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G.VIJAY BHASKAR

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Title: G.VIJAY BHASKAR


1
Vehicle Body Engineering
  • G.VIJAY BHASKAR
  • ASST.PROF
  • AUTOMOBILE ENGININEERING DEPT

2
UNIT I
3
Active Vehicle Safety Systems Save Lives
  • We are on the frontier of a revolution in active
    vehicle safety
  • The technology to improve vehicle stability and
    reduce crashes is here today
  • Surveys indicate safety systems, like electronic
    stability control, are highly desired by
    consumers
  • Electronic stability control saves lives and
    money according to the latest traffic studies
  • Continental is actively educating key
    stakeholders on critical active safety technology

4
Our Industry is Under Siege
5
Crashes Cost Americans 230 Billion
6.3 million passenger vehicle crashes in 2002
  • Nearly 3 million injuries and 42,815 fatalities
  • 253,000 passenger vehicle rollovers
  • Injuries declined, but fatalities increased
  • Highest number of fatalities since 1990
  • Rollovers accounted for 82 of the increase in
    fatalities
  • 95 of all crashes due at least in part to
    driver error

230.6 billion economic cost to society
6

The Motor Vehicle Safety Equipment Exists Now to
Help Reduce Crashes and Rollovers Its Called
Electronic Stability Control
7

Technology is our passion but safety is our
business
8
Electronic Stability Control Improves Safety
We Have Safety Technology Today to Make Mobility
Safer!
9
The Bottom Line
Make the chassis itselfelectronically
intelligent
Raise comfort and safety to new levels without
sacrifices
10
Passive Safety is Job Three
  • The next frontier isto prevent the crash from
    occurring in the first place

11
Active Safety is Job One
  • The key isto prevent the crash from occurring
    in the first place

This is active safety
12
Opportunities in Smart Safety Systems
  • The key isto prevent the crash from occurring
    in the first place

13
UNIT II
14
Automotive Safety Continuum
Phase 1 Avoid problem situations.
15
Automotive Safety Continuum
Phase 1 Avoid problem situations.
Phase 2 Maintain control if
trouble begins
16
Automotive Safety Continuum
Phase 1 Avoid problem situations.
Phase 2 Maintain control if
trouble begins
Phase 3 Protection when the
crash is unavoidable
17
Automotive Safety Continuum
Phase 1 Avoid problem situations.
Phase 2 Maintain control if
trouble begins
Our Focus Should be Crash Avoidance
18
Improved Safety Through Functional Integration
Electronics
19
Networking Active and Passive Technologies Will
Improve Safety
20
Networking Active and Passive Technologies Will
Improve Safety
21
Continental Brings together Know-How in Tires,
Electronics and Brake and Chassis
Electronics
Tires
Brake Chassis
22
Full Circle
  • Beforethe industry needs to do moreon the
    safety front

23
Full Circle
  • Beforethe industry needs to do moreon the
    safety front
  • Now we need to do more to make our technology
    better understood and sought after in the new
    vehicle marketplace

24
Our Challenge Make Consumers More Aware of
Active Vehicle Safety
  • Develop public awarenessof these possibilities
    to engineer a miss

Get them to buy them!
25
  • J.D. Power Associates Survey Ranked Stability
    Control among Top 10 Desired Features

26
ESC Helps Save Lives
Recent study by Mercedes indicates Electronic
Stability Control can reduce single vehicle
crashes by 30
  • 30 reduction in the U.S. could save more than
    5,000 lives

Same Mercedes study indicated total crashes for
vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability
Control were reduced by 15
  • Would save American public almost 35 billion
  • Would pay for the cost of installing Electronic
    Stability Control on all vehicles built in the
    U.S. some 7-9 times

27
  • Bottom Line in the Mercedes Study

There was a clear drop in the accident rate after
standard installation of electronic stability
control
28
Electronic Stability Control Helps Drivers Avoid
Crashes
  • - In Japan -
  • Toyota Study shows 35 reduction in
    single-vehicle crashes could save more than
    6,000 lives a year
  • 30 reduction in head-on crashes could save
    another 2,500 lives per year
  • 50 reduction for more severe accidents
  • Confirms Mercedes conclusion that electronic
    stability control is more effective in the higher
    speed ranges where vehicle dynamics play a
    greater part and where crashes that do occur are
    more severe

29
Electronic Stability Control Recommended For All
New Vehicles
  • - In Sweden -
  • Swedish National Road Administration Study
  • Electronic stability control found to reduce
    accidents with personal injuries
  • Electronic stability control should be
    implemented in new cars ASAP
  • Consumers should be advised to choose cars with
    electronic stability control, especially in
    countries with wet and icy roads

30
Electronic Stability Control Saves Lives
  • With fatalities overcoming the safety gains from
    seat belts and air bags (both passive systems),
    its now the critical time for the industry to
    embrace ACTIVE safety systems like electronic
    stability control. Using proven technology to
    save lives is a necessity

