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Risks and Decision

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Risks and Decision Making Healthy Ways to Lose Weight Replace fizzy drinks and fruit cordials with water. Swap whole milk for semi-skimmed, or semi-skimmed for skimmed. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Risks and Decision


1
Risks and Decision
  • Making

2
6 Steps to Goal Setting
  • 1. Select a goal to work on
  • 2. List what you will do to reach that goal
  • 3. Identify sources of help and support
  • 4. Set a reasonable time frame
  • 5. Establish checkpoints for evaluation
  • 6. Reward yourself after reaching your goal

3
1. Select a GOAL to work on
  • Make it Challenging, attainable, and specific
  • Challenging Your goals should be realistic and
    suited to your present capabilities. You cant go
    from habitual couch potato to world-class athlete
    overnight, or recover the look you had in your
    20's if youre pushing 60 right now. Small,
    progressive steps toward reasonable, long-term
    goals are crucial to success. But your goals
    should also push you to extend yourself beyond
    where you already are. Otherwise you will get
    bored and quit the game.Example It's great to
    work on drinking those eight cups of water
    everyday, but people do not lose weight from
    water drinking alone. Select an activity and get
    moving! Go do something that makes you sweat!
    Then you'll need the water and it won't be so
    hard to drink.

4
6 steps in Goal Setting
  • Attainable
  • Don't take the challenging characteristic (above)
    too far. Make sure you can actually achieve what
    you're setting out to do. Otherwise, you will get
    frustrated and quit the game.Example Sixty
    minutes of aerobic exercise may be better than 30
    minutes, but two hours may not beespecially if
    you're so worn out afterward that you have to
    stop exercising completely for a while. You can
    always build up the time and intensity of your
    workouts as your fitness level improves over
    time.

5
BE SPECIFIC
  • GOAL Try to do better (not specific)
  • Thats is like trying to eat the hole of a
    donut.
  • Theres nothing to chew, nothing to digest!

6
2. List what you will do to reach that goal
  • BE Specific Trying to "do your best" or "do
    better" is like trying to eat the hole in a
    donut. There's nothing there to chew on or
    digest. You need to define some very specific,
    concrete, and measurable action-steps that tell
    you what your goal looks like in real-life terms.
    Include how you will measure your results so you
    can tell whether you are getting
    anywhere.Example If you want to get a handle
    on emotional eating and you've decided that
    keeping a journal may help, set aside scheduled
    time to do your writing each day set up some
    specific changes in your behavior that you want
    this work to produce (like not eating after your
    last scheduled snack) and create a time interval
    and/or method to figure out whether your
    journaling is helping you reach that goal or not.

7
BE SPECIFIC
  • I WANT A HAMBURGER
  • I WANT A HAMBURGER WITH

8
3. Identify sources of help and support
  • Parents, friends, siblings, clubs/organizations,
    after school tutoring, church members, college
    students,

9
4. Set a reasonable time frame
  • Time-limited Goals need to come with deadlines,
    due dates, and payoff schedules. Otherwise,
    they'll fade into the background with your daily
    hubbub, and you'll quit playing the game. If your
    long-term goal is going to take a while to reach,
    create some intermediate- and short-term goals.
    These will make your larger goal seem less
    daunting and keep you focused on what you can do
    here and now to help yourself get
    there.Example If your overall goal is to have
    the weight off in one year, make sure you set up
    some intermediate weight goals to serve as check
    points along the way. Otherwise, those small
    things you need to do every day, and the small
    successes you achieve, can seem so insignificant
    compared to how much further you still have to go
    that you may lose interest. Losing 1 pound per
    week for a year v- losing 50 pounds in a year.

10
5. Establish checkpoints for evaluation
11
6 Steps to Goal Setting
  • 6. Reward yourself after reaching your goal

