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Chapter 5 CONSCIOUSNESS

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Title: Chapter 5 CONSCIOUSNESS


1
Chapter 5 CONSCIOUSNESS
  • Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
  • Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Section 3 Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
  • Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness

2
Consciousness as a Construct
Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
  • Psychologists have not always thought that
    consciousness should be part of the study of
    psychology.
  • Today many psychologists believe that
    consciousness can be studied because it can be
    linked with measurable behaviors, such as
    talking, and with brain waves.
  • Consciousness is a psychological construct, as
    well as intelligence and emotion.
  • None of them can be seen, touched, or measured
    directly but they are know by their effects on
    behavior.

3
Question What is consciousness?
Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
  • CONSCIOUSNESS
  • Generally speaking, consciousness means awareness
    but there is more than one type of awareness
  • Consciousness refers to sensory awareness, direct
    inner awareness and the sense of self that each
    person experiences.
  • Sensory awareness conscious or aware of things
    outside yourself
  • You are aware of sights, sounds, and smells that
    are all around you
  • Focusing on a particular stimulus is referred to
    as selective attention and it makes our senses
    keener
  • We tend to be more conscious of some things than
    others.

4
CONSCIOUSNESS
Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
  • Direct inner awareness being aware of things
    inside you
  • Imagine jumping into a lake or a swimming pool on
    a hot day. Can you feel the cool, refreshing
    water all around you?
  • Although this image may be vivid, you did not
    really experience it.
  • You do not hear, see, smell, or touch thoughts,
    images, emotions, or memories. Yet you are still
    conscious of them. This meaning of
    consciousness, then, is being aware of things
    inside yourself.
  • Sense of self aware of ourselves and our
    existence.
  • Consciousness is the sense of self in which we
    are aware of ourselves and our existence.

5
Levels of ConsciousnessPreconscious Level
Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
  • Preconscious ideas are not in your awareness
    right now, but you could recall them if you had
    to. You can make these preconscious bits of
    information conscious simply by directing your
    inner awareness or attention to them.

6
Levels of ConsciousnessUnconscious Level
Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
  • Sigmund Freud theorized that people have an
    unconscious mind.
  • Information stored in the unconscious (sometimes
    called the subconscious) is unavailable to
    awareness under most circumstances
  • Imagine that you are planning to go to a party.
    Without realizing why, you find yourself
    continually distracted from getting ready.
    First, perhaps, you cannot find a pair of shoes,
    Then maybe you become involved in a lengthy phone
    call, Can you guess what information was stored
    in your unconscious?
  • It may be that you did not want to go to the
    party.
  • According to Freuds theory this desire to avoid
    the party was unconscious and you were not aware
    of it.
  • We use various mental strategies, called defense
    mechanisms, to push painful or unacceptable ideas
    out of our consciousness. In this way, we
    protect ourselves from feelings of anxiety, guilt
    and shame.

7
Levels of ConsciousnessNonconscious Level
Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
  • Basic biological functions exit on a nonconscious
    level
  • For example, even if you tried, you could not
    sense your fingernails growing or the pupils in
    your eyes adjusting to light.
  • After all, how much can a person hope to keep in
    mind at once?

8
Altered States of Consciousness
Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
  • Consciousness sometimes refers to the waking
    statethe state in which a person is awake
  • Altered states of consciousnessa persons sense
    of self or sense of the world changes
  • Sleep is one altered state of consciousness
  • Under the influence of drugs is an altered state
    of consciousness
  • Altered states of consciousness occur through
    meditation, biofeedback, and hypnosis

9
Homework Practice Online
  • Go to http//go.hrw.com
  • Type sy7 ch5
  • Click on Homework Practice Online
  • Complete Section 1
  • Print out results.

10
Question What are the various meanings of
consciousness?
Various Meanings of Consciousness
A Sense of Self
Directs Inner Awareness
Sensory Awareness
11
Sleep and Dreams
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • One third of life is spent asleep
  • Why do we sleep? Why do we dream? Why do some of
    us have trouble getting to sleep or experience
    nightmares?
  • Circadian rhythmsbiological clocks (Circaabout
    diesa day)
  • It is a sequence of bodily changes, such as those
    in body temperature, blood pressure, and
    sleepiness and wakefulness, that occurs every 24
    hours.
  • Body temperature falls to its lowest point
    between 300 AM and 500 AM each day
  • People normally associate periods of wakefulness
    and sleep with the rotation of Earth, a full
    sleep-wake cycle is 24 hours.
  • When people are removed from cues that signal day
    or night their cycle tends to expand to about 25
    hours.

