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Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity

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Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity Chapter 11 * * * * * * * * Figure 11.8 Examples of cetaceans, which can be classified as either toothed whales or baleen whales. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity


1
Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Chapter 11

2
Core Case Study A Biological Roller Coaster Ride
in Lake Victoria
  • Loss of biodiversity and cichlids
  • Nile perch deliberately introduced
  • Frequent algal blooms
  • Nutrient runoff
  • Spills of untreated sewage
  • Less algae-eating cichlids

3
Lake Victoria Is a Large Lake in East Africa
4
Natural Capital Degradation The Nile Perch
5
11-1 What Are the Major Threats to Aquatic
Biodiversity?
  • Concept 11-1 Aquatic species are threatened by
    habitat loss, invasive species, pollution,
    climate change, and overexploitation, all made
    worse by the growth of the human population.

6
We Have Much to Learn about Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Greatest marine biodiversity
  • Coral reefs
  • Estuaries
  • Deep-ocean floor
  • Biodiversity is higher
  • Near the coast than in the open sea
  • In the bottom region of the ocean than the
    surface region

7
Human Activities Are Destroying and Degrading
Aquatic Habitats
  • Habitat loss and degradation
  • Marine
  • Coastal
  • Ocean floor effect of trawlers
  • Freshwater
  • Dams
  • Excessive water withdrawal

8
Natural Capital Degradation Area of Ocean Bottom
Before and After a Trawler
9
Invasive Species Are Degrading Aquatic
Biodiversity
  • Invasive species
  • Threaten native species
  • Disrupt and degrade whole ecosystems
  • Three examples
  • Water hyacinth Lake Victoria (East Africa)
  • Asian swamp eel waterways of south Florida
  • Purple loosestrife indigenous to Europe
  • Treating with natural predatorsa weevil species
    and a leaf-eating beetleWill it work?

10
Invasive Water Hyacinths
11
Science Focus How Carp Have Muddied Some Waters
  • Lake Wingra, Wisconsin (U.S.) eutrophic
  • Contains invasive species
  • Purple loosestrife and the common carp
  • Dr. Richard Lathrop
  • Removed carp from an area of the lake
  • This area appeared to recover

12
Lake Wingra in Madison, Wisconsin (U.S.)
13
Population Growth and Pollution Can Reduce
Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Nitrates and phosphates mainly from fertilizers
    enter water
  • Leads to eutrophication
  • Toxic pollutants from industrial and urban areas

14
Hawaiian Monk Seal
15
Climate Change Is a Growing Threat
  • Global warming sea levels will rise and aquatic
    biodiversity is threatened
  • Coral reefs
  • Swamp some low-lying islands
  • Drown many highly productive coastal wetlands
  • New Orleans, Louisiana, and New York City

16
Science Focus Protecting and Restoring Mangroves
  • Protect and restore mangroves
  • Reduce the impact of rising sea levels
  • Protect against tropical storms and tsunamis
  • Cheaper than building concrete sea walls
  • Mangrove forests in Indonesia

17
Overfishing and Extinction Gone Fishing, Fish
Gone
  • Marine and freshwater fish
  • Threatened with extinction by human activities
    more than any other group of species
  • Commercial extinction- no longer profitable to
    fish the affected species
  • Collapse of the cod fishery and its domino effect
  • Bycatch

18
Natural Capital Degradation Collapse of the Cod
Fishery Off the Canadian Coast
19
900,000
800,000
700,000
600,000
500,000
Fish landings (tons)
400,000
1992
300,000
200,000
100,000
0
1900
1920
1940
1960
1980
2000
Year
Fig. 11-6, p. 254
20
Case Study Industrial Fish Harvesting Methods
  • Trawler fishing
  • Purse-seine fishing
  • Longlining
  • Drift-net fishing

21
Major Commercial Fishing Methods Used to Harvest
Various Marine Species
22
Fish farming in cage
Trawler fishing
Spotter airplane
Purse-seine fishing
Sonar
Drift-net fishing
Long line fishing
Float
Buoy
lines with hooks
Deep sea aquaculture cage
Fish caught by gills
Fig. 11-7, p. 256
23
Fish farming in cage
Spotter airplane
Purse-seine fishing
Deep sea aquaculture cage
Stepped Art
Fig. 11-7, p. 256
24
11-2 How Can We Protect and Sustain Marine
Biodiversity?
  • Concept 11-2 We can help to sustain marine
    biodiversity by using laws and economic
    incentives to protect species, setting aside
    marine reserves to protect ecosystems, and using
    community-based integrated coastal management.