31
Raising Consumer Awareness
www.esceducation.org
www.drivesaferamerica.org
32
Are We Ready?
  • The Technology to Help Drivers Avoid Crashes
    Altogether and Make all Vehicles Safer is Within
    Our Grasp

33
Active Vehicle Safety Saves Lives
  • We are the frontier of a revolution in active
    vehicle safety
  • Technology to save lives, help prevent rollovers
    and reduce crashes is here today ESC
  • Electronic stability control is as important to
    safety as airbags, ABS or seatbelts
  • Several recent independent studies from Europe
    and Asia prove electronic stability control saves
    lives and reduces crashes and their severity
  • Electronic stability control helps avoid crashes
    before they happen
  • Actively preventing accidents significantly
    reduces the number of injuries and will save
    thousands of lives annually
  • This proven technology is available to the North
    American driving public today, but most consumers
    are still unaware it exists

34
UNIT III
35
INTRODUCTION
  • AERODYNAMICS
  • Study of forces generated by motion of air
    on moving body.
  • CLASSIFACATION OF AERODYNAMICS
  • external and internal, subsonic ,
    supersonic , hypersonic
  • FIELDS OF APPLICATION
  • aerospace engineering, design of
    automobiles , ships , civil
  • engineering , design of bridges etc.

36
AERODYNAMIC FORCES ON A BODY
  • LIFT
  • (DOWNFORCE)
  • DRAG
  • WEIGHT
  • THRUST

37
HISTORY OF EVOLUTION OF AERODYNAMICS IN CARS
  • DESIGNS IN EARLY 20th CENTURY
  • cars with low speeds, no aerodynamic
    problems.
  • CARS IN THE EARLY 50s
  • cars designed for big familys , complete
    negligence
  • of aerodynamics.
  • CARS AFTER 70s
  • fuel crisis , need of economic designs ,
    evolution of aerodynamics.

38
WHY WE NEED TO IMPROVE AERODYNAMICS IN CARS
  • SPEED
  • better aerodynamics higher will be the
    speeds.
  • FUEL EFFICIENCY
  • better aerodynamics , less work for engine.

39
Aerodynamics to make the efficient even more
efficient!
40
Mythbusters Tailgait down or up?
41
Mythbusters Tailgait down or up?
42
AERODYNAMICS IN MCLAREN F1
  • SPECIFICATIONS
  • FRONT END
  • REAR END
  • SCOOPS
  • WINGS

Mclaren F1
43
AERODYNAMIC DEVICES
  • SPOILERS
  • NACA DUCTS
  • Increase rate of flow
  • To expose air to areas not exposed to direct air
    flow.

44
METHODS TO EVALUATE AERODYNAMICS IN CARS
  • WIND TUNNELS
  • Research tool to study effect of air moving over
    a solid object.
  • Trial and error process.
  • Special pressure paints for analysis.
  • Detailed analysis of air flow patterns.
  • Analyzing for the optimal design.

45
AERODYNAMIC IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CAR THAT WE
ALREADY OWN
  • Keep your vehicle washed and waxed
  • Remove mud flaps behind wheels
  • Place license plate out of air flow
  • Avoid roof-racks or carriers
  • Close windows, close sunroof

46
CONCLUSION
  • Aerodynamics in cars is a factor in the over all
    performance of the car, it should never be
    compromised.

47
UNIT IV
48
Back
49
Back
50
Back
51
FRONT END
  • FRONTAL PRESSURE
  • PRESSURE DIFFERENCE
  • MINIMISE FRONTAL AREA
  • REDUCE cd

Back
52
SCOOPS
  • ENGINE COOLING
  • INCREASESFLOW RATE OF AIR


Back
53
REAR END
  • REAR VACUM
  • FLOW DETACHEMENT
  • TURBULANCE

Back
54
WINGS
  • PRODUCE DOWNFORCE
  • REDUCE DRAG

Back
55
Back
56
Back
57
COEFFICIENT OF DRAG
  • Drag 1/2xd x Cd x A Xv2
  • Measure of aerodynamic
  • efficiency.

Back
58
SPECIFICATIONS
  • EngineTypeV12
  • Curb Weight 1100 kg.
  • Displacement6064 cc
  • Horsepower627 bhp _at_ 7400 rpm
  • Torque479 lb-ft _at_ 4000 rpm
  • Performance0-60 mph3.2 sec
  • 0-100 mph6.3 sec
  • Top Speed240 mph /hr

BACK
59
Some Background...
  • Cars at first were built entirely of wood, and
    later of wood frames with steel body panels.
  • In the early 1900s, the idea of a body-on-frame
    design came about.
  • These vehicles had
  • a load-bearing chassis
  • that supported all the
  • mechanical parts
  • and a body usual made
  • of steel.

Ford Model T Courtesy Car Body Design http//www.c
arbodydesign.com/articles/2005-04-13-chassis-histo
ry/2005-04-13-chassis-history.php
60
Moving Forward...
Honda Civic Frame http//automobiles.honda.com/ima
ges/2009/civic-sedan/safety/safety-header.jpg
  • Today, most smaller vehicles such as small SUVs
    and sedans use a unibody (or monocoque)
    construction.
  • Heavy-duty vehicles like trucks and busses still
    use the idea of body-on-frame.
  • Regardless of the construction technique, steel
    is still the predominant material used in
    automotive frames.

