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Personality

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... (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) Based on Carl Jung ... Early Perspectives Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) Personality is ... Psychodynamic Theory Carl Jung ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Personality


1
Personality
  • A persons pattern of thinking, feeling and
    acting.

2
Barnum Effect
  • Named after P. T. Barnum, who believed that a
    good circus had "a little something for
    everybody
  • Very general personality descriptions that apply
    to everyone
  • Horoscopes, psychic readings
  • You have a tendency to be critical of yourself.
  • At times you are extroverted, sociable, while
    at other times you are introverted, wary,
    reserved.
  • You have a great need for other people to like
    and admire you.

3
Early Perspectives
  • Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) ?
  • Personality is the result of childhood sexual
    development unconscious conflicts in the mind

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5
Freuds Iceberg
  • Conscious mind (our immediate awareness)
  • Preconscious (not in awareness but easily
    accessible)
  • Unconscious (hidden reservoir of unacceptable
    wishes, thoughts, and memories

6
Freuds Psychosexual Stages
  • Childrens development stages in which the ids
    pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct
    erogenous zones
  • As we develop, we find acceptable outlets or ways
    to manage the pleasure-seeking energies
  • Fixations strong conflicts cause
    obsession/preoccupation

7
The Id
  • Present at birth
  • Physiological drives
  • Entirely unconscious
  • Pleasure principle the seeking of immediate
    gratification of instinctive needs or wants

8
The Ego
  • Develops during 1st year of life
  • Reasoning, rationality, good sense
  • Self-awareness, delay of gratification
  • Reality principle consideration of what is
    practical and possible in gratifying needs
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vamsqeYOk--w
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v4ZikfUI0G5o

9
The Superego
  • Develops in childhood (age 5)
  • Functions as a moral guardian
  • Incorporates values of parents and members of the
    community

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12
Id, Ego, Superego
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15
Oedipus Complex
  • A boys sexual desire for his mother and feelings
    of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. A
    girls desire for her father is called the
    Electra complex.

16
Freudian Slip
"A Freudian slip is when you mean one thing, but
you say your mother."
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18
Defense Mechanisms
  • Unconscious function that protects mind from
    anxiety-evoking material
  • Regression returning to an earlier, more
    comforting formof behavior

19
  • Repression pushing thoughts out of conscious
    awareness
  • Rationalization Generating self-justifying
    explanations instead of real reasons for action
    or event

Or is it because she calls him 20 times an hour.
He broke up with me because hes afraid of
commitment
20
  • Reaction formation expressing the opposite of
    how one truly feels, often exaggeratedly
  • Displacement redirecting ones feelings toward
    another person or object

Bad day at school
Yell at little sister when you get home
21
  • Projection disguises threatening impulses by
    attributing them to others

22
  • Sublimation Channeling ones impulses toward a
    different, more positive acceptable goal or
    behavior
  • Denial not accepting the ego-threatening truth

23
Defense Mechanisms
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26
Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories
  • Emphasize social, not sexual, tensions for
    personality development
  • Agree w/importance of unconscious, but placed
    more importance on conscious mind in coping
  • We have more positive motives than sex
    aggression

27
Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories
  • Alfred Adler ? behavior driven by efforts to
    conquer childhood feelings of inferiority
    (inferiority complex)

28
Psychodynamic Theory
  • Carl Jung ? agreed w/Freud that unconscious has
    powerful influence
  • BUT
  • Unconscious is more than repressed thoughts
    feelings
  • Collective Unconscious ? common reservoir of
    images derived from species universal experiences

Today The collective unconscious.
29
Jungs Collective Unconscious
30
Assessing Unconscious Processes
  • Projective tests ? provides ambiguous stimuli
    that triggers projection of inner unconscious
    conflicts

31
Projective Tests
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) ? given
    ambiguous picture, make up a story

32
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33
Projective Tests
  • Rorschach Inkblot Test ? describe ambiguous
    splotch of ink

Its just a simple Rorschach ink-blot test, Mr.
Bromwell, so just calm down and tell me what each
one suggests to you.
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Criticisms of Projective Tests
  • Critics argue that projective tests lack both
    reliability (consistency of results) and validity
    (predicting what it is supposed to).
  1. When evaluating the same patient, even trained
    raters come up with different interpretations
    (reliability).

