy of atoms.

25
Psychology
  • The study of the human mind and behavior.
    Psychology developed as a unique social science
    in the late 19th century thanks to the work of
    Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who theorized
    that human actions were often unconscious
    reactions to experiences and could be changed by
    training, and Austrian doctor Sigmund Freud, who
    believed that unconscious forces, such as
    suppressed memories, desires, and impulses shape
    human behavior. Freud founded psychoanalysis as a
    therapy to deal with psychological conflicts.
  • Sigmund Freud, a doctor from Vienna, proposed
    theories regarding the nature of the human mind.
    Freuds ideas, like the new physics, added to the
    uncertainties of the age. His major theories were
    published in 1900 in The Interpretation of
    Dreams. According to Freud, human behavior was
    strongly determined by past experiences and
    internal forces of which people were largely
    unaware. Repression of such experiences began in
    childhood, so he devised a method known as
    psychoanalysis by which a therapist and patient
    could probe deeply into the patients memory. In
    this way, they could retrace the chain of
    repressed thoughts all the way back to their
    childhood origins. If the patients conscious
    mind could be made aware of the unconscious and
    its repressed contents, the patient could be
    healed.
  • Rapid advances in science, psychology, and the
    arts caused people to question previous knowledge
    and created a culture of modernity. While
    scientists such as Marie Curie and Albert
    Einstein were reshaping peoples understanding of
    the external world, Sigmund Freud was shaping
    their perceptions of the internal world the
    inner workings of the mind. Freud believed that
    the mind had both conscious and unconscious
    parts, and that the unconscious controls many
    human behaviors. Painful memories from childhood
    became rooted, or repressed, in the unconscious,
    leading to mental illness. To help the person
    heal, these memories must be brought to conscious
    awareness. Freud believed that memories buried in
    the unconscious emerge in disguised form in
    dreams. One way to gain access to repressed
    memories, then, is to interpret dreams.

26
Psychoanalysis
27
Mass Culture
  • The appeal of art, writing, music, and other
    forms of entertainment to a larger audience. The
    rise of the middle-class which was sparked by the
    Industrial Revolution led to an increase in the
    amount of leisure time available to citizens
    worldwide. In the late 19th century this leisure
    time was spent in music halls, at vaudeville
    performances, in movie theaters, and at sporting
    events.
  • There were several causes for the rise of mass
    culture. Their effects changed life in Europe and
    North America. The demand for leisure activities
    resulted in a variety of new pursuits for people
    to enjoy. A popular leisure activity was a trip
    to the local music hall. On a typical evening, a
    music hall might offer a dozen or more different
    acts. It might feature singers, dancers,
    comedians, jugglers, magicians, and acrobats. In
    the United States, musical variety shows were
    called vaudeville. Vaudeville acts traveled from
    town to town, appearing at theaters.
  • During the 1880s, several inventors worked at
    trying to project moving images. One successful
    design came from France. Another came from Thomas
    Edisons laboratory. The earliest motion pictures
    were black and white and lasted less than a
    minute. By the early 1900s, filmmakers were
    producing the first feature films. Movies quickly
    became big business. By 1910, five million
    Americans attended some 10,000 theaters each day.
    The European movie industry experienced similar
    growth. With time at their disposal, more people
    began to enjoy sports and outdoor activities.
    Spectator sports now became entertainment. In the
    United States, football and baseball soared in
    popularity. In Europe, the first professional
    soccer clubs formed and drew big crowds. Favorite
    English sports such as cricket spread to the
    British colonies in Australia, India, and South
    Africa.

Closure Question 3 How is the mass culture that
rose at the end of the 19th century similar to
mass culture today? How is it different? Explain
your response.
28
Closure Assignment 4
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 26, Section 4
  • What effects did the assembly line have on
    production costs?
  • Besides competing for food, what are some of the
    other conditions to which species must adapt?
    Provide at least 3.
  • How is the mass culture that rose at the end of
    the 19th century similar to mass culture today?
    How is it different? Explain your response.