12
Question What are the stages of sleep and what
are several sleep problems?
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • FIVE STAGES OF SLEEP
  • Stage 1 is light sleep that produces the alpha
    waves typical of relaxation
  • Stages 2, 3, and 4 are deeper and during stages 3
    and 4 the brain produces delta waves
  • Stage 4 is the stage of deepest sleep meaning the
    one that would be the most difficult to wake up
    from
  • Final stage is rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, in
    which dreams and nightmares occur
  • During a typical 8-hour night of sleep, most
    people go through these stages about 5 times each
    of which constitutes one sleep cycle.
  • The final period of REM sleep toward morning may
    last half an hour or longer.

13
Why do we Sleep?
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • People need sleep to help revive the tired body
    and to build up resistance to infection.
  • Sleep helps us recover from stress.
  • We seem to need more sleep when we have problems
    in school, with our families and friends, or at
    work.
  • People and animals deprived of REM sleep tend to
    show what psychologists call REM-rebound.
  • They catch up on their REM sleep by having much
    more of it when they sleep later on.
  • REM sleep seems to serve particular psychological
    functions.
  • REM sleep may help brain development in infants
    and exercise brain cells in adults.

14
Dreams
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • It is during REM sleep that we have the most
    vivid dreams.
  • Did you know that dreams can be in
    black-and-white or in full color?
  • Some dreams seem very realistic.
  • Other dreams are disorganized and seem less real.
  • People seem to dream in real time
  • Most of the dreams people haveparticularly
    REM-sleep dreams experienced early in the
    nightare simple extensions of the activities of
    the day.

15
Freudian View
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Have your ever heard the song A Dream Is a Wish
    Your Heart Makes from the Disney film
    Cinderella?
  • According to Freud, your dreams reveal what you
    really want.
  • He theorized that dreams reflect a persons
    unconscious wishes and urges.
  • He also believed that people dream in symbols.
  • These symbolic dreams give people a way to deal
    with painful material than they cannot deal with
    consciously.

16
Biopsychological Approach
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Some psychologists believe that dreams begin with
    biological activity.
  • During sleep, neurons fire in a part of the brain
    that controls movement and vision.
  • Biopsychological approach suggests an explanation
    for why people tend to dream about events that
    took place earlier in the day.
  • There are no hard-and-fast rules for interpreting
    dreams

17
Question What are the stages of sleep and what
are several sleep problems?
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • SLEEP PROBLEMS INCLUDE
  • Insomnia the inability to sleep
  • People with insomnia are more likely than others
    to worry and to have racing minds at bedtime.
  • Insomnia increases during periods of anxiety or
    tension and decreasing or disappearing during
    less stressful periods.
  • We cannot force ourselves to fall asleep.
  • Some people use sleeping pills to cope with
    insomnia but many psychologists believe that the
    safest, simplest, most effective ways of
    overcoming insomnia do not involve medication.

18
SLEEP PROBLEMS
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Nightmares caused by a variety of events such
    as work or even depression
  • Night Terrors more severe than nightmares but
    are seldom remembered
  • Sleepwalking roaming about almost nightly
    during stages of deep sleep

19
Insomnia Techniques
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Tense the muscles, one at a time, then let the
    tension go. This helps relax the body.
  • Avoid worrying the bed. If worying persists, get
    up for a while
  • Establish a regular routine, particularly for
    getting up and going to sleep each day
  • Use pleasant images or daydreams to relax. These
    may occur naturally, or people may have to focus
    on creating them.