2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal
individual as pathological (validity).
39
Humanistic Perspective
  • Personality results from our desire to be our
    ideal self, reach highest potential
  • Emphasizes that we are inherently good and make
    our own choices

40
Maslows Hierarchy
Maslow added a possible level beyond
self-actualization, known as self-transcendence
(meaning, purpose beyond the self)
41
Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective
  • Genuineness, acceptance, empathy needed for
    growth fulfillment

42
Humanist Assessment of Sense of Self
  • Actual self

Ideal self
43
Criticism of Humanist Perspective
  • Vague subjective?
  • Naïve?
  • Can such individualism lead to self-indulgence,
    selfishness, and lack of moral restraints?

44
Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Albert Bandura
  • Personality is interaction of our personal
    factors and environment
  • We learn many of our behaviors through
    conditioning/observation
  • What we think about our situations affects our
    behavior

45
Social-Cognitive Perspective
Reciprocal determinism our personality
influences our choices, we influence our
environments our environments influence us
  • 1) Different people choose different
    environments
  • 2) Personalities shape our interpretations
    reactions to events
  • 3) Personalities lead to situations to which we
    react

46
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47
Locus of Control
  • Self-efficacy

48
Optimism/Pessimism
49
Social-Cognitive Perspective Overview
  • The good
  • Makes researchers more sensitive to how
    situations affect, and are affected by,
    individuals
  • Builds from learning cognition research
  • The bad
  • Too much focus on situation
  • What about biologically influenced traits?

50
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51
Types of Personalities
  • Type A
  • Type B
  • Feel time pressure.
  • Easily angered.
  • Competitive and ambitious.
  • Work hard and play hard.
  • More prone to heart disease than rest of
    population.
  • Relaxed and easygoing.
  • But some people fit in neither type.

52
Trait Perspective
  • Personality is a set of stable characteristics
    (traits) that we
  • They believe that we can describe peoples
    personalities by specifying their main
    characteristics (traits).

53
Factor Analysis
  • Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality
    could be reduced down to two polar dimensions,
    extraversion-introversion and emotional
    stability-instability.

54
The Ancient Greeks
55
Trait Theories
  • The same traits can be used to describe all
    peoples personalities.
  • BIG FIVE personality traits
  • Extraversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Openness to experience
  • Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)

56
Endpoints
57
Objective tests inventories, empiricised
  • MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)
  • Based on Carl Jung
  • Includes ideas from trait theories
  • Introversion (I) or Extraversion (E)
  • Intuition (N) v. Sensing (S)
  • Thinking (T) v. Feeling (F)
  • Perceiving (P) v. Judging (J)
  • Each four letter combo makes one of 16 types

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59
MMPI 2 TEST QUESTIONS IN ORDERTRUE OR FALSE (567
QUESTIONS)
  • 1. I like mechanics magazines
  • 2. I have a good appetite
  • 3. I wake up fresh rested most mornings
  • 4. I think I would like the work of a librarian
  • 5. I am easily awakened by noise
  • 6. I like to read newspaper articles on crime
  • 7. My hands and feet are usually warm enough
  • 8. My daily life is full of things that keep me
    interested
  • 9. I am about as able to work as I ever was
  • 10. There seems to be a lump in my throat much of
    the time
  • 11. A person should try to understand his dreams
    and be guided by or take warning from them
  • 12. I enjoy detective or mystery stories

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61
Individualism Collectivism
  • Individualism
  • Sense of me
  • Greater priority to personal goals
  • Define identity in personal attributes
  • Strive for personal control, individual
    achievements
  • Share human need to belong and join groups, but
    less focused on group harmony and doing their
    duty
  • Move in and out of social groups

62
Individualism Collectivism
  • Collectivism
  • Group identification
  • Priority to goals of the group
  • Greater concern for social harmony

63
Exploring the Self
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