12
Guidelines for Setting Goals
  • 1. Make sure your goal will not harm you or
    anyone else
  • 2. Show respect for yourself and others affected
    by your goal
  • Be Positive Goals should always be framed in
    positive terms. Humans are not designed to
    white-knuckle their way through life, always
    trying to not do things or to avoid certain
    thoughts, feelings, actions or circumstances. We
    are much better at approaching what we DO want
    than avoiding what we don't want.Example If
    you want to reduce the amount of junk food you
    eat, frame that goal in positive words like
    increasing the amount of calories you eat from
    healthy foods , and identifying which healthy
    foods you want to eat more. Instead of trying to
    eliminate chocolate treats, for example, plan a
    low-fat yogurt with fruit for your sweet snack.
    If you do this for a few weeks, your brain will
    disconnect the habitual association between treat
    and chocolate and make a new one with the yogurt
    and fruit. And youll be just as happy with this
    new treat!
  • 3. Select goals that help you grow
  • 4. If you fail, use it to help you set a new goal
  • Flexible Good strategies and goals are always
    flexible, because nothing in this world stays the
    same for very long, and staying alive and on
    course means being able to adapt to changing
    circumstances.Example You are always going to
    run into circumstances that make it difficult to
    stick to your diet or exercise planspecial
    occasions, unexpected schedule conflicts, even
    just a really hard day where you need a break
    from the routine for your mental health. Your
    goals should include some contingency plans for
    dealing with these problems so that you dont
    fall into that all-or-nothing thinking that lets
    one difficult situation become an excuse for
    ditching your whole plan.

13
DECIDE
  • D Define the Problem
  • E Explore the Alternatives
  • C Consider the Consequences
  • I Identify your Values
  • D Decide and Act
  • E Evaluate the Results

14
GOAL SETTING
  • CREATE ONE GOAL THAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO
    ACCOMPLISH, BUT YOU THINK IT IS A LITTLE FAR
    FETCHED AND MIGHT NOT BE POSSIBLE
  • WHAT ARE AT LEAST 3 DISTRACTORS THAT WILL PREVENT
    YOU FROM ACCOMPLISHING THIS GOAL?
  • (After students write this in notebook, refer to
    slide number 4, then continue with example in
    slide 8)

15
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16
GOALS AND REWARDS
  • My goal is to ___________________________________.
    The short-term goals I have established to help
    me achieve my long-term goal are
    _________________________, _______________________
    , and ____________________. The deadlines that I
    have set for myself to achieve these goals and
    thee rewards I will receive upon completing them
    are as follows
  • _________________________ _______
    _________________
  • Short-term goal 1 date reward
  • _________________________ _______
    _________________
  • Short-term goal 2 date reward
  • _________________________ _______
    _________________
  • Short-term goal 3 date reward
  • My deadline to accomplish my long term goal is
    _________.
  • The reward I will give myself upon completion is
    _________.

17
DECISION MAKING
  • RISKS AND

18
RISKS AND DECISION MAKING
  • MAKING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN GOAL SETTING AND
  • PROBLEM SOLVING

19
AM
20
  • Was forced out of their home at age of 7 and he
    needed to work to support his family.
  • His mother passed away when he was 9
  • His sister dies when he was 17
  • A business venture failed when he was 22
  • He ran for the State Legislature. He lost.

21
  • He sought to become Speaker of the State
    Legislature. He was defeated.
  • He sought to become Elector. He was defeated.
  • He Marries and has 4 boys, but only one would
    live to maturity.
  • He ran for Congress. He lost.
  • He ran for Congress again. He won and moved to
    Washington.
  • He ran for re-election to Congress. He lost.
  • He sought the job of Land Officer in his home
    state. He didn't get the job.
  • His son, Edward, dies.
  • He ran for the Senate of the United states. He
    lost.
  • He sought the Vice Presidential nomination at a
    national convention. He got less than 100 votes.
  • He ran for the Senate again. He lost again.
  • His son, Willie, dies at age 12
  • Abraham Lincoln is elected President of the
    United States
  • IS ASSASSINATED.

22
CONSIDER HIS RISKSCONSIDER HIS DECISION MAKING
(Lets discuss this)
  • CONSIDER HIS GOAL(S), list 2-3 CONSIDER HIS
    PROBLEMS, list 2-3

23
HOW WOULD YOU HAVE RESPONDED TO HIS
ADVERSITIES?

24
NOW
  • REFER TO YOUR ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE GOAL FROM SLIDE
    7

25
DID YOU HAVE
  • PMA
  • WHEN YOU DECIDED ON THIS GOAL?

26
(No Transcript)
27
  • PMA

28
(No Transcript)
29
Role Model
  • someone whose success or behavior serves as an
    example for others