20
Nightmares and Night Terrors
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Common nightmares involve snakes or murderers
  • Some are specific to a particular activity or
    profession.
  • In the Middle Ages, nightmares were thought to be
    the work of demons who were sent to make people
    pay for their sins.
  • Today, nightmares are generally products of REM
    sleep

21
Night Terrors
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Night terrors are more severe than nightmares.
  • Dreamers with night terrors feel their hearts
    racing, and they gasp for air. They may suddenly
    sit up, talk incoherently or thrash about.
  • Nightmares, however, memories of night terror
    episodes usually are vague.
  • Night terrors tend to occur during deep sleep
    whereas nightmares occur during REM sleep
  • Night terrors are most common among young
    children and may reflect immaturity of the
    nervous system.

22
Sleep Apnea
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Sleep apneaa breathing interruption that occurs
    during sleep.
  • People with sleep apnea do not automatically
    start breathing again until they suddenly sit up
    and gasp for air.
  • Sleep apneas occur when a persons air passages
    are blocked.
  • A nasal mask that provides a steady air flow can
    help prevent breathing interruptions.
  • 10 million Americans suffer from sleep apnea

23
Narcolepsy
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Narcolepsya rare sleep problem in which people
    suddenly fall asleep no matter what time it is or
    where they are.
  • People usually awaken from an episode of
    narcolepsy feeling refreshed, such episodes may
    be dangerous.
  • No one knows for sure what causes narcolepsy, but
    it is believed to be a genetic disorder of
    REM-sleep functioning.

24
Sleepwalking
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Sleepwalkers may roam about almost nightly during
    stages of deep sleep.
  • They may respond to questions while they are up
    and about.
  • When they wake up they typically do not remember
    what they did or said.
  • Most children outgrow sleepwalking as they
    mature.
  • Sleepwalking may reflect immaturity of the
    nervous system.

25
Homework Practice Online
Section 2 Sleep and Dreams
  • Go to http//go.hrw.com
  • Type sy7 ch5
  • Click on Homework Practice Online
  • Complete Section 2
  • Print out results.

26
Question What are meditation, biofeedback, and
hypnosis?
Section 3 Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
  • MEDITATION, BIOFEEDBACK, AND HYPNOSIS
  • Other altered states of consciousness occur when
    we are awake. These are achieved in the following
    ways
  • Meditation a method some people use to try to
    narrow their consciousness so that the stresses
    of the outside world fade away.
  • Ancient Egyptians gazed upon an oil-burning lamp
  • The yogis of India stare at an intricate pattern
    on a vase or carpet.
  • All of these methods of meditation share a common
    threadthey focus on a peaceful, repetitive
    stimulus.
  • Meditation has been a part of some religions such
    as Buddhism.
  • Meditation can help people relax and can help
    people lower high blood pressure.

27
Biofeedback Feeding Back Information
Section 3 Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
  • Biofeedback a system for monitoring and feeding
    back information about certain biological
    processes, such as blood pressure
  • Some people have used biofeedback to learn to
    create brain waves produced when relaxingalpha
    wavesas a way of coping with tension.
  • Using biofeedback, people have learned not only
    to treat tension headaches, but also to lower
    their heart rates or blood pressure
  • Biofeedback should be attempted only under the
    direct supervision of a medical professional.

28
Hypnosis Myths and Realities
Section 3 Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
  • Hypnosis a condition in which people appear to
    be highly suggestible and to behave as if they
    are in a trance
  • Hypnosis began with the ideas of German physician
    Franz Mesmer
  • To cure his patients, he would pass magnets over
    their bodies
  • Hypnotism may have more validity than Mesmers
    magnet treatment.
  • Some doctors use hypnosis as an anesthetic in
    certain types of surgery
  • Some psychologists use it to help clients reduce
    anxiety, manage pain, or overcome fears.
  • DO NOT ATTEMPT HYPNOTISM ON YOUR OWN.

29
How is Hypnosis Achieved?
Section 3 Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
  • Professional hypnotists may put people in a state
    of consciousness called hypnotic trance.
  • Hypnosis is not sleep
  • Hearing the word sleep often does help a person
    enter a hypnotic trance.
  • People who are easily hypnotized are said to have
    hypnotic suggestibility.
  • Suggestible people also usually like the idea of
    being hypnotized and are not resistant to it.
  • People can only be hypnotized if they want to be.

