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Multiculturalism: What It Means in Education, Business, and Society

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Title: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ETHICS Author: fpolicastro Last modified by: gardner webb Created Date: 4/6/2005 12:36:50 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Multiculturalism: What It Means in Education, Business, and Society


1
Multiculturalism What It Means in Education,
Business, and Society
  • Prepared by
  • Prof. Oscar Zamora

2
Oscar Zamora
3
Oscar Zamora
  • Prof. in GWU Godbold School of Business
  • Retired as Global Director of Manufacturing -
    Azdel, Inc., Shelby, NC, USA
  • Born - Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico
  • B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Texas
    at Austin
  • MBA, University of Texas at Austin

4
Places Worked
  • 1. Corpus Christi, Texas
  • 2. Guayanilla, Puerto Rico
  • 3. Lake Charles, Louisiana
  • 4. Natrium, West Virginia
  • 5. Kaoshiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
  • 6. Beauharnois, Quebec, Canada
  • 7. Bergen op Zoom, Holland
  • 8. Lynchburg, Virginia
  • 9. Shelby, North Carolina

5
Multiculturalism Globalization
  • Why is multiculturalism important?
  • Homogeneous society
  • Diversity
  • Globalization!

6
Countries of the World
7
Countries Languages
  • 196 countries
  • 6500 spoken languages
  • 1.5 billion speak Mandarin Chinese
  • 406 million speak Spanish
  • 335 million speak English

8
Business
  • Global employee
  • Work for a global company.
  • Work in international location.
  • Deal with international customers suppliers.
  • Work in international offices of your company.
  • Interact with different cultures languages

9
Schools
  • Have students from different cultures
  • Some speak a language other than English as a
    first language
  • Parents often do not speak English
  • U.S. Graduates will be competing against
    graduates from all over the world

10
School Mission Statements
  • to become productive citizens in a globally
    competitive world.
  • .Gardner-Webb prepares its graduates to make
    significant contributions for God and humanity in
    an ever-changing global community.

11
Society
  • People from different ethnicities, cultures
    languages live in communities
  • Some may not speak English well or at all

12
What is Culture?-Global Business Today, C. Hill
Culture is a system of values and norms that
are shared among a group of people, and when
taken together constitute a design for
living.
13
People are mostly unaware of culture
  • Culture is like an iceberg. Much is hidden
    from sight, even for its members.

14
The Determinants of Culture
Ethics
Customs
15
Religion
Christianity 2.0B
Islam 1.6B
Hinduism .8B
Buddhism .5B
Confucianism
16
Religion
  • One of the most important elements of Culture is
    religion.
  • Wars have been fought for thousands of years over
    religion.
  • First communions
  • Bar mitzvahs and bat mitzvahs
  • Baptisms
  • Travelers/businessmen need to be aware of
    religious holidays in other cultures.

17
Education - Key to learning about other cultures
and other languages
  • Education, either formal or informal, plays a
    major role in the passing on and sharing of
    culture.
  • Communities, schools, universities, local and
    international businesses need education to
    understand multiculturalism.

18
Gardner-Webb University - Diversity
  • Has a diverse student body and faculty.
  • Its 2,600 undergraduates come from 33 states and
    34 foreign countries.

19
Gardner-Webb University
  • Face-to-face interaction with people from
    different cultures
  • International students
  • Mission trips
  • International programs
  • Study Abroad
  • GEM trips
  • International Business classes
  • Majors in International Business

20
Business Cultural Awareness Programs
  • Learning the dos and donts between cultures is
    never easy and not all of the rules are written
    down.
  • Many companies have their own cultural awareness
    programs.
  • All companies that do business with international
    suppliers or customers should prepare awareness
    programs.

21
Preparation
  • When communicating with other cultures,
  • Learn at a minimum - greeting thanks.
  • Speak clearly.
  • Avoid colloquialisms.
  • Business cards in other language.
  • Things to do/not to do.

22
Home Map
23
(No Transcript)
24
What to look for in a Global employee
  • Education
  • Grades
  • Degree
  • Courses
  • Extracurricular Activities
  • clubs
  • sports
  • civic organizations

25
Character Traits
  • Adaptable
  • Confident (not arrogant)
  • Willing to learn/curious
  • Pay attention to detail
  • Presence
  • Decisive
  • Good attendance/responsible

26
Character Traits, cont.
  • Work within other cultures (geocentric)
  • Leadership
  • Ethical Values
  • Low maintenance

27
Specific Skills
  • Good problem-solving skills
  • Work well with teams
  • Technical competence in your field
  • Foreign language
  • Good communication skills both written and oral

28
Language (Beamer Varner)
  • Language - system of communication using
    arbitrary signals, voice sounds, gestures, or
    written symbols.
  • Language is essential in communicating with
    people from different backgrounds.
  • However, cultural literacy is necessary to
    understand the language being used.

29
Language
  • If we select language without being aware of the
    cultural implications
  • at best, do not communicate well
  • at worst, send the wrong message.

30
Language/Culture
  • Sometimes different cultures use identical words
    that have different meanings.
  • The results can be humorous, annoying, insulting,
    or costly, depending on the circumstances.

31
Same Words, Different Meanings
  • The word administration
  • U.S. department chair, dean or provost.
  • French upper level clerical staff.
  • The Resume
  • Germany - written in essay form has information
    about your family,
  • Japan used to be handwritten never use
    standard U.S. format.

32
Force Majeure - superior force
  • U.S. law forces of nature/possibly war.
  • English law broader meaning, includes changes in
    economic conditions or other circumstances not
    anticipated when the contract was drawn up.
  • Need to clarify what is meant and what the term
    covers.

33
Same words, different meanings
  • In the U.S. a notary is a licensed person who can
    verify signatures and documents.
  • In Europe, a notary is a lawyer who prepares
    documents.