30
ROLE MODELS
  • LIST 5 PEOPLE YOU WOULD CONSIDER YOUR ROLE MODELS
  • LIST 5 DIFFERENT POSITIVE CHARACTERISTICS THAT
    THESE PEOPLE POSSESS

31
WHO AM I?
32
AM I WORTHY ENOUGH TO BE A ROLE MODEL?WHY?
  • WHO AM I?
  • WHY SHOULD I BE A ROLE MODEL?

33
AM I CREDIBLE ENOUGH TO BE YOUR ROLE MODEL?
WHY/WHY NOT?
34
Risk Factors
  • HEREDITARY diseases and disorders passed through
    generations
  • AGE 75 of ALL heart attacks occur after 65
    years of age
  • GENDER MEN ARE AT GREATER RISK (HORMONAL FACTORS
    PROTECT WOMEN UNTIL MENOPAUSE)
  • RACE BLACKS ARE AT45 GREATER RISK FOR
    HYPERTENSION, THUS HEART DISEASE

35
Examples common in the US
  • CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE disease of the heart and
    blood vessels
  • IN 2007 80 MILLION AMERICANS HAD SOME TYPE OF
    CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

36
TYPES OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  1. ATHEROSCLEROSIS fatty deposits, cholesterol,
    cellar waste, calcium and fibrin (blood clotting
    material) in the inner lining of the artery
  2. CORONARY HEART DISEASE HEART ATTACK (AKA
    MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION)
  3. ANGINA PECTORIS CHEST PAINS (CIRCULATORY
    IMPAIRMENT), nitroglycerin used to reduced pain
  4. ARRHYTHMIAS IRREGULAR HEART BEATS
  5. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE BLOOD DOES NOT
    CIRCULATE PROPERLY

37
TYPES OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • 6. CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE PRESENT AT BIRTH
    (can be because of rubella, chemical intake
    during pregnancy)
  • 7. STROKE NO BLOOD SUPPLY TO BRAIN (BLOOD CLOT)

38
REDUCING RISKS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • CVD IS 70 GREATER FOR SMOKERS
  • SECOND SMOKE CAN INCREASE RISK BY 30
  • REDUCE SATURATED FATS AND CHOLESTEROL
  • EXERCISE REGULARLY (MINIMUM 3 X WK)
  • CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE( hypertension) less than
    140 for systolic pressure)
  • MANAGE STRESS

39
Risk Factors
  • B. CANCER , SECOND LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH IN THE
    US, EVEN THOUGH CANCER-RELATED DEATHS HAVE
    DECLINED OVER THE LAST 10 YEARS
  • TYPES 1. LUNG 2. BREAST 3. COLON/RECTAL 4. SKIN
    5. PROSTATE 6. OVARIAN 7. ENDOMETRIAL (UTERINE)
    8. TESTICULAR 9. PANCREATIC 10. LEUKEMIA

40
LIFESTYLE FACTORS THAT INCREASE RISK FOR CANCER
  • BEING SEDENTARY
  • DIET
  • CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL
  • SMOKING
  • STRESS
  • OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES WORKING
    WITH HERBICIDES/PESTICIDES, METALS, RADIATION,

41
RISK FACTORS
  • C. DIABETES OCCURS WHEN THE PANCREAS DOES NOT
    PRODUCE ENOUGH INSULIN OR BODY DOES NOT USE
    INSULIN EFFECTIVELY
  • HIGH LEVELS OF BLOOD SUGAR AND GLUCOSE LEVELS IN
    THE URINE (HYPERGLYCEMIA)
  • THREE TYPES OF DIABETES
  • Type 1 immune system destroys insulin-making
    cells(usually occurs early in life)
  • Type 2 the body resists or is unable to use
    insulin (usually after age of 40), linked to
    obesity and inactivity.
  • 3. Gestational can develop in a women during
    pregnancy, but disappears after childbirth

42
RISK FACTORS
  • Environmental physical and social surroundings
    that affect a persons health
  • Examples
  • Physical Environment home, school, office,
    drinking water, air we breath, uncontaminated
    land to grow crops
  • Social Environment family, friends, classmates
  • Culture