29
Imperialism
  • The extension of a nations power over other
    lands.
  • In the 19th century , a new phase of Western
    expansion began. European nations began to view
    Asian and African societies as a source of
    industrial raw materials and a market for Western
    manufactured goods. In the 1880s, European states
    began an intense scramble for overseas territory.
    Europeans had set up colonies and trading posts
    in North America, South America, and Africa by
    the 16th century. However, the imperialism of the
    19th century, called the new imperialism by
    some, was different. Earlier, European states had
    been content, especially in Africa and Asia, to
    set up a few trading posts where they could carry
    on trade and perhaps some missionary activity.
    Now they sought nothing less than direct control
    over vast territories.
  • Why did Westerners begin to increase their search
    for colonies after 1880? There was a strong
    economic motive. Capitalist states in the West
    were looking for both markets and raw materials
    such as rubber, oil, and tin for their
    industries. The issue was not simply an economic
    one, however. European nation-states were
    involved in heated rivalries. They acquired
    colonies abroad in order to gain an advantage
    over their rivals. Colonies were also a source of
    national prestige. To some people, in fact, a
    nation could not be great without colonies. In
    addition, imperialism was tied to Social
    Darwinism and racism. Social Darwinists believed
    that in the struggle between nations, the fit are
    victorious. Racism is the belief that race
    determines traits and capabilities. Racists
    erroneously believe that particular races are
    superior or inferior. Some Europeans took a more
    religious and humanitarian approach to
    imperialism. They believed Europeans had a moral
    responsibility to civilize primitive people. They
    called this responsibility the white mans
    burden. To some, this meant bringing the
    Christian message to the heathen masses. To
    others, it meant bringing the benefits of Western
    democracy and capitalism to these societies.

30
David Livingstone / Henry Stanley
  • David Livingstone British doctor, Christian
    missionary, and explorer who trekked through
    uncharted regions of the interior of Africa.
  • Henry Stanley American journalist who traveled
    to Africa to find Livingstone and, following
    Livingstones death in 1873, continued
    exploration and encouraged European settlement of
    Central Africa.
  • Central African territories were soon added to
    the list of European colonies. Explorers aroused
    popular interest in the dense tropical jungles of
    Central Africa. Livingstone was one such
    explorer. He arrived in Africa in 1841 as a
    27-year-old medical missionary. During the 30
    years he spent in Africa, Livingstone trekked
    through uncharted regions. He sometimes traveled
    by canoe, but mostly Livingstone walked and spent
    much of his time exploring the interior of the
    continent. During his travels through Africa,
    Livingstone made detailed notes of his
    discoveries. He sent this information back to
    London whenever he could. The maps of Africa were
    often redrawn based on Livingstones reports. A
    major goal of Livingstones explorations was to
    find a navigable river that would open Central
    Africa to European commerce and Christianity.
  • When Livingstone disappeared for awhile, an
    American newspaper, the New York Herald, hired a
    young journalist, Henry Stanley, to find the
    explorer. Stanley did find him on the eastern
    shore of Lake Tanganyika. Overwhelmed by finding
    Livingstone alive if not well, Stanley greeted
    the explorer with these now famous words, Dr.
    Livingstone, I presume? After Livingstones
    death in 1873, Stanley remained in Africa to
    carry on the great explorers work. Unlike
    Livingstone, however, Henry Stanley had a strong
    dislike of Africa. He once said, I detest the
    land most heartily. In the 1870s, Stanley
    explored the Congo River in Central Africa and
    sailed down it to the Atlantic Ocean. Soon, he
    was encouraging the British to send settlers to
    the Congo River basin. When Britain refused,
    Stanley turned to King Leopold II of Belgium.
  • Leopold was the real driving force behind
    colonization of Central Africa. He rushed
    enthusiastically into the pursuit of an empire in
    Africa. To open to civilization, he said, the
    only part of our globe where it has not yet
    penetrated, to pierce the darkness which
    envelopes whole populations is a crusade, if I
    may say so, a crusade worthy of this century of
    progress. Profit, however, was equally important
    to Leopold. In 1876 he hired Henry Stanley to set
    up Belgian settlements in the Congo. Leopolds
    claim to the vast territories of the Congo
    aroused widespread concern among other European
    states. France, in particular, rushed to plant
    its flag in the hear of Africa. Leopold ended up
    with the territories around the Congo River.
    France occupied the areas farther north.

