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Another School Year--- What For?


Another School Year---What For? Warming-up Questions Background Information Shakespeare/ Homer / Virgil / Dante / Aristotle Chaucer / Eistein / La Rochefoucauld ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Another School Year--- What For?

Another School Year---What For?
  • Warming-up Questions
  • Background Information
  • Shakespeare/ Homer / Virgil / Dante / Aristotle
  • Chaucer / Eistein / La Rochefoucauld
  • Word Study
  • 1. Verbal affixies
  • 2. body / faculty / staff
  • 3. testify / justify / verify / Certify
  • 4. say / speak / talk / tell / converse
  • 5. rather / fairly / quite / pretty
  • 6. sensitive / sensible
  • Writing Technique
  • Euphemism
  • Text Analysis
  • Structure

Warming-up Qs
  • 1. Did you have a good holiday? What did you do
    during the holiday?
  • 2. Have you had any reflections on your first
    term college life? What do you think is your most
    impressive experience in the last semester?
  • 3. According to your own understanding, what are
    the major differences between high school and
    college educations?

Background Information
  • William Shakespeare

  • Tragedies
  • (1) 'Hamlet', 'Macbeth', 'King Lear', 'Othello'
  • (2) 'Antony and Cleopatra', 'Coriolanus', 'Romeo
    and Juliet', 'Julius Caesar'
  • (3) 'Richard II', 'Richard III', 'Timon of
  • (4) 'King John', 'Titus Andronicus', 'Henry VI'.

  • Comedies
  • (1)
  • 'The Tempest',
  • 'As You Like It',
  • 'The Winter's Tale',
  • 'The Merchant of Venice',
  • Twelfth Night',
  • 'Much Ado about Nothing',
  • 'Cymbeline',
  • 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'

(2) 'The Merry Wives of Windsor', 'The Taming
of the Shrew', 'Two Gentlemen of Verona',
'All's Well That Ends Well', 'A Comedy of
Errors', 'Pericles', 'Love's Labour's Lost',
'Two Noble Kinsmen'.
  • Histories
  • (1)
  • 'Henry IV', Parts 1 and 2,
  • 'Henry V',
  • 'Richard II',
  • 'Richard III',
  • 'Henry VIII,
  • (2) 'King John',
  • 'Henry VI', Parts 2 and 3,
  • 'Henry VI', Part 1.
  • Serious Plays, or Bitter Comedies
  • 'Measure for Measure',
  • 'Troilus and Cressida'.

Shakespeares Burial Site
The Globe Theatre
  • Globe Theatre in London The Globe Theatre, where
  • dramatist William Shakespeare saw his plays
  • 400 years ago, has been rebuilt near its original
    location on
  • the south bank of the Thames River in London,
  • The rebuilt theater opened in 1997 and offers
  • of Shakespeares plays during the summer.

  • Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685-1750), was
    considered by many of his peers to be the supreme
    master of counterpoint (compositional technique
    pitting note against note or melody against
    melody). This quality was expressly illustrated
    in his fugal compositions. In this excerpt from
    his famous Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, written
    in his early years as a court organist, Bach
    expands on the toccata (short, intricately
    articulated keyboard movement) form in an
    elaborately constructed fugue.

  • Homer
  • Homer, name traditionally assigned to the author
    of the Iliad and the Odyssey, the two major epics
    of Greek antiquity. Nothing is known of Homer as
    an individual, and in fact it is a matter of
    controversy whether a single person can be said
    to have written both the Iliad and the Odyssey.
    Linguistic and historical evidence, however,
    suggests that the poems were composed in the
    Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor
    sometime in the 8th century bc.

  • The Iliad is set in the final year of the Trojan
    War, fought between the Greeks and the
    inhabitants of the city of Troy. The legendary
    conflict forms the background for the central
    plot of the story the wrath of the Greek hero
    Achilles. Insulted by his commander in chief,
    Agamemnon, the young warrior Achilles withdraws
    from the war, leaving his fellow Greeks to suffer
    terrible defeats at the hands of the Trojans.
    Achilles rejects the Greeks' attempts at
    reconciliation but finally relents to some
    extent, allowing his companion Patroclus to lead
    his troops in his place. Patroclus is slain, and
    Achilles, filled with fury and remorse, turns his
    wrath against the Trojans, whose leader, Hector
    (son of King Priam), he kills in single combat.
    The poem closes as Achilles surrenders the corpse
    of Hector to Priam for burial, recognizing a
    certain kinship with the Trojan king as they both
    face the tragedies of mortality and bereavement.
  • .