25
Legal Protection of Some Endangered and
Threatened Marine Species
  • Why is it hard to protect marine biodiversity?
  • Human ecological footprint and fishprint are
    expanding
  • Much of the damage in the ocean is not visible
  • The oceans are incorrectly viewed as an
    inexhaustible resource
  • Most of the ocean lies outside the legal
    jurisdiction of any country

26
Case Study Protecting Whales A Success Story
So Far
  • Cetaceans Toothed whales and baleen whales
  • 1946 International Whaling Commission (IWC)
  • 1970 U.S.
  • Stopped all commercial whaling
  • Banned all imports of whale products
  • 1986 moratorium on commercial whaling
  • Pros
  • Cons

27
Examples of Cetaceans
28
Fig. 11-8a, p. 258
29
Toothed whales
Sperm whale with squid
Killer whale
Narwhal
Bottlenose dolphin
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Meters
Fig. 11-8a, p. 258
30
Fig. 11-8b, p. 258
31
Baleen whales
Blue whale
Fin whale
Bowhead whale
Right whale
Sei whale
Humpback whale
Gray whale
Minke whale
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
Meters
Fig. 11-8b, p. 258
32
Stepped Art
Fig. 11-8a, p. 258
33
Norwegian Whalers Harpooning a Sperm Whale
34
Economic Incentives Can Be Used to Sustain
Aquatic Biodiversity
  • Tourism
  • Economic rewards
  • Reconciliation ecology

35
Case Study Holding Out Hope for Marine Turtles
  • Carl Safina, Voyage of the Turtle
  • Studies of the leatherback turtle
  • Threats to the leatherbacks
  • Trawlers
  • Pollution
  • Climate change
  • Communities protecting the turtles

36
An Endangered Leatherback Turtle is Entangled in
a Fishing Net
37
Individuals Matter Creating an Artificial Coral
Reef in Israel
  • Reuven Yosef, Red Sea Star Restaurant
  • Coral reef restoration
  • Reconciliation ecology
  • Treatment of broken coral with antibiotics

38
Marine Sanctuaries Protect Ecosystems and Species
  • Offshore fishing
  • Exclusive economic zones (near shores of
    countries)
  • High seas (too far offshore for country
    jurisdiction)
  • Law of the Sea Treaty
  • 36 of ocean surface and 90 of fish stocks
  • Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

39
Establishing a Global Network of Marine Reserves
An Ecosystem Approach (1)
  • Marine reserves
  • Closed to
  • Commercial fishing
  • Dredging
  • Mining and waste disposal
  • Core zone
  • No human activity allowed
  • Less harmful activities allowed
  • E.g., recreational boating and shipping

40
Establishing a Global Network of Marine Reserves
An Ecosystem Approach (2)
  • Fully protected marine reserves work fast
  • Fish populations double
  • Fish size grows
  • Reproduction triples
  • Species diversity increase by almost one-fourth

41
Protecting Marine Biodiversity Individuals and
Communities Together
  • Integrated Coastal Management
  • Community-based group to prevent further
    degradation of the ocean

42
11-3 How Should We Manage and Sustain Marine
Fisheries?
  • Concept 11-3 Sustaining marine fisheries will
    require improved monitoring of fish populations,
    cooperative fisheries management among
    communities and nations, reduction of fishing
    subsidies, and careful consumer choices in
    seafood markets.

43
Estimating and Monitoring Fishery Populations Is
the First Step
  • Maximum sustained yield (MSY) traditional
    approach- max of fish that can be harvested
    without causing a pop. drop
  • Optimum sustained yield (OSY) taking account
    species interactions
  • Multispecies management competition and
    predator-prey interaction
  • Large marine systems using large complex
    computer models
  • Precautionary principle

44
Some Communities Cooperate to Regulate Fish
Harvests
  • Community management of the fisheries
  • Norways Lofoten fisheries- cod fishery (100yrs)
  • Comanagement of the fisheries with the government
    use of quotas, fishing seasons
  • Inshore- comm.
  • Offshore- govt

45
Government Subsidies Can Encourage Overfishing
  • 2007 World Trade Organization, U.S.
  • Proposed a ban on fishing subsidies
  • Reduce illegal fishing on the high seas and in
    coastal waters
  • Close ports and markets to such fishers
  • Check authenticity of ship flags
  • Prosecution of offenders

46
Some Countries Use the Marketplace to Control
Overfishing
  • Individual transfer rights (ITRs)
  • Govt gives each fishing vessel owner a of
    total allowable catch (TAC). Owners are
    permitted to buy, sell, trade those rights
  • Control access to fisheries
  • New Zealand and Iceland
  • Difficult to enforce
  • Problems with the ITR approach

47
Consumer Choices Can Help to Sustain Fisheries
and Aquatic Biodiversity
  • 1997 Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), London
  • Supports sustainable fishing
  • Certifies sustainably produced seafood
  • In 2006, Wal-Mart pledged to seel only
    MSC-certified fish in North America within 3-5
    years.
  • Manage global fisheries more sustainably
  • Individuals
  • Organizations
  • Governments

