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Envisioning Collaborative Relationships

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Envisioning Collaborative Relationships Among Midwives and Physicians, Institutions Seneca Falls October 11, 2013 Shaw-Battista, 2011 Challenges: CNM view ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Envisioning Collaborative Relationships


1
Envisioning Collaborative Relationships
  • Among Midwives and Physicians, Institutions
  • Seneca Falls October 11, 2013

2
Objectives
  • After attending this lecture the participant
    should have increased knowledge and enhanced
    competence to
  • Identify current interdisciplinary collaborative
    models between Midwives and Physicians
  • Discuss the regulatory and socially ingrained
    barriers to successful collaboration for midwives
    in different practice settings such as academic,
    hospital-based, private practice and home
  • Use evidenced-based research to focus policies on
    outcomes
  • Identify practical steps to forging professional,
    functional and mutually satisfying relationships
    with physicians and other medical providers
  • Understand the opportunities for transformation
    of birth practices present today

3
Ellen Biggers, MD, FACOG Disclosures
  • No potential conflict of interest
  • Mistaken for a midwife on several occasions

4
(No Transcript)
5
Birth Carving 980 AD Angkor Wat, Cambodia
6
Definition of Collaboration
  • American College of Nurse-Midwives, 2011.
  • Collaboration is the process whereby a CNM/CM
    and physician jointly manage the care of a woman
    or newborn who has become medically,
    gynecologically or obstetrically complicated.
  • Websters
  • To work jointly with others or together
    especially in an intellectual endeavor

7
Historical Perspective on Midwifery in the US
  • Midwives in colonial America were the dominant
    attendants at birth
  • Late 19th century Obstetrics created as a
    medical specialty, physicians attended half of
    the nations births. Medical science advances
  • Early 20th century hospitalization for birth
    increases, maternal and neonatal mortality begin
    to increase in and out of hospital

8
History Continued
  • __ ________ ______ _________
  • _______ ___ ________ ________ _____
  • ________
  • __________
  • _______ ___ ______ ______ ___ __________ _____
    ________ _______ __ _______ ____
  • ________ ______ __________ __ ___________
    ___________ ___ __ _________ ______ ________
    _______ _____ __ ________

9
History continued
  • Mary Breckinridge founds Frontier Nursing Service
    in Kentucky in 1925
  • 1931 The Lobenstein Clinic initiated a
    nurse-midwifery education program to serve
    disadvantaged women in New York City
  • Nurse-midwifery grew slowly in poor communities
    both urban and rural and in home deliveries.
    (Tom)

10
History Continued
  • 1960s and 1970s California studies reveal
    improved outcomes with midwives in rural
    underserved areas. (Montgomery 1969 and Levy
    1971)
  • 1971 ACNM, ACOG, and NAACOG approved a Joint
    Statement on Maternity Care. The first
    recognition of nurse-midwives by a medical
    organization (Rooks, 1997)
  • 1975 Revision of Joint Statement to clarify
    that an obstetricians presence is not required
    when care is rendered by a nurse-midwife

11
History Continued
  • 1978 ACNM redefines nurse midwifery practice as
    independent management of the antepartal,
    intrapartal, postpartal, and gynecological care
    of essentially normal women and their normal
    newborns (Dawley Varney, Burst 2005)
  • 2000 ACNM and ACOG define collaboration between
    CNMs and Ob/Gyns as one of consultation,
    collaboration and referral

12
Collaboration
  • American College of Nurse-Midwives, 2011.
  • Collaboration is the process whereby a CNM/CM
    and physician jointly manage the care of a woman
    or newborn who has become medically,
    gynecologically or obstetrically complicated.
  • -Joint Committee definition The provision of
    healthcare by an interdisciplinary team of
    professionals who collaborate to accomplish a
    common goal, and is associated with increased
    efficiency, improved clinical outcomes, and
    enhanced provider satisfaction.

13
Current Collaborative Models
  • Home Birth
  • In 1940 US, the percentage of out-of hospital
    births was 44
  • In 2006, National Vital Statistics Report states
    there were 24,970 home births in the US or 0.59
  • Prenatal consultation via phone or prenatal
    visit external version for breech, borderline
    hypertension
  • Intrapartum or postpartum transfer to hospital CM
    or FP or OB

14
Current Collaborative Models
  • Birthing Center
  • In 2006 there were 10,781 births in a
    free-standing birth center
  • Above collaboration
  • Multidisciplinary Team Midwife, Obstetrician,
    Family Practitioner, Pediatrician, Nurses, Doulas
  • Policy and Protocol Development
  • Quality Assurance
  • Regulatory oversight at state and national level

15
Current Collaborative Models
  • Community Hospital
  • National Vital Statistics Report 4.3 million
    live births in US in 2006
  • Above
  • Hospitalists/Laborists
  • Nurses, anesthesiologists, administrators
  • Hospital department level reporting
  • Education programs
  • Private practice CM, OB, or combined
  • Hospital-based practices
  • Financial arrangements
  • State agency oversight