61
A Quick Comparison
Typical Ladder Frame
Monocoques
62
What its all About
  • Today, the new revolution in car design is the
    use of new materials in the vehicle structure.
  • As fuel economy restrictions become tighter,
    manufacturers must find new ways to meet them.
  • This has led them away from using so much steel
    in the vehicles, and more and more are moving
    towards aluminum.
  • The central theme of our project was to compare
    these new lightweight aluminum cars to their
    steel predecessors and see if anything is being
    sacrificed and/or gained.

63
A Basic Comparison
  • Two common alloys used in car manufacturing
  • For Aluminum AA 5182
  • For Steel AISI 1020

Steel Al
Yield Strength (MPa) 294.8 395
UTS (MPa) 394.7 420
Hardness (HB500) 104 58
Data Courtesy efunda http//www.efunda.com/materia
ls/alloys/carbon_steels/show_carbon.cfm?IDAISI_10
20propallPage_TitleAISI201020 http//www.efun
da.com/materials/alloys/aluminum/show_aluminum.cfm
?IDAA_5182show_propallPage_TitleAA205182
64
Properties
  • Density of Steel 7.88 g/cm3
  • Density of Aluminum 2.7 g/cm3
  • Aluminum is about 3 times lighter than steel per
    unit volume, but can be made just as strong using
    certain alloys/shapes/bonding methods.
  • Because of this, AL parts can be thicker, and
    thus stronger, than their steel counterparts, all
    while weighing less.

65
The Cost Issue
  • While Al may seem like a miracle metal for car
    production, there is a reason not all cars are
    made from Al... It costs a lot more than Steel.

66
The Move to Aluminum
  • The first production vehicle to move to an Al
    frame was the Audi A8 in 1994.
  • This allowed Audi to make their full-size car
    lighter than the competitions (BMW,
    Mercedes,Lexus...), thus giving them the edge in
    performance handling.
  • This comes at a price premium though, for
    instance compared to a Lexus LS460 (Steel framed)
    which costs around 65,000. The A8 starts at
    75,000

Audi A8
Lexus LS460
67
An Increasing Trend
http//www2.prnewswire.com/mnr/duckerworldwide/375
15/
68
Cars Utilizing Al Frames
  • Audi A8
  • Jaguar XJ
  • Corvette Z06
  • Honda NSX
  • Audi A2
  • Audi R8

69
Weight
  • The most obvious advantage to using aluminum in
    place of steel in cars is aluminum weighs less.

Cars with Mostly Al Space Frames
70
Safety
  • Not too many safety tests have been performed on
    Al framed vehicles due to their usually higher
    price.
  • However, the Audi A2 is an inexpensive compact
    car that has been tested, and received overall
    favorable reviews compared to its steel bodies
    counterparts.

71
Some other advantages...
  • There are some manufacturing methods that can
    only be done with aluminum, such as extrusions.
  • These extrusions allows the Al Space Frame to
    have about half the amount of parts as a
    traditional steel monocoque.
  • Because of all this, Al is already a cheaper
    material to use for low volume production cars
    (under 100,000 units a year or so).

72
A Few Other Facts...
  • Today, the average car contains about 200 pounds
    of aluminum parts.
  • Aluminum space frames (like that from Audi),
    contain fewer parts and fewer connection nodes,
    which helps keep production costs lower.

73
UNIT V
74
In The Future
http//andrewbeard.wordpress.com/2009/05/11/techno
logy-carbon-fiber-monocoque-chassis/
  • While Aluminum may be the wave of the future for
    now, some exotic car companies are already
    looking ahead to composite materials.
  • Take for example Porsche Carrera GT, which used a
    completely Carbon-Fiber monocoque construction in
    addition to Carbon-Fiber body panels.
  • Because of this, the curb weight of the car was
    only 3000 lbs., even with a 5.7L V-10 engine
    powering it.

Porsche Carrera GT http//upload.wikimedia.org/wik
ipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Porsche_Carrera_GT_-_Goo
dwood_Breakfast_Club_28July_200829.jpg/800px-Por
sche_Carrera_GT_-_Goodwood_Breakfast_Club_28July_
200829.jpg
75
References
  • Building an aluminum carhttp//www.allbusiness.co
    m/professional-scientific/scientific-research-deve
    lopment/443897-1.html
  • History of Automobile Body and Chassishttp//www.
    carbodydesign.com/articles/2005-04-13-chassis-hist
    ory/2005-04-13-chassis-history.php
  • Automobile Bodies Can Aluminum Be an Economical
    Alternative to Steel?http//www.tms.org/pubs/jour
    nals/JOM/0108/Kelkar-0108.html
  • Different Types of Chassishttp//www.autozine.org
    /technical_school/chassis/tech_chassis2.htm
  • Aluminum Versus Steelhttp//www.travistrailer.com
    /public/pag16.aspx
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