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  • Chapter 30

Cold War
  • ?Roots of Cold War
  • Teheran Conference, 1943 USSR guaranteed to be
    only power to liberate Eastern Europe
  • Yalta Conference, 1945
  • Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in E
    Europe (but later reneged)
  • Germany would be divided into four zones
    controlled by U S , France, Britain and USSR
  • After war, Soviets dominated their zone and did
    not allow reunification of Germany
  • Potsdam Conference, 1945
  • Truman demanded free elections in Eastern Europe
    but Stalin refused
  • Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and
    USSR for protection against future war Yalta
    Conference (1945)
  • U S point of view
  • Stalin seemed intent on creating "spheres" of
    influence in Eastern Europe
  • Broke pledges at Yalta refused to allow
    reunification of Germany
  • Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech in 1946 alerted
    Americans to a future conflict
  • U S wanted democracy spread throughout the world
    with a strong international organization to
    maintain global peace
  • Soviet point of view
  • Democracies traditionally hostile towards
    communism and the USSR
  • e g , Archangel expedition during WWI
    non-recognition by U S until 1933
  • US Britain did not open western front in Europe
    early enough millions of Soviet soldiers were
    dying fighting the brunt of Nazi armies alone
    until mid-1944

Cold War
  • Partition of Germany
  • USSR, U S , Britain France would each occupy a
    part of Germany but would allow for German
    reunification once she was no longer a threat
  • Germany was to pay heavy reparations to USSR in
    form of agricultural and industrial goods
  • Soviets dominated their Eastern German zone
  • Did not want revitalized Germany that could once
    again pose a threat
  • Stripped E Germany of much of its resources
  • U S and W Europeans felt German economy vital
    to recovery of Europe
  • 1949, West Germany became an independent country
    when US, France and Britain gave back each of
    their zones
  • Federal Republic of Germany led by Konrad
  • 1949, East Germany formally established
    Democratic Republic of Germany led by Walter
    Ulbricht (1883-1973) communist regime influenced
    by Moscow

  • "Containment" By 1947, US pledged to prevent
    further spread of communism
  • Truman Doctrine, 1947 U S gave aid to Greece
    and Turkey to defeat communist forces there
  • Marshall Plan, 1947 Massive aid package to help
    war-torn Europe recover from the war
  • Purpose prevent communism from spreading into
    economically devastated regions
  • Result Western and Central Europe recovered
    economically -- the "economic miracle"
  • Soviets refused to allow U S aid to countries in
    eastern Europe
  • Berlin Crisis (1948-49) Soviets attempted to
    remove Allies from Berlin by cutting off access
  • One of high tension points of the Cold War World
    War III?
  • U S instituted a massive airlift Soviets lifted
    blockade in 1949
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed
    in 1949
  • Collective security organization consisting of
    democracies in Europe, U S Canada to prevent
    against Soviet expansion in Europe
  • Radio Free Europe Voice of America set up to
    send pro-democracy messages to countries behind
    the "iron curtain"

Eastern Bloc
  • Eastern Bloc countries in Eastern Europe
    dominated by Soviet Union after WWII
  • Included Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East
    Germany, Rumania, Bulgaria
  • Communist parties of eastern Europe established
    one-party states by 1948, with help of Red Army
    and KGB (Soviet secret police)
  • Only Yugoslavia, led by Marshal Tito, is not
    dominated by Soviets
  • Postwar economic recovery in eastern Europe
    proceeded along Soviet lines
  • Changes went forward at slow uneven pace came
    to almost a halt by the mid-1960s
  • Five-year plans in USSR reintroduced to tackle
    massive economic reconstruction
  • Stalin reinstitutes oppressive rule
  • Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland had
    fostered Russian nationalism and a relaxation of
    dictatorial terror
  • Stalins new foe, the U S , provided an excuse
    for re-establishing harsh dictatorship
  • After war, Stalin repressed millions of Soviet
    citizens living outside Soviet borders when the
    war ended
  • Stalin revived many forced labor camp, which had
    accounted for roughly 1/6 of all new construction
    in Soviet Union before the war
  • Culture and art were also purged
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Czechoslovakia the economic exception in E
    Europe industrialized, strong middle class and
    industrial working class and experience of
    political democracy between the wars
  • During dualist period", President Benes and
    Foreign minister Jan Masaryk proposed to govern a
    social democracy while maintaining close
    voluntary relations with the USSR
  • In response to Marshall Plan in 1947, Stalin
    replaced govt in 1948 with 1-party communist
    rule to prevent nation from courting the West