30
How Can We Explain Hypnosis?
Section 3 Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
  • Hypnotized people permit themselves to return to
    childish ways of behaving
  • They also enjoy becoming passive and waiting for
    the hypnotist to tell them what to do.
  • Role theorypeople who are hypnotized are playing
    a part as if they are in a play.
  • People with vivid imaginations are especially
    suggestible.

31
Is Hypnosis Effective?
Section 3 Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
  • Psychologists continue to debate whether hypnosis
    has a scientific basis
  • Studies have shown that unhypnotized people are
    just as likely as hypnotized people to remember
    details of a crime.
  • Hypnosis has been used to help people prevent
    feelings of pain
  • To help someone quit a habit such as overeating
    or smoking, a therapist may use posthypnotic
    suggestion.
  • The therapist gives instructions during hypnosis
    that are to be carried out after the hypnosis
    session has ended.

32
Homework Practice Online
Section 3 Meditation, Biofeedback, and Hypnosis
  • Go to http//go.hrw.com
  • Type sy7 Ch 5
  • Click on Homework Practice Online
  • Complete Section 3
  • Print out results.

33
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Addictionto a drug means that after a person
    takes that drug for a while, his or her body
    craves it just to feel normal.
  • Alcohol, nicotine, and many other drugs are
    considered addictive.
  • Drugs have a number of effects on consciousness.
  • They distort peoples perceptions, change their
    moods, or cause them to see or her things that
    are not real
  • Categories of drugs that affect consciousness
    include depressants, stimulants, and
    hallucinogens.

34
Question In what ways do various types of drugs
affect consciousness?
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS
  • Depressants slow the activity of the nervous
    system and give people a sense of relaxation but
    can have negative effects.
  • Alcohol is a depressant.
  • High doses of alcohol can put a person to sleep.
    Toom much alcohol can be lethal, people have died
    from drinking too much at one time.
  • Alcohol intoxicates. Intoxication means
    drunkenness.
  • Intoxication slurs peoples speech, blurs their
    vision, makes them clumsy and makes it difficult
    for them to concentrate.
  • It greatly affects their judgment.

35
Depressants (continued)
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • People may try to do things that require a clear
    mind and good coordination, such as drive a car,
    when they are incapable of doing these things
    correctly.
  • Alcohol is involved in more than half of all
    fatal automobile accidents in the United States.
  • When intoxicated, people may be less able to
    focus on the consequences of their behavior.
  • It provides an excuse for behaviors that sobe
    people know are unwise.
  • Drinkers may place the blame for their behavior
    on the alcohol.
  • Drinkers choose to drink.
  • Regular consumption of alcohol can lead to
    addiction.
  • Long-term heavy drinking has ben linked to liver
    problems, heart problems, and cancer.

36
DRUGS AND CONSCIOUSNESS
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Narcotics addictive depressants that have been
    used to relieve pain and induce sleep and can
    give the user a feeling of pleasure
  • Many narcotics such as morphine, heroin, and
    codeine are derived from the opium poppy plant.
  • Morphine was introduced during the Civil War to
    deaden the pain from battle wounds.
  • Heroin was introduced in the West in the 1800s
    was hailed as the hero that would cure
    addiction to morphine.
  • Heroin gives the user feelings of pleasure.
  • High doses of heroin can also depress the
    respiratory system so much that they lead to loss
    of consciousness, coma, and sometimes death.
  • People who are addicted to narcotics experience
    withdrawal symptoms like tremors, cramps, chills,
    rapid heartbeat, insomnia, vomiting, and
    diarrhea.

37
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • STIMULANTS
  • Nicotine a drug found in tobacco leaves that
    spurs the release of the hormone adrenaline which
    causes the heart rate to increase
  • Nicotine may make people feel more alert and
    attentive but it does not improve the ability to
    perform complex tasks, such as solving difficult
    math problems.
  • Nicotine reduces the appetite and raises the rat
    at which the body changes food to energy.
  • Cigarette smoking is an addictive as the use of
    heroin
  • More than 400,000 Americans die from
    smoking-related diseases.