31
Racism / Social Darwinism
  • Racism The belief that race determines traits
    and capabilities and that particular races are
    superior or inferior.
  • Social Darwinism Theory that Darwins theory of
    natural selection can be applied to the
    interaction of individuals and nations. The
    strong people and nations were meant to rule the
    world, while the weak were meant to be dominated
    or become extinct.
  • Several factors contributed to the Europeans
    conquest of Africa. One overwhelming advantage
    was the Europeans technological superiority. The
    Maxim gun, invented in 1884, was the worlds
    first automatic machine gun. European countries
    quickly acquired the Maxim, while the resisting
    Africans were forced to rely on outdated weapons.
    European countries also had the means to control
    their empire. The invention of the steam engine
    allowed Europeans to easily travel on rivers to
    establish bases of control deep in the African
    continent. Railroads, cables, and steamships
    allowed close communications within a colony and
    between the colony and its controlling nation.
  • Even with superior arms and steam engines to
    transport them, another factor might have kept
    Europeans confined to the coast. They were highly
    susceptible to malaria, a disease carried by the
    dense swarms of mosquitoes in Africas interior.
    The perfection of the drug quinine in 1829
    eventually protected Europeans from becoming
    infected with the disease. Factors within Africa
    also made the continent easier for Europeans to
    colonize. Africans huge variety of languages and
    cultures discouraged unity among them. Wars
    fought between ethnic groups over land, water,
    and trade rights also prevented a unified stand.
    Europeans soon learned to play rival groups
    against each other.

32
Closure Question 1List the ways in which the
French system of direct rule included Africans.
(At least 2 answers)
  • The French had colonies in North Africa. In 1870,
    after about 150,000 French people had settled in
    the region of Algeria, the French government
    established control there. Two years later,
    France imposed a protectorate on neighboring
    Tunisia. In 1912 France established a
    protectorate over much of Morocco.
  • Most European nations governed their African
    possessions through a form of direct rule. This
    was true in the French colonies. At the top was a
    French official, usually known as a
    governor-general. He was appointed from Paris and
    governed with the aid of bureaucracy in the
    capital city of the colony.
  • The French ideal was to assimilate African
    subjects into French culture rather than preserve
    native traditions. Africans were eligible to run
    for office and even serve in the French National
    Assembly in Paris. A few were also appointed to
    high-powered positions in the colonial
    administration.

33
Berlin Conference
  • Meeting of 14 European nations in 1884 and 1885
    to lay down the rules for the division of Africa.
    The nations agreed that any European country
    could claim land in Africa by notifying other
    nations of its claims and showing it could
    control the area. The conference that European
    nations would not go to war with each other over
    African territory. By 1914, only Liberia and
    Ethiopia remained free from European control.
  • When European countries began colonizing, many
    believed that Africans would soon be buying
    European goods in great quantities. They were
    wrong few Africans bought European goods.
    However, European businesses still needed raw
    materials from Africa. The major source of great
    wealth in African proved to be the continents
    rich mineral resources. The Belgian Congo
    contained untold wealth in copper and tin. Even
    these riches seemed small compared with the gold
    and diamonds in South Africa. Businesses
    eventually developed cash-crop plantations to
    grow peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber. These
    products displaced the food crops grown by
    farmers to feed their families.
  • The motives that drove colonization in Africa
    were also at work in other lands. Similar
    economic, political, and social forces
    accelerated the drive to take over land in all
    parts of the globe. The Industrial Revolution in
    particular provided European countries with a
    reason to add lands to their control. As European
    nations industrialized, they searched for new
    markets and raw materials to improve their
    economies.