  • The Odyssey describes the return of the Greek
    hero Odysseus from the Trojan War. The opening
    scenes depict the disorder that has arisen in
    Odysseus's household during his long absence A
    band of suitors is living off of his wealth as
    they woo his wife, Penelope. The epic then tells
    of Odysseus's ten years of traveling, during
    which he has to face such dangers as the
    man-eating giant Polyphemus and such subtler
    threats as the goddess Calypso, who offers him
    immortality if he will abandon his quest for
    home. The second half of the poem begins with
    Odysseus's arrival at his home island of Ithaca.
    Here, exercising infinite patience and
    self-control, Odysseus tests the loyalty of his
    servants plots and carries out a bloody revenge
    on Penelope's suitors and is reunited with his
    son, his wife, and his aged father.

  • (70-19 BC).
  • The greatest of the Roman poets, Publius
    Vergilius Maro, was not a Roman by birth. His
    early home was on a farm in the village of Andes,
    near Mantua. His father was a farmer, prosperous
    enough to give his son the best education. The
    young Virgil was sent to school at Cremona and
    then to Milan. At the age of 17 he went to Rome
    to study. There he learned rhetoric and
    philosophy from the best teachers of the day.

Mosaic of Virgil and the two muses Cleo and
  • Virgil studied the Greek poets. He wrote his
    'Eclogues'. These are pastoral poems describing
    the beauty of Italian scenes. At the suggestion
    of Maecenas he wrote a more serious work on the
    art of farming and the charms of country life
    called the 'Georgics'. This established his fame
    as the foremost poet of his age.
  • The year after the 'Georgics' was published, he
    began his great epic, the 'Aeneid'. He took as
    his hero the Trojan Aeneas, supposed to be the
    founder of the Roman nation. The poem, published
    after Virgil's death, exercised a tremendous
    influence upon Latin and later Christian
    literature, prose as well as poetry. Thus his
    influence continued through the Middle Ages and
    into modern times.

This 1469 painting depicts Virgil as he drafts
the poem Georgics (36-29 bc) before a statue of
the Greek goddess Artemis.
  • DANTE (1265-1321).
  • One of the greatest poets in the history of world
    literature, Italian writer Dante Alighieri
    composed poetry influenced by classical and
    Christian tradition.
  • Dantes greatest work was the epic poem La divina
    commedia (1321? The Divine Comedy, 1802).
  • It includes three sections
  • the Inferno (Hell), in which the great classical
    poet Virgil leads Dante on a trip through hell
  • the Purgatorio (Purgatory), in which Virgil leads
    Dante up the mountain of purification and
  • the Paradiso (Paradise), in which Dante travels
    through heaven. This passage from the Inferno
    (recited by an actor) comes at the beginning of
    the epic, when Dante loses his way in the woods.

The illustration shows Dante standing in front of
the mountain of Purgatory, with hell on his right
and heaven on his left.
  • The Divine Comedy
  • was probably begun about 1307 it was completed
    shortly before his death. The work is an
    allegorical narrative, in verse of great
    precision and dramatic force, of the poet's
    imaginary journey through hell, purgatory, and
  • In each of the three realms the poet meets with
    mythological, historical, and contemporary
    personages. Each character is symbolic of a
    particular fault or virtue, either religious or
    political and the punishment or rewards meted
    out to the characters further illustrate the
    larger meaning of their actions in the universal
  • Dante is guided through hell and purgatory by
    Virgil, who is, to Dante, the symbol of reason.
    The woman Dante loved, Beatrice, whom he regards
    as both a manifestation and an instrument of the
    divine will, is his guide through paradise.

  • ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC).
  • One of the greatest thinkers of all time, an
    ancient Greek philosopher. His work in the
    natural and social sciences greatly influenced
    virtually every area of modern thinking.
  • Aristotle was born in 384 BC in Stagira, on the
    northwest coast of the Aegean Sea. His father was
    a friend and the physician of the king of
    Macedonia, and the lad spent most of his boyhood
    at the court. At 17, he went to Athens to study.
    He enrolled at the famous Academy directed by the
    philosopher Plato.
  • Aristotle threw himself wholeheartedly into
    Plato's pursuit of truth and goodness. Plato was
    soon calling him the "mind of the school." In
    later years he renounced some of Plato's theories
    and went far beyond him in breadth of knowledge.