38
Nicotine
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Smokers are 12 to 20 times as likely as
    nonsmokers to die of lung cancer
  • Research indicates that secondhand smoke, can
    even increase the health risk of nonsmokers who
    inhale it.
  • Because of the effects of secondhand smoke,
    smoking has been banned fro many public laces,
    such as government buildings, airports, and
    restaurants.

39
STIMULANTS
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Amphetamines help people stay awake and reduce
    appetite
  • Amphetamines are made from chemical
    alpha-methyl-beta-phenyl-ethyl-amine, which is a
    colorless liquid made up of carbon, hydrogen and
    nitrogen.
  • First used by soldiers during World Was II to
    help them remain awake and alert during he night.
  • Also known as speed or uppers which are known
    to produce feelings of pleasure, especially in
    high doses.
  • High doses of amphetamines can cause
    restlessness, insomnia, loss of appetite, and
    irritability.
  • Amphetamines also affect consciousness
  • Some people experience hallucinations.
    Hallucinationa perception of an object or a
    sound that seems real but is not.
  • Some users have delusions.
  • A delusion is a false idea that seems real

40
STIMULANTS
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Cocaine a stimulant derived from the leaves of
    the coca plant which produces feeling of
    pleasure, reduces hunger, deadens pain, and
    boosts self-confidence
  • Cocaine has been used as a painkiller since gthe
    early 1800s
  • Freud, a young neurologist, first used the drug
    to overcome depression.
  • Freuds excitement about cocaines healing powers
    was soon cooled by his awareness that the drug
    was dangerous and addictive.
  • A particularly harmful form of cocaine known as
    crack.
  • Crack is very powerful. Crack is impure and
    therefore it is even more dangerous than other
    forms of cocaine.

41
Hallucinogens
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Hallucinogensis a drug that produces
    hallucinations.
  • May cause relaxation or feelings of pleasure.
  • Hallucinogens can also cause feelings of panic.
  • Marijuana and LSD are examples.

42
Marijuana
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Marijuana may produce feelings of relaxation and
    mild hallucinations
  • Hashish or hash comes from the sticky part of the
    plant.
  • Hashish has stronger effects than marijuana.
  • Marijuana impairs perception and coordination,
    making it difficult to operate machines,
    including cars.
  • It impairs memory and learning.
  • Marijuana can cause anxiety and confusion.
  • One hundred years ago, marijuana was used by some
    people almost the way aspirin is used today to
    treat headaches and other minor aches and pains.

43
Marijuana (continued)
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • It could be bought without a prescription in any
    drugstore.
  • Because it carries a number of health risks,
    marijuana use and possession are now illegal in
    most states.
  • People who are very intoxicated with marijuana
    may think time is passing more slowly than usual.

44
LSD
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
  • LSD is simply called acid.
  • LSDs effects are not predictable
  • LSD experiences are so frightening that the users
    in a state of panic and confusion, injure
    themselves serious or even commit suicide.
  • Another long-term effect of LSD use is the
    experience of flashbacks.
  • Flashbacks are hallucinations that happen weeks,
    months, or even years after the LSD was used.
  • Some psychologists believe that flashbacks stem
    from LSD-induced chemical changes in the brain.

45
Treatments for Drug Abuse
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Detoxificationthe removal of the harmful
    substance from the body, is a way of weaning
    addicts from the drug while restoring their
    health.
  • Maintenance Programsare sometimes used for
    people addicted to narcotics.
  • Participants are given controlled and less
    dangerous amounts of the drug or some less
    addictive substitute.
  • The users never actually become completely free
    of drugs.
  • Counselingcan be conducted either individually
    or in a group
  • Support Groupsusually consist of several people
    who share common experiences, concerns, or
    problems.
  • Alcoholics Anonymous is an example of a support
    group that encourages members to live without
    drugsin the case, alcoholfor the rest of their
    lives.

46
Homework Practice Online
Section 4 Drugs and Consciousness
  • Go to http//go.hrw.com
  • Type sy7 Ch 5
  • Click on Homework Practice Online
  • Complete Section 4
  • Print out results.

47
Unit 2 Activity
Unit 2 Body and Mind
  • Go to Page 124 in textbook
  • With a partner, complete Psychology in Action
  • Final report will be presented in class.
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