34
Closure Question 2 What can you conclude from
the fact that African delegates were not included
in the Berlin Conference of 1884? (At least 1
sentence)
  • By 1885, Britain and Germany had become the chief
    rivals in East Africa. Germany came late to the
    ranks of the imperialist powers. At first, the
    German chancellor Otto von Bismarck had
    downplayed the importance of colonies. As more
    and more Germans called for a German empire,
    however, Bismarck became a convert to
    colonialism. As he expressed it, All this
    colonial business is a sham, but we need it for
    the elections.
  • In addition to its West African holdings, Germany
    tried to develop colonies in East Africa. Most of
    East Africa had not yet been claimed by any other
    power. However, the British were also interested
    in the area because control of East Africa would
    connect the British Empire in Africa from South
    Africa to Egypt. Portugal and Belgium also
    claimed parts of East Africa.
  • To settle conflict claims, the Berlin Conference
    met in 1884 and 1885. The conference officially
    recognized both British and German claims for
    territory in East Africa. Portugal received a
    clear claim on Mozambique. No African delegates,
    however, were present at this conference.

35
Shaka Zulu
  • Chief of the Zulu tribe in southern Africa during
    the early 19th century. Shaka used highly
    disciplined warriors and good military
    organization to create a large centralized state
    by 1816 which withstood attempts by the British
    to colonize their homeland. However, Shakas
    successors were unable to keep the kingdom
    together and, facing superior weaponry such as
    the Maxim Gun (the first automatic machine gun),
    the Zulus fell under British control by 1887.
  • Nowhere in Africa did the European did the
    European presence grow more rapidly than in the
    south. By 1865, the total white population of
    South Africa had risen to nearly 200,000 people.
    The Boers, or Afrikaners as the descendants of
    the original Dutch settlers were called had
    occupied Cape Town and surrounding areas in South
    Africa since the 17th century. During the
    Napoleonic Wars, however, the British seized
    these lands from the Dutch. Afterward, the
    British encouraged settlers to come to what they
    called Cape Colony.
  • In the 1830s, disgusted with British rule, the
    Boers moved from the coastal lands and headed
    northward on the Great Trek. Altogether one out
    of every five Dutch speaking South Africans
    joined the trek. Their parties eventually settled
    in the region between the Orange and Vaal Rivers
    and in the region north of the Vaal River. In
    these areas, the Boers formed two independent
    republics the Orange Free State and the
    Transvaal (later called the South African
    Republic).

36
European Colonization in Africa
37
Boers / Boer War
  • Boers Farmers Dutch settlers who gradually
    took Africans lands in South Africa during the
    17th and 18th centuries. The Boers clashed with
    the British regarding land and the practice of
    slavery, a practice which the Boers supported.
  • Boer War (1899-1910) Conflict between the Boers
    and the British following the discovery of gold
    and diamonds in South Africa. The Boers launched
    commando raids and used guerrilla tactics against
    the British. The British countered by burning
    Boer farms and imprisoning women and children in
    disease-ridden concentration camps. Britain
    finally won the war and formed the Union of South
    Africa.
  • The Boers believed that white superiority was
    ordained by God. They denied non-Europeans any
    place in their society other than as laborers or
    servants. As they settled the lands, the Boers
    put many of the indigenous peoples in these areas
    on reservations. The Boers had frequently battled
    the Zulu people. In the early 19th century, the
    Zulu, under a talented ruler named Shaka, had
    carved out their own empire. Even after Shakas
    death, the Zulu remained powerful. Finally, in
    the late 1800s, the British military became
    involved in conflicts with the Zulu defeated
    them.
  • In the 1880s, British policy in South Africa was
    influenced by Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes had founded
    diamond and gold companies that had made him a
    fortune. He gained control of a territory north
    of the Transvaal, which he named Rhodesia after
    himself. Rhodes was a great champion of British
    expansion. He said once, I think what God would
    like me to do is to paint as much of Africa
    British red as possible. One of Rhodes goals
    was to create a series of British colonies from
    Cape to Cairo all linked by a railroad.