  • After his death, Aristotle's writings were
    scattered or lost. In the early Middle Ages the
    only works of his known in Western Europe were
    parts of his writings on logic. They became the
    basis of one of the three subjects of the
    medieval trivium--logic, grammar, and rhetoric.
    Early in the 13th century other books reached the
    West. Some came from Constantinople others were
    brought by the Arabs to Spain. Medieval scholars
    translated them into Latin.
  • The best known of Aristotle's writings that have
    been preserved are 'Organon' (treatises on
    logic) 'Rhetoric' 'Poetics' 'History of
    Animals' 'Metaphysics' 'De Anima' (on
    psychology) 'Nicomachean Ethics' 'Politics'
    and 'Constitution of Athens'.

Geoffrey Chaucer
  • Called the Father of the English Language as well
    as the Morning Star of Song, Geoffrey Chaucer,
    after six centuries, has retained his status as
    one of the three or four greatest English poets.
  • He was the first to commit to lines of universal
    and enduring appeal a vivid interest in nature,
    books, and people. As many-sided as Shakespeare,
    he did for English narrative what Shakespeare did
    for drama. If he lacks the profundity of
    Shakespeare, he excels in playfulness of mood and
    simplicity of expression.
  • Though his language often seems quaint, he was
    essentially modern. Familiarity with the language
    and with the literature of his contemporaries
    persuades the most skeptical that he is nearer to
    the present than many writers born long after he

  • Works
  • The following list supplies approximate dates for
    when Chaucer's works were completed
  • 'The Book of the Duchess' (1369)
  • 'The House of Fame' (1374-84)
  • 'The Parliament of Birds' (1374-81)
  • 'Troilus and Criseyde' (1385)
  • 'Canterbury Tales' (1387-1400).
  • His last, longest, and most famous work was the
    'Canterbury Tales'. His writing dominated English
    poetry up to the time of Shakespeare.

  • The Canterbury Tales
  • The Tales is a collection of stories set within a
    framing story of a pilgrimage to Canterbury
    Cathedral, the shrine of Saint Thomas à Becket.
    The poet joins a band of pilgrims, vividly
    described in the General Prologue, who assemble
    at the Tabard Inn outside London for the journey
    to Canterbury. Ranging in status from a Knight to
    a humble Plowman, they are a microcosm of
    14th-century English society.
  • The Canterbury Tales contains 22 verse tales and
    2 prose tales presumably told by pilgrims to pass
    the time on their way to visit a shrine in
    Canterbury, England.
  • The tales represent nearly every variety of
    medieval story at its best. The special genius of
    Chaucer's work, however, lies in the dramatic
    interaction between the tales and the framing

  • LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, Francois de
  • (1613-80).
  • Francois de La Rochefoucauld was born to one of
    the noble families of France on Sept. 15, 1613,
    in Paris. His notions of human faults and foibles
    grew out of a life immersed in the political
    crises of his time. The public life of his family
    was conditioned by the attitude of the monarchy
    toward the nobility--sometimes flattering,
    sometimes threatening. Having served in the army
    periodically from 1629 to 1646, La Rochefoucauld
    became one of the prominent leaders in the civil
    war from 1648 to 1653. Wounded in 1649 and again
    in 1652, he finally retired from the struggle
    with extensive face and throat wounds and with
    his health ruined.

  • The literary reputation of La Rochefoucauld rests
    on one book 'Reflexions ou sentences et maximes
    morales', published in 1665. Generally called the
    'Maximes', these moral reflections and maxims are
    a collection of cynical epigrams, or short
    sayings, about human nature--a nature that the
    author felt is dominated by self-interest.
    Typical of his point of view are the following
    sayings "We seldom find such sensible men as
    those who agree with us" "Virtues are lost in
    self-interest as rivers are lost in the sea"
    "The surest way to be deceived is to think
    oneself cleverer than the others" and "We always
    like those who admire us we do not always like
    those whom we admire."