  • USSR under Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)
  • Power struggle emerged after Stalin died in 1953
    Khrushchev emerged a few years later
  • Stalins heirs realized reforms were needed
  • Widespread fear and hatred of Stalins political
    terror resulted in reduction of power of secret
    police and gradual closure of forced labor camps
  • Agriculture in bad shape
  • Shortages of consumer goods
  • Hard work and initiative in decline due to poor
    living conditions
  • de-Stalinization
  • XXth Party Congress, 1956 Khrushchev took
    startling initiative against hard-liners by
    denouncing Stalins crimes in a closed session
  • Secret anti-Stalin speech probably most
    influential statement in Russia since Lenin
    addressed the crowd on arriving in April 1917
  • Gosplan Resources shifted from heavy industry
    and the military toward consumer goods and
    agriculture Centralized Economic Planning
  • Great ferment in the arts (anti-Stalinist views
  • Boris Pasternak (1890-1960) wrote Dr Zhivago in
  • Story of prerevolutionary intellectual who
    rejects brutality of revolution of 1917
    Stalinism even as he is destroyed, he triumphs
    from his humanity and Christian spirit
  • Aleksandr Solzenitsyn One Day in the Life of
    Ivan Denisovich (1962)
  • Portrays in grim detail life in Stalinist
    concentration camp (he had been a prisoner)
  • De-Stalinization resulted in communist reformers
    and the masses seeking greater liberty and
    national independence
  • Poland March 1956, riots resulted in release of
    more than 9000 political prisoners, including
    previously purged leader Wladyslaw Gomulka
  • Gomulka skillfully managed to win greater
    autonomy for Poland while keeping anti-Soviet
    feeling at bay

Economic Recovery
  • Post-War Political and Economic Framework
  • Bretton Woods Conference (1944) created
    International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • Lay foundations for modern monetary system based
    on U S dollar
  • IMF (World Bank) designed to loan money to
    struggling countries to prevent economic crises
    and anarchy instrumental in post-war economic
  • United Nations created in 1945 Security Council
    (12 nations including 5 permanent members had
    powers to act General Assembly had powers to
    advise (included all nations of the world)
  • Western Europe political recovery
  • Economic hardship after WWII scarcity of food,
    runaway inflation, black markets
  • Many people believed Europe was finished
  • Suffering was worst in Germany
  • Political restructuring
  • Christian Democrats inspired by common Christian
    and European heritage
  • Rejected authoritarianism narrow nationalism
    had faith in democracy and cooperation
  • Catholic parties also progressive in nature
  • Socialists and Communists also emerged with
    increased power and prestige, especially in
    France and Italy
  • Pushed for social change and economic reform with
    considerable success
  • Result social reform and political
    transformation created foundations for a great
    European renaissance
  • Italy Christian Democrats gained control in 1946
    led by Alcide De Gasperi
  • Socialist influence social benefits came to
    equal a large part of the average workers wages
  • France

Economic Miracle
  • Economic Miracle unprecedented economic growth
    in European history
  • Europe entered period of rapid economic progress
    lasting into late 1960s
  • By 1963, western Europe produced more than 2 5X
    more than before the war
  • Causes
  • Marshall Plan aid helped western Europe begin
    recovery in 1947
  • Korean War in 1950 stimulated economic activity
  • Economic growth became a basic objective of all
    western European governments
  • Governments accepted Keynesian economics to
    stimulate their economies
  • Germany and France were especially successful and
  • In most countries many people willing to work
    hard for low wages expanding industries
  • Increased demand for consumer goods
  • Many economic barriers eliminated and a large
    unified market emerged Common Market
  • German economic recovery led by finance minister
    Ludwig Erhard
  • Combined free-market economy extensive social
    welfare network inherited from Nazi era
  • By late 1950s, West Germany had robust economy,
    full employment, a strong currency and stable
  • France
  • Combined flexible planning and a mixed state
    and private economy to achieve most rapid
    economic development in its history
  • Jean Monnet economic pragmatist and architect of
    European unity
  • France used Marshall Plan aid money and the
    nationalized banks to funnel money into key
    industries, several of which were state owned