43
OVER
  • POPULATION

44
THE UNITED STATES
  • MAKES UP 5 OF THE WORLDS POPULATION

45
THE UNITED STATES
  • ACCOUNTS FOR 25 OF THE TOTAL GLOBAL CONSUMPTION

46
ZERO POPULATIONNOW CALLED POPULATION CONNECTION
  • A CONCEPT THAT EACH COUPLE SHOULD ONLY PRODUCE
    TWO OFFSPRING
  • http//www.populationconnection.org/site/PageServe
    r

47
YOUR THOUGHTS
  • ABOUT ZERO POPULATION GROWTH?

48
UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES
49
99 OF POPULATION INCREASES
  • ARE IN POORER, LESS DEVELOPEDCOUNTRIES

50
AIR POLLUTION
51
WATER POLLUTION
52
WATER POLLUTION
53
WATER POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECTS
54
LAND
  • POLLUTION

55
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
56
NOISE POLLUTION
57
RADIATION
  • IS DANGEROUS

58
RADIATION
  • BURNS

59
  • Behavioral Decisions made by an individual
  • Examples
  • Seatbelts
  • Alcohol and other drugs
  • Participating in sports
  • Involvement in clubs

60
Leading Causes of Death for Young People (15-24)
  • Motor Vehicle Accidents
  • Homicide
  • Suicide
  • Other Injuries
  • Falling
  • Drowning
  • Cancer
  • Heart Disease
  • AIDS

61
Steps in MakingChanges for Health
  • Awareness
  • Knowledge
  • Decision Making
  • Applying Skills
  • (knowledge, attitude, skills behavior)

62
Making Decisions About Diets
  • Atkins
  • South Beach
  • Weight Watchers
  • Biggest Loser
  • Best Life Diet
  • Jenny Craig
  • Zone Diet
  • NutriSystem
  • Cabbage Soup Diet
  • Hallelujah Diet

63
Dangers of Poor Dieting
  • Dry skin
  • Weak bones
  • Weak heart
  • Loss of hair
  • Tired
  • Gum disease
  • Interfere with reproduction

64
Risks of Being Overweight
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Certain types of cancer
  • Sleep apnea
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Pregnancy complications

65
Risks of Being Underweight
  • Anemia and Nutrient Deficiencies
  • Bone loss and osteoporosis
  • Heart irregularities and blood vessel diseases
  • Amenorrhea (loss of periods for women)
  • Increased vulnerability to infection and disease
  • Delayed wound healing

66
Healthy Ways to Lose Weight
  • Replace fizzy drinks and fruit cordials with
    water.
  • Swap whole milk for semi-skimmed, or semi-skimmed
    for skimmed.
  • Eat less lunch than usual. For example, make your
    own sandwich and limit the use of
    margarine/butter and full-fat mayonnaise
    (store-bought sandwiches often contain both).
  • Stop taking sugar in tea and coffee.
  • Have smaller portions of the food you enjoy.
  • Avoid having a second helping at dinner.
  • Cut out unhealthy treats such as confectionary,
    sugary biscuits and crisps between meals

67
Healthy Ways to Gain Weight
  • Have meals with the right balance of proteins,
    carbohydrates, and the right kinds of fat
  • Eat foods higher in calories, vitamins, and
    minerals, as opposed to higher in fat or sugar.
  • Pack more nutritious calories in each serving.
  • If you get too full too fast, try having more
    high-calorie foods or slices of foods as opposed
    to consuming the whole thing
  • Limit drinking beverages to a half-hour before
    and after a meal.
  • Drink mixed juices for a higher calorie intake.
  • With moderation, you may add in good fat sources
    to meals such as nuts, avocado, olives, and fatty
    fish.
  • Snack in between meals.
  • Have a nutritious snack before bedtime, such as a
    peanut butter sandwich.

68
Benefits of Exercise
  • Exercise improves your mood
  • Exercise combats chronic diseases
  • Exercise helps you manage your weight
  • Exercise boosts your energy level
  • Exercise promotes better sleep
  • Exercise can be fun!

69
Exercise Charts
  • Remember 3500 Calories is equal to one pound of
    fat.
  • Average 30 minute workout chart shows how many
    calories are burned at each activity.

Activity 100 lbs 150 lbs 200 lbs
Basketball 220 330 440
Dancing 100 150 200
Jogging 185 278 370
Shopping 60 90 120
Soccer 195 292 390
Tennis 160 240 320
Hiking 180 270 360
Weights 255 382 510
Mowing 135 202 270
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