  • After convalescing, he settled in Paris where he
    became involved with a circle of brilliant and
    cultivated people who debated intellectual
    subjects of all kinds. As an exercise, they
    attempted to express their thoughts with the
    greatest brevity. In so doing they made great use
    of the epigram, or maxim, which creates surprise
    through the devices of exaggeration and paradox.
    La Rochefoucauld soon gained mastery of this
    device. The first edition of his 'Maximes'
    contains, in fact, some longer selections along
    with the epigrams. Altogether he authorized five
    editions of the book in his lifetime, the last
    appearing in 1678. Two years later, on March 17,
    1680, he died in Paris.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), one
of the worlds leading research universities, in
Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1865 the school was
opened in Boston by geologist William Barton
Rogers, who became its first president. Throughou
t its history MIT has held a worldwide reputation
for teaching and research. It was among the first
schools to use the laboratory method of
instruction, develop the modern profession of
chemical engineering, and offer courses in
aeronautical and electrical engineering and
applied physics.
Word Study
  • 1. Verbal affixies
  • -ize/ise to cause to be to make to become
  • modernize / stablize / realize / crystalize /
  • standardize / computerize / idealize /
  • to put into stated place
  • hospitalize / centralize / socialize
  • -fy to cause to be
  • purify / simplify / clarify / justify / notify
    / simplify /
  • classify identify / terrify / qualify / terrify
  • -en to become
  • darken / weaken / blacken / sadden
  • to be made of
  • wooden / golden / woolen

2. body / faculty / staff
  • body
  • 1. whole physical structure of a human being or
    an animal main part of a human body
  • dead body a strong body
  • 2. main part of sth
  • the body of a ship the body of the theater
  • the main body of the book
  • 3. object
  • heavenly bodies a foreign body
  • 4. group of people working or acting as a unit
  • a body of troops a body of supporters
  • a legislative body a government body
  • the student body the governing body
  • the school body an elected body

  • Faculty
  • any of the power s of the body or mind
  • the faculty of the sight mental faculties
  • 2. department or group of related departments in
    a university
  • the Faculty of Law the Faculty of Science
  • 3. the whole teaching staff in one of the
    departments or in the whole university
  • The entire faculty of the university will attend
    the meeting.

  • Staff (usu. sing)
  • group of assistants working together in a
    business, etc responsible to a manager or a
    person in authority
  • the hotel staff the shop staff
  • We need more staff in the office.
  • I have a staff of ten
  • 2. Those people doing administrative work
  • a head teacher and her staff
  • (???????)
  • The school staff are expected to supervise
    school meals.

3. testify / justify / verify / Certify
  • testify declare as a witness, esp in court give
    evidence (????,??)
  • Two witnesses testified against her and one in
    her favour.
  • justify show that sth / sb is right, reasonable
    or just
    (??????????????,?????? ?)
  • You shouldnt attempt to justify yourself
  • They found it hard to justify their sons giving
    up a secure well-paid job.

  • verify to check to make sure sth is true or
    accurate (??,??)
  • The computer verified the data was loaded
  • certify to declare formally, esp in writing or on
    a printed document (??????)
  • He certified it was his wifes handwriting.

4. say / speak / talk / tell / converse
  • say ?????????????,
  • He hasnt said that he is leaving.
  • ??????????
  • He said, Good night, and went to bed.
  • speak ????,??????,
  • The baby is learning to speak.
  • Please dont speak with your mouth full of
  • ????????,?????????
  • Id like to speak with you about my idea.
  • We have invited her to speak on American
  • ??????????????????
  • He speaks several languages.

  • Talk ????????????????,??? ???????, ????????
  • We sat in the bar and talked for hours
  • Tell ????????,???????
  • She told him to hurry up.
  • She told me nothing about herself.
  • Converse ????,???
  • It is a pleasure to converse with you.
  • It is difficult to converse with people who do
    not speak your language.

5. rather / fairly / quite / pretty
  • ????????????,??????,????
  • ?,??????????????????
  • rather
  • 1. ????????????????????????,?????????
  • rather good play rather poor work
  • 2. ???????????,??????????
  • rather hot rather small
  • 3. ??????too??
  • The house is rather bigger than we thought.
  • Those shoes are rather too small.
  • 4. ?a/an adj. n.???,???a / an ???
  • a rather nice day a rather pretty woman

  • fairly ????,???????
  • fairly tidy / friendly
  • quite ?rather??,??a/an adj. n.???,? ??a / an
  • A quite nice guy a quite promising future
  • pretty
  • 1. ????????,??????????????
  • A pretty simple question a pretty ugly man
  • 2. ?rather??????????????????? ???????,?????????