European Unity
  • European Unity
  • Council of Europe created in 1948
  • European federalists hoped Council would quickly
    evolve into a true European parliament with
    sovereign rights, but this did not happen
  • Britain, with its empire and its special
    relationship with U S , opposed giving any real
    political powersovereigntyto the council
  • Schuman Plan, 1950 created the European Coal and
    Steel Community
  • Put forth by French statesman Jean Monnet and
    Foreign Minister Robert Schuman
  • Special international organization to control
    integrate European steel and coal production
  • West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands,
    Luxembourg accepted in 1952
  • Britain refused to enter
  • Immediate economic goal a single competitive
    market w/o national tariffs or quotas
  • "The Six" By 1958 coal and steel moved freely
    among six nations of the European Coal and Steel
  • Far-reaching political goal bind six member
    nations so closely together economically that war
    among them would become unthinkable and virtually
  • European Economic Community (EEC)
  • Treaty of Rome, 1957
  • Created European Economic Community (EEC) or the
    Common Market
  • Signed by same six nations in the Schuman Plan
    the Six
  • First goal of treaty Gradual reduction of all
    tariffs among the Six in order to create a single
    market almost as large as the U S
  • Other goals
  • Free movement of capital and labor

  • Cold War in the 1950s
  • 1949, Communists in China led by Mao Zedong win
    Chinese revolution
  • Establish "Peoples Republic of China" ("Red
  • 1949, Soviets successfully test atomic bomb
  • Korean War 1950-1953
  • After WWII, Korea divided at 38th parallel north
    was communist, south was not
  • 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea (supported
    by Soviet resources)
  • UN (led by US Gen Douglas MacArthur) sent
    forces to push back communists
  • Soviets boycotting UN for U S refusal to allow
    "Red China" into UN Security Council
  • China sends hundreds of thousands of troops to
    push back UN
  • Result cease-fire and border at 38th parallel
    restored still in existence today
  • Hydrogen bomb developed by US in 1952 USSR in
    1953 world now has two superpowers
  • Warsaw Pact, 1955 Collective security
    organization of eastern bloc nations to counter
  • U S policy of "massive retaliation" between
  • U S policy now is to help eastern European
    countries remove communism
  • U S vows to destroy USSR with nuclear weapons if
    it tries to expand
  • brinksmanship" the art of going to the brink of
    war to force the other side t back down
  • Relations between USSR and U S improve with
    ascension to power of Nikita Khrushchev
  • Seeks peaceful coexistence with the West in
    order to focus on Soviet economy

  • Cold War in 1960s
  • U-2 incident U S spy plane shot down over USSR
  • Khrushchev demanded an apology from Eisenhower
    Eisenhower refused
  • Promising Paris Summit in 1960 between Khrushchev
    and Eisenhower aborted
  • Berlin Wall built in 1961
  • 2 million East Germans escaped to West Berlin
    between 1949-1961 Soviets frustrated
  • Khrushchev threatened President Kennedy USSR
    would sign peace treaty with East Germany who
    would then control access to Berlin Soviets
    would protect East Germanys right to control
    flow into Berlin
  • Berlin Wall built instead of enforcing ultimatum
    to U S ended future crises over Berlin
  • Cuba became a communist country in 1959 under
    leadership of Fidel Castro
  • Cuba became an ally of the Soviet Union
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 U S -trained Cuban
    exiles tried unsuccessfully to invade Cuba
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 U S demanded Soviets
    remove their newly installed nuclear missiles
    from Cuba
  • Crisis became the closest USSR and US came to
    nuclear war
  • U S placed blockade (naval quarantine) on any
    further missiles into Cuba
  • Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles in return
    for U S removing its missiles from Turkey and
    vowing not to invade Cuba in the future
  • Crisis weakened Khrushchev and contributed to his
    downfall in 1964
  • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963
  • Khrushchev, Kennedy Britain signed historic
    treaty banning atmospheric testing in an attempt
    to reduce Cold War tensions
  • France refused to sign (was in the process of
    developing own nuclear weapons program)