33
34
Same language, different meanings
  • British English
  • to table means to put it on the table for
    discussion
  • American English
  • to table means to put it away and close
    discussion

34
35
Same language, different meanings
  • Mexican Spanish
  • Ahorita right now
  • Ahora today or
  • anytime
  • Puerto Rican Spanish
  • Ahorita - anytime
  • Ahora right now

36
Linguistic Literacy or Myth?
  • Everyone speaks English.
  • You never know where you will wind up, so you may
    be learning the wrong language.
  • A good manager is a good manager everywhere.

37
Linguistic Literacy?
  • I have been successful without learning a foreign
    language.
  • You can always hire a translator.
  • You probably will not be good enough to negotiate
    in a foreign language anyway.

38
Linguistic vs Cultural Fluency
  • A person who speaks some Spanish but is
    knowledgeable about the culture of Mexico will be
    more successful in doing business in Mexico than
    will a person who speaks Spanish fluently but
    knows little about Mexican culture.

39
Translator/Interpreter
  • Translator someone who carries meaning of a
    word across from one language to a word in
    another language.
  • Translation usually refers to written
    communication.
  • Interpreter someone who expresses meanings from
    one language in another language, using context.
  • Interpretation usually refers to spoken
    communication.

40
The Role of the Interpreter
The interpreter transmits messages, but does not
enter into the discussion.
Encode message
Decode/Encode message
Decode message
SENDER
INTERPRETER TRANSLATOR
RECEIVER
feedback
feedback
The ability to speak the language well does not
eliminate the need for interpreter or translator.
41
Language Strategies
  • Require references for translators.
  • Ensure the translator is familiar with technical
    vocabulary for the business.
  • Do a back translation.
  • Use simple words/speak slowly.
  • Avoid slang.
  • Repeat words and ask questions.
  • Expect extra time for communication.

42
Language Strategies
  • Avoid abbreviations.
  • Be careful with jokes.
  • Follow the conventions of business letters in
    target culture.
  • Be careful with numbers and dates.

43
Be Careful with Numbers
  • U.S. - 5,350.48
  • Europe - 5.350,48
  • The comma and the decimal point are reversed.
  • Often the punctuation to set off thousands is not
    used at all.

44
Be Careful with Dates
  • American usage May 6, 2013
  • or 05/06/2013
  • German usage 6 Mai 2013
  • or 6.5.2013
  • Increasing international usage
  • 2013 May, 6 or 2013, 05 06

45
World Perception about Language
  • What is a person called who speaks 2 languages?
    Bilingual
  • What is a person called who speaks 3 languages?
    Trilingual
  • What is a person called who speaks only 1
    language?

46
Intercultural Communication
  • Learning the dos and donts between cultures is
    never easy and not all of the rules are written
    down.
  • Communication with a multicultural workforce has
    made businesses in all countries confront issues
    with diverse workforces and business dealings.
  • (Beamer Varner)

47
Ten Commandments of Intercultural Communication
(Hahn)
  • Be aware of differing social values.
  • Be aware of differing status symbols.
  • Be aware of decision making customs.
  • Be aware of concepts of time and money
  • Be aware of personal space

48
Ten Commandments of Intercultural Communication
cont.
  • Be aware of cultural content.
  • Be aware of body language.
  • Be aware of different etiquette rules or manners.
  • Be aware of legal and ethical behaviors.

49
Verbal/non-verbal
  • Technical words do not exist in all languages
  • Usually use English.
  • Many cultures avoid saying anything disagreeable
    have trouble saying NO.
  • Gestures vary from one region to another.
  • Gift giving has specific etiquette in each
    culture.

50
Eye Contact/Facial Expressions
  • Eye contact subtle nonverbal
  • Meanings, can be quite different
  • Some feelings are not appropriate
  • to show in some cultures
    (anxiety, anger,
    disappointment).

51
Arm and Hand Movements
52
Touching
  • A widespread example of touching is the
    handshake.
  • Other touching involves arm and shoulder contact,
    embraces, kisses, and ritual behavior.

53
Appearance
  • Business dress
  • Many American, Asian, and European businessmen
    wear dark suits and white shirts.
  • Businesswomen wear conservative clothing
    appropriate to their cultures.

54
ETHICS
  • Within a given society, are the accepted
    principles of right or wrong that govern the
    conduct of a person, the members of a profession,
    or the actions of an organization.
  • Global Business Today, C. Hill

55
Ethical Issues in International Business
  • ETHICAL ISSUES DILEMMAS ARE ROOTED IN THE FACT
    THAT

56
Ethical Issues in International Business
  • thus,
  • what is considered normal practice in one nation
    may be considered unethical in others.

57
International Differences in Ethics
  • Not everything unethical is illegal.
  • Laws are often based on moral concepts that are
    not precisely defined, and require personal
    interpretation.
  • The degree to which they break a law.
  • The end justifies the means.

58
Conclusions/Recommendations
  • Schools/Business should prepare students and
    employees to succeed globally with Cultural
    Globalization Awareness programs
  • International exchange programs
  • Study Abroad programs
  • International Business classes
  • Learn from international students
  • International Current Events

59
Conclusions/Recommendations
  • Accept that all cultures are not the same.
  • Learn another language
  • Learn at a minimum - Greeting Thanks.
  • Things to do/not to do.
  • International trips.
  • Books (even tourist books) internet.
  • Training seminars

60
Conclusions/Recommendations
  • What is your Cultural Intelligence (CQ)?
  • Intercultural communication is important.
  • Ethical rules vary.
  • Wherever you go, maintain your ethical values.
  • The Golden Rule.

61
The Golden Rule
62
Thank youMerci Gracias
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