6. sensitive / sensible
  • sensible reasonable having or showing good
  • a sensible person a sensible suggestion
  • sensitive easily hurt, damaged, affected,
    offended, upset
  • a sensitive nerve heat-sensitive
  • a sensitive girl sensitive to criticism

Writing Technique
  • Euphemism ???
  • jump the fence
  • go to the electric chair
  • Euphemism, or language pollution, or double
    speak, as some call it, is often intended to
    obscure or hide the real situation.
  • pass away rest in peace
  • go to the bathroom ladies room
  • senior citizen sanitary engineer
  • correction center domestic help
  • meat technologist substandard housing
  • He is a bit slow for his age.

Text Analysis
  • Structure
  • Part I (para.1 8)
  • describes the writers encounter with one of his
  • Part II (para. 9 14)
  • restates what the writer still believes to be
    the purpose of a university putting its students
    in touch with the best civilizations the human
    race has created.

  • Difficult Sentences
  • New as I was to the faculty, I could have told
    this specimen a number of things.
  • Paraphrase Though I was a new teacher, I knew I
    could tell him what a university was for,
    but I couldnt.
  • Note
  • specimen a person who is unusual in some way.
    Here it refers to the student who
    challenges the teacher.

  • 2. You will see to it that the cyanide stays out
    of the aspirin, that the bull doesnt jump the
    fence, or that your client doesnt go to the
    electric chair as a result of your incompetence.
  • Paraphrase You have to take responsibility for
    the work you do. If you re a pharmacist,
    you should make sure that aspirin is not
    mixed with poisonous chemicals. As an
    engineer, you shouldnt get things out of
    control. If you become a lawyer, you should
    make sure an innocent person is not sentenced
    to death because you lack adequate legal
    knowledge and skill to defend your client.

  • Note
  • see to it that to make sure that
  • the bull Jumps the fence to make trouble to
    make out of control.
  • go to the electric chair to be sentenced to

  • 3. They will be your income, and may it always
  • Paraphrase Those professional skills will be
    rewarding for your career and we hope that
    there may always be opportunities of further
  • Note
  • May in formal English, may is used to express
    a hope or wish
  • May you happy new year.
  • May you a happy holiday.
  • May peace finally prevail.
  • May our country be prosperous and our people

  • 4. You are on your way to being that new species
    of mechanized savage, the push-button
  • Paraphrase You will soon become an uneducated,
    ignorant person who can only work
    machines and operate mechanical
  • Note
  • 1. on ones way to on the point of experiencing
    or achieving
  • 2. new species of mechanized savage
  • new types of humans who are intellectually
    simple and not developed and who can only work
  • 3. The push-button Neanderthal
  • an uneducated, ignorant person who can only use
    / operate machines by pushing the buttons.

  • Value of College Education
  • A girl is going to give up her chance of
    receiving college education in order to pursue
    her dream of becoming a performer. Her father is
    worried about her and posted a message on the
    internet, expecting advice from other internet

  • ???Steve Vaughn (
  • ??Value of college education  View this article
  • ????
  • ??1996/07/09
  • I hope I am posting my question to an
    appropriate newsgroup. I apologize if not. My
    daughter is entering her senior year in high
    school and plans to pursue a career in theatre.
    She has wanted to be a performer since she was
    very little and is a hard working, focused
    person. She has received training in dance,
    voice, and acting both in and outside of high
    school. She recently informed us that a college
    education (degree) may not be of that much value
    to her career, except for the networking benefits
    from attending one of the top flight theatre
    programs. I believe her current voice and acting
    teacher has planted this seed. I would be very
    appreciative of the opinions of anyone in
    professional theatre regarding the importance of
    a college education degree for someone planning
    to work in this business. Her mother nor I have
    any experience in this field. Thanks for your

  • The following letter is from one of the internet
    surfers who are interested in this topic.

  • ???Mary Beth (
  • ??Re Value of college education  View this
    article only
  • ????
  • ??1996/07/10
  • While a degree won't help your daughter get
    an acting job (in that educational credentials
    aren't necessary, talent is), I firmly believe in
    the value of an education. Her schooling should
    help her to hone her craft, and therefore will be
    a plus if she is truly looking to pursue theatre
    as a career. Additionally, if she is a vocalist,
    the training she should get will be invaluable. I
    would suggest she look into colleges and
    universities with reputations for good theatre
    and/or music programs. Good luck to her!

  • Suppose you are also one of the interested
    internet surfers, what will you say to the father
    of the girl in your letter of reply?