Society after WWII
  • Science and Technology
  • For first time in history, pure theoretical
    science and practical technology (applied
    science) effectively joined together on massive
    scale during WWII
  • British scientists developed radar to detect
    enemy aircraft
  • Jet aircraft developed by Germany
  • Electronic computers further developed had
    barely come into existence before 1939
  • Manhattan Project Atomic bomb most spectacular
    result of scientific research during the war
    project overseen by J Robert Oppenheimer
  • Big Science became new model for science after
  • Combined theoretical work with sophisticated
    engineering in a large, often huge organization
  • U S emerged as leader in Big Science after WWII
  • Science not demobilized after WWII either in U S
    or USSR
  • Large portion of all postwar scientific research
    went for defense (25!)
  • Space Race (part of Cold War competition to
    achieve technological superiority)
  • 1957, USSR launched Sputnik, an orbiting
    satellite using long-range rockets
  • US fearful Soviets could now launch a nuclear
    missile into space and then down to U S
  • Resulted in development of ICBMs
    (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles)
  • U S countered with creation of NASA and vastly
    increased educational funding for science
  • 1961, Soviets sent worlds first cosmonaut, Yuri
    Gagarin, into orbit
  • President John F Kennedy responded by increasing
    funds for space

Society after WWII
  • Change in class structure and social reform
  • Rise of the middle-class largely result of
    increased access to higher education
  • European society became more mobile and
  • New middle-class, based largely on specialized
    skills and high levels of education, more open,
    democratic, and insecure than old propertied
    middle class
  • Changes in structure of middle class influential
    in trend toward less rigid class structure
  • Causes for change in rise of middle class
  • Rapid industrial and technological expansion
    created in large corporations and govt agencies
    became powerful demand for technologists and
  • Old propertied middle class lost control of many
    family-owned businesses
  • Top managers and ranking civil servants
    represented model for new middle class of
    salaried specialists well paid and highly
  • Passed on opportunity for advanced education to
    their children
  • Structure of lower classes also became more
    flexible and open
  • Mass exodus from farms and countryside
  • Resulted in drastic decline in one of Europes
    most traditional and least mobile groups
  • Industrial working class ceased to expand while
    job opportunities for white-collar and service
    employees grew rapidly
  • European governments reduced class tensions by
    further expanding social security reforms health
    care, family allowances, maternity grants, public
  • Consumerism worked to level Western society
  • Sparked by rising standard of living giving more
    people disposable income
  • European automobile industry expanded
  • Gadget revolution

  • The youth movement and Counterculture
  • Counter-Culture rebellion against parents,
    authority figures and status quo
  • Baby boom after WWII developed distinctive and
    international youth culture
  • Many raised in economic prosperity and more
    democratic class structure
  • New generation influenced by revival of leftist
    thought created a counter-culture
  • Youth in America took the lead
  • Some youth rebelled against conformity and
    boredom of middle-class suburbs
  • Rock music helped tie counter-culture together
  • Beatles, British rock band, became one of biggest
    pop groups in music history
  • Increased sexual behavior among many young people
    during 1960s and 1970s
  • Age of first sexual experienced reduced
  • Growing tendency of young unmarried people to
    live together on a semi permanent basis with
    little thought of getting married or having
  • Causes of the emergence of international youth
    culture in 1960s
  • Mass communication and youth travel linked
    countries and continents together
  • Baby boom meant youth became unusually large part
    of population and exercised exceptional influence
    on society as a whole
  • Postwar prosperity and greater equality gave
    youth more purchasing power than ever before
  • Youth to set mass trends and fads in everything
    from music to chemical stimulants
  • Common patterns of consumption and behavior
    fostered generational loyalty
  • Good jobs were readily available