38
Closure Question 3 Why do you think the Boers
resisted British rule? (At least 1 sentence)
  • Cecil Rhodes ambitions eventually led to his
    downfall in 1896. The British government forced
    him to resign as prime minister of Cape Colony
    after discovering that he planned to overthrow
    the Boer government of the South African Republic
    without his governments approval. The British
    action was too late to avoid a war between the
    British and the Boers however.
  • This war, called the Boer War, dragged on from
    1899 to 1902. Fierce guerrilla resistance by the
    Boers angered the British. They responded by
    burning crops and herding about 120,000 Boer
    women and children into detention camps, where
    lack of food caused some 20,000 deaths.
    Eventually, the vastly larger British army won. A
    peace treaty was signed in 1902.
  • In 1910 the British created an independent Union
    of South Africa, which combined the old Cape
    Colony and the Boer republics. The new state
    would be a self-governing nation within the
    British Empire. To appease the Boers, the British
    agreed that only whites, with a few propertied
    Africans, would vote.

39
Closure Assignment 5
  • Answer the following questions based on the
    information covered in Chapter 21, Section 2
  • List the ways in which the French system of
    direct rule included Africans. (At least 2
    answers)
  • What can you conclude from the fact that African
    delegates were not included in the Berlin
    Conference of 1884? (At least 1 sentence)
  • Why do you think the Boers resisted British rule?
    (At least 1 sentence)

40
Paternalism
  • European policy towards African colonies which
    was based on the view that Africans were unable
    to handle the complex business of running a
    country. Europeans governed people in a parental
    way by providing for their needs but not giving
    them rights. To accomplish this, Europeans
    brought in their own bureaucrats and did not
    train local people in European methods of
    governing.
  • The Imperialism of the 18th and 19th centuries
    was conducted differently from the explorations
    of the 15th and 16th centuries. In the earlier
    periods, imperial powers often did not penetrate
    far into the conquered areas in Asia and Africa.
    Nor did they always have a substantial influence
    on the lives of the people. During this new
    period of imperialism, the Europeans demanded
    more influence over the economic, political, and
    social lives of the people. They were determined
    to shape the economies of the lands to benefit
    European economies. They also wanted the people
    to adopt European customs.
  • Each European nation had certain policies and
    goals for establishing colonies. To establish
    control of an area, Europeans used different
    techniques. Over time, four forms of colonial
    control emerged colony, protectorate, sphere of
    influence, and economic imperialism. In practice,
    gaining control of an area might involve the use
    of several of these forms.

Closure Question 1 How was the policy of
paternalism like Social Darwinism?
41
Assimilation
  • European imperial policy based on the idea that
    in time, the local populations in Africa would
    adopt the culture of their European or American
    rulers and become like them. To aid in this
    transition, all local schools, courts, and
    businesses were patterned after those of the
    ruling nation. In many cases, native Africans
    were obligated to abandon their native cultural
    practices and languages in order to gain greater
    acceptance and rights from their imperial rulers.
  • Western powers governed their new colonial
    empires by either indirect or direct rule. Their
    chief goals were to exploit the natural resources
    of the lands and to open up markets for their own
    manufactured goods. Sometimes a colonial power
    could realize its goals by cooperating with local
    political elites. For example, the Dutch East
    India Company used indirect rule in the Dutch
    East Indies. This made access to the regions
    natural resources easier. Indirect rule was
    cheaper because fewer officials had to be trained
    and it affected local culture less.
  • However, indirect rule was not always possible.
    Some local elites resisted the foreign conquest.
    In these cases, the local elites were replaced
    with Western officials. Great Britain
    administered Burma directly through its colonial
    government in India. In Indochina, France used
    both systems. It imposed direct rule in southern
    Vietnam, but ruled indirectly through the emperor
    in northern Vietnam. To justify their conquests,
    Western powers spoke of bringing the blessings of
    Western civilization of their colonial subjects,
    including representative government. However,
    many Westerners came to fear the idea of native
    peoples (especially educated ones) being allowed
    political rights.