16
Current Collaborative Models
  • Tertiary Care Hospital
  • Maternal Fetal Medicine
  • Residents in OB, FP, ED
  • Various departments (Imaging, ED),
    Programs-cancer screening, Womens Health
    Institute
  • Community of Hospitals Reporting, Education
  • Policy Making Committees

17
Characteristics of Successful Models
  • Joint Committee Call for Papers (Waldman and
    Kennedy 2011)
  • Northwest Family Beginnings (Darlington, McBroom,
    Warwick, 2011)
  • Reasons for success
  • Legal framework of independent practice in
    Washington State
  • Limits vicarious liability for consulting Ob/Gyn
  • Clearly delineated scope of practice for each
    provider type

18
Northwest Model
  • Institutional culture that supports collaboration
  • In-house Ob/Gyn
  • Regularly scheduled meetings between CNM and
    Ob/Gyn
  • Family Practice and Licensed Midwife consultation
  • Eventual Midwifery Dept Institutional status,
    protection to practice independently and
    appropriate consultations
  • Shared-care model
  • On-call team
  • Patients attend prenatal visits in their own
    neighborhood
  • Guidelines developed jointly

19
Licensed Midwives in Northwest Model
  • 1978 Marge Mansfield and Suzy Myers co-founded
    the Seattle Midwifery School, became dept of
    Midwifery at Bastyr University. Direct-entry 3
    year Masters
  • Favorable provider insurance environment
  • -1996 Malpractice available to LM with every
    category of provider legislation in Washington.
    Insurance contract availability
  • LM to CM transfer with ability to give doula
    support, resumes care upon discharge

20
Northwest Definition of Collaboration
  • Consultation CNM seeks the advice or opinion of
    Ob/Gyn. CNM maintains management responsibility
    for the client. MD does not typically meet
    patient
  • Comanagement CNM and Ob/Gyn jointly manage care
    with CNM primary and MD has direct patient
    contact
  • Referral the management of all or a very
    specific part of a clients care is transferred
    to an Ob/Gyn who then assumes hands-on care and
    responsibility
  • Written care plan and roles

21
San Francisco General Hospital Hutchison, 2011
  • Great Minds Dont Think Alike
  • -Shared commitment to excellence in both
    providing care to the underserved and training
    the next generation of physicians and
    nurse-midwives
  • Mutual respect for differences in practice to
    capitalize on the expertise of each type of
    provider

22
San Francisco General Hospital Hutchison, 2011
  • Independent clinical caseloads, with patient
    choice in CNM or obstetric care
  • Shared commitment to improving care delivery
    systems
  • Clear lines of communication that include
    guidelines for consultation and collaboration
  • Faculty appointments for both obstetricians and
    CNMs
  • Interdependent responsibility for generating and
    managing finances

23
San Francisco General Hospital Hutchison, 2011
  • Interdisciplinary development of policy
  • Uniform use of evidenced-based practice
  • Serve on a variety of hospital committees
  • Quality assurance initiatives
  • Seat at the table
  • Interprofessional continuing education
  • Obstetric emergency simulation model
  • Philosophies of care and benefits of
    collaboration

24
SFGH- Effects of Collaboration
  • Selective use of Episiotomy
  • Intermittent Auscultation
  • Centering Pregnancy group-based model of
    prenatal care with Ob resident participation,
    model used for breast cancer, chronic pelvic pain
    and Mother-baby dyad groups
  • VBAC guidelines evidence-based candidate
    selection
  • Postpartum Hemorrhage prevention checklist
  • Consultation skill assessment for residents and
    CNM students

25
SFGH- Challenges
  • Safety, Autonomy and Power
  • Ob not comfortable with CNM independence
  • PROM management differences
  • State required supervision of nurse-midwives by
    physicians in California

26
Baystate Successful Collaborative Practice,
(Dejoy, 2011)
  • Tertiary care, 4,000 births/year
  • CNMs have broad, immediate, and responsive
    access to consultation and high-risk care 3rd
    and 4th year residents are used for in-patients
    and attending Ob/Gyn for out-patients
  • Clear communication, written definitions of
    philosophy, scope of practice, functions and
    organizational structure. Details of diagnostic
    tests and therapeutic agents that may be
    independently ordered by CNMs, conditions
    requiring consultation, collaboration, and
    referral.

27
Baystate Successful Collaborative Practice
  • Midwifery practice serves a hospital-based
    office, four neighborhood health centers, and a
    correctional facility
  • Midwives provide triage for arriving patients
    with obstetric and gynecologic problems. CNM
    learned limited U/S, BPP, preterm labor
    evaluation
  • Midwives have primary responsibility for teaching
    normal obstetrics and triage to first-year
    residents and medical students. Ob Team CNM

28
Baystate Successful Collaborative Practice
  • CNM primary C/S 9
  • VBAC rate 69, overall dept rate 13.1 and
    Massachusetts State 8.1
  • Reduced episiotomy and laceration rates

29
Baystate Successful Collaborative Practice
  • Detailed practice agreement
  • Open lines of communication
  • Understanding and accepting different
    philosophies
  • Trust

30
Obstetrician and Nurse-Midwife Collaboration
Successful Public Health and Private Practice
Partnership, Shaw-Battista