Student Revolts
  • Student Revolts in the late 1960s
  • Causes
  • Opposition to U S war in Vietnam triggered
    revolutionary ferment among youths
  • Influenced by Marxist current in French
    universities after 1945 new left thinking in US
  • Believed older generation US fighting immoral
    imperialistic war against Vietnam
  • Students in western Europe shared US youth's
    rejection of materialism and belief that postwar
    society was repressive and flawed
  • Problems in higher education classes
    overcrowded little contact with professors
    competition for grades intense demanded even
    more practical areas of study to qualify for
    high-paying jobs after college
  • Some students warned of dangers of narrowly
    trained experts ("technocrats") who would serve
    the establishment to the detriment of
  • French student revolt, 1968
  • Students took over the university, leading to
    violent clashes with police
  • Most students demanded changes in curriculum and
    real voice in running the university
  • Appealed to industrial workers for help
    spontaneous general strike spread across France
  • To many it seemed the French Fifth Republic might
  • De Gaulle called in troops and called for new
    elections (which he won decisively)
  • The mini-Revolution collapsed
  • For much of the older generation in western
    Europe, the student revolution of 1968 signaled
    the end of illusions and end of an era
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Due to Khrushchevs reforms in USSR, 1960s
    brought modest liberalization and more consumer
    goods to eastern Europe
  • 1968, reform elements in Czechoslovak Communist
    party gained a majority and voted out long-time
    Stalinist leader

  • De-Colonization after WWII
  • Postwar era saw total collapse of colonial
  • Between 1947 and 1962, almost every colonial
    territory gained independence
  • New nations of Asia and Africa deeply influenced
    by Western ideas and achievements
  • Causes
  • Modern nationalism and belief in
    self-determination and racial equality, spread
    from intellectuals to the masses in virtually
    every colonial territory after WWI
  • Decline of European prestige Japanese victories
    destruction of Europe during WWII
  • After 1945, European powers more concerned about
    rebuilding let colonies go
  • India played a key role in decolonization and the
    end of empire
  • Indian National Congress British had no choice
    but to develop a native political elite that
    could assist in ruling such huge country
  • Exposure of young Indians to Western ideas of
    nationalism, socialism, and democracy led to
    demands for independence by the early 20th
  • Mohandas K Gandhi after WWI led independence
    movement with principle of passive resistance
    (civil disobedience)
  • Jawaharlal Nehru led Congress party in its push
    for independence
  • Clement Attlee and others in Labour party wished
    to focus on internal affairs
  • Lord Louis Mountbatten appointed to supervise
    transition of India to independence
  • Divided India into two nations India (Hindu) and
    Pakistan (Muslim)
  • China
  • After WWII (defeat of Japanese invaders) a civil
    war broke out between communists led by Mao
    Zedong and Nationalists led by Jiang Jieshi
    (Chang kai-shek)
  • Mao won the revolution and created a communist
    country People's Republic of China

  • Arab Nationalism
  • Arab nationalists loosely united by opposition to
    colonialism and migration of Jews to Palestine
  • Israel and Palestine
  • Balfour Declaration in 1917 indicated Britain
    favored creation of Jewish national home in
    Palestineopposed by Saudi Arabia Transjordan
  • Great Britain announced its withdrawal from
    Palestine in 1948
  • United Nations voted for creation of two states,
    one Arab and one Jewish
  • Palestinians vowed to fight on until state of
    Israel destroyed or until they established own
    independent Palestinian state led to several
    wars and numerous conflicts in late 20th century
  • Egypt
  • Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered
    nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952
  • 1956, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser
    nationalized the Suez Canal, the last symbol and
    substance of Western power in the Middle East
  • France, Britain and Israel attacked Egypt, trying
    to take back control of Suez Canal
  • U S and Soviet Union demanded their withdrawal
    and the canal remained in Egypt's control
  • Algerian Crisis (mid 1950s)
  • Algerias large French population considered
    Algeria an integral part of France
  • This feeling led ensuing war bitter and atypical
    of decolonization
  • General De Gaulle, who had returned to power as
    part of movement to keep Algeria French, accepted
    principle of Algerian self-determination
  • 1962, after more than a century of French rule,
    Algeria became independent and the European
    population quickly fled
  • Crisis led to fall of the Fourth Republic and
    beginning of the Fifth Republic
  • Sub-Saharan Africa

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