Closure Question 2 Do you think Europeans could
have conquered Africa if the Industrial
Revolution had never occurred? Explain your
answer.
42
Menelik II
  • Emperor of Ethiopia in the late 19th century
    Under Meneliks leadership Ethiopia became the
    only African nation that successfully resisted
    the Europeans. He successfully played Italians,
    French, and British against each other, all of
    whom were striving to bring Ethiopia into their
    spheres of influence. He built up a large arsenal
    of modern weapons purchased from France and
    Russia. In 1896, at the Battle of Adowa,
    Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the
    Italians and kept their nation independent.
  • The unsuccessful resistance attempts included
    active military resistance and resistance through
    religious movements. Algerias almost 50-year
    resistance to French rule was one outstanding
    example of active resistance. The resistance
    movement led by Samori Toure in West Africa
    against the French is another example. After
    modernizing his army, Toure fought the French for
    16 years. Africans in German East Africa put
    their faith in spiritual defense. African
    villages resisted Germans insistence that they
    plant cotton, a cash crop for export, rather than
    attend to their own food crops. In 1905, the
    belief suddenly arose that a magic water
    sprinkled on their bodies would turn the Germans
    bullets into water. The uprising became known as
    the Maji Maji rebellion. Over 20 different ethnic
    groups united to fight for their freedom. The
    fighters believed that their war had been
    ordained by God and that their ancestors would
    return to life and assist their struggle.

Closure Question 3 Why would the French and
Russians sell arms to Ethiopia?
43
Closure Assignment 6
  • Answer the following questions based on what you
    have learned from Chapter 27, Section 2
  • How was the policy of paternalism like Social
    Darwinism?
  • Do you think Europeans could have conquered
    Africa if the Industrial Revolution had never
    occurred? Explain your answer.
  • Why would the French and Russians sell arms to
    Ethiopia?

44
Geopolitics
  • An interest in or taking of land for its
    strategic location or products. Geopolitics
    played an important role in the fate of the
    Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans controlled access to
    the Mediterranean and the Atlantic sea trade.
    Discovery of oil in Persia around 1900 and in the
    Arabian Peninsula after World War I focused even
    more attention on the area.
  • The declining Ottoman Empire had difficulties
    trying to fit into the modern world. However, the
    Ottomans made attempts to change before they
    finally were unable to hold back the European
    imperialist powers. When Suleyman I, the last
    great Ottoman sultan, died in 1566, he was
    followed by a succession of weak sultans. The
    palace government broke up into a number of
    quarreling, often corrupt factions. Weakening
    power brought other problems. Corruption and
    theft had caused financial losses. Coinage was
    devalued, causing inflation. Once the Ottoman
    Empire had embraced modern technologies, but now
    it fell further and further behind Europe.
  • When Selim III came into power in 1789, he
    attempted to modernize the army. However, the old
    janissary corps resisted his efforts. Selim III
    was overthrown, and reform movements were
    temporarily abandoned. Meanwhile, nationalist
    feelings began to stir among the Ottomans
    subject peoples. IN 1830, Greece gained its
    independence, and Serbia gained self-rule. The
    Ottomans weakness was becoming apparent to
    European powers, who were expanding their
    territories. They began to look for ways to take
    the lands away from the Ottomans.

45
Crimean War
  • Conflict between Russia and the Ottoman Empire
    during the mid-19th century. Russias motivation
    to begin the war was to gain access to a
    warm-weather port on the Black Sea. Britain and
    France wanted to prevent the Russians from
    gaining control of Ottoman lands, so they entered
    the war on the side of the Ottoman Empire. The
    combined forces of the Ottoman Empire, Britain,
    and France defeated Russia. Though victorious,
    the war revealed the Ottomans military weakness,
    and the Ottomans continued to lose territory
    until their government was ended following World
    War I.
  • The Crimean War was the first war in which women,
    led by Florence Nightingale, established their
    position as army nurses. It was also the first
    war to be covered by newspaper correspondents.
    Despite the help of Britain and France, the
    Ottoman Empire continued to lose lands. The
    Russians came to the aid of Slavic people in the
    Balkans who rebelled against the Ottomans. The
    Ottomans lost control of Romania, Montenegro,
    Cyprus, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and an area that
    became Bulgaria. The Ottomans lost land in Africa
    too. By the beginning of World War I, the Ottoman
    Empire was reduced in size and in deep decline.

46
Suez Canal
  • A human-made waterway that cut through the
    Isthmus of Suez, connecting the Red Sea to the
    Mediterranean. It was built mainly with French
    money from private interest groups, using
    Egyptian
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