48
Solutions Managing Fisheries
49
SOLUTIONS
Managing Fisheries
Fishery Regulations
Bycatch
Set catch limits well below the maximum
sustainable yield
Use wide-meshed nets to allow escape of smaller
fish
Use net escape devices for seabirds and sea
turtles
Improve monitoring and enforcement of regulations
Ban throwing edible and marketable fish back into
the sea
Economic Approaches
Sharply reduce or eliminate fishing subsidies
Aquaculture
Charge fees for harvesting fish and shellfish
from publicly owned offshore waters
Restrict coastal locations for fish farms
Control pollution more strictly
Protect Areas
Depend more on herbivorous fish species
Certify sustainable fisheries
Establish no-fishing areas
Nonnative Invasions
Establish more marine protected areas
Kill organisms in ship ballast water
Rely more on integrated coastal management
Filter organisms from ship ballast water
Consumer Information
Label sustainably harvested fish
Dump ballast water far at sea and replace with
deep- sea water
Publicize overfished and threatened species
Fig. 11-12, p. 265
50
11-4 How Should We Protect and Sustain Wetlands?
  • Concept 11-4 To maintain the ecological and
    economic services of wetlands, we must maximize
    preservation of remaining wetlands and
    restoration of degraded and destroyed wetlands.

51
Coastal and Inland Wetlands Are Disappearing
around the World
  • Highly productive wetlands
  • Provide natural flood and erosion control
  • Maintain high water quality natural filters
  • Effect of rising sea levels

52
We Can Preserve and Restore Wetlands
  • Laws for protection
  • Mitigation banking
  • Allows destruction of wetland as long as an equal
    area of the same type of wetland is created or
    restored
  • Ecologists argue this as a last resort

53
Natural Capital Restoration Wetland Restoration
in Canada
54
Individuals Matter Restoring a Wetland
  • Jim Callender 1982
  • Scientific knowledge hard work
  • a restored wetland in California, U.S.
  • Marsh used again by migratory fowl

55
Case Study Can We Restore the Florida
Everglades? (1)
  • River of Grass south Florida, U.S.
  • Since 1948 damaged
  • Drained
  • Diverted
  • Paved over
  • Nutrient pollution from agriculture
  • Invasive plant species
  • 1947 Everglades National Park unsuccessful
    protection project why?

56
Case Study Can We Restore the Florida
Everglades? (2)
  • 1970s political haggling (realization)
  • 1990 Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
    (CERP)
  • Restore the curving flow of most of the Kissimmee
    River
  • Remove canals and levees in strategic locations
  • Flood 240 sq. km farmland to create artificial
    marshes

57
Case Study Can We Restore the Florida
Everglades? (3)
  • Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP)
    cont
  • Create reservoirs and underground water storage
    areas
  • Build new canals, reservoirs and efficient
    pumping systems
  • Why isnt this plan working? (pg 268)

58
The Worlds Largest Restoration Project
59
11-5 How Can Protect and Sustain Freshwater
Lakes, Rivers, and Fisheries?
  • Concept 11-5 Freshwater ecosystems are strongly
    affected by human activities on adjacent lands,
    and protecting these ecosystems must include
    protection of their watersheds.

60
Freshwater Ecosystems Are under Major Threats
  • Think HIPPCO
  • Habitat loss
  • Invasive species
  • Population growth
  • Pollution
  • Climate Change
  • Overfishing

61
Case Study Can the Great Lakes Survive Repeated
Invasions by Alien Species?
  • Collectively, worlds largest body of freshwater
  • Invaded by at least 162 nonnative species
  • Sea lamprey
  • Zebra mussel
  • Good and bad
  • Quagga mussel
  • Asian carp

62
Zebra Mussels Attached to a Water Current Meter
in Lake Michigan, U.S.
63
Managing River Basins Is Complex and
Controversial
  • Columbia River U.S. and Canada
  • Dam system
  • Pros and cons
  • Snake River Washington state, U.S.
  • Hydroelectric dams
  • Pros and cons

64
Natural Capital Ecological Services of Rivers
65
We Can Protect Freshwater Ecosystems by
Protecting Watersheds
  • Freshwater ecosystems protected through
  • Laws
  • Economic incentives
  • Restoration efforts
  • Wild rivers(inaccessible) and scenic rivers
    (accessible in a few places, free of damns,
    valuable)
  • Sustainable management of freshwater fishes

66
11-6 What Are the Priorities for Sustained
Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services?
  • Concept 11-6 Sustaining the worlds biodiversity
    and ecosystem services will require mapping
    terrestrial and aquatic biodiversity, maximizing
    protection of undeveloped terrestrial and aquatic
    areas, and carrying out ecological restoration
    projects worldwide.

67
We Need to Set Priorities for Protecting
Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services
  • 2002 Edward O. Wilson
  • Complete the mapping of the worlds terrestrial
    and aquatic biodiversity
  • Keep old-growth forests intact cease their
    logging
  • Identify and preserve hotspots and deteriorating
    ecosystem services that threaten life
  • Ecological restoration projects
  • Make conservation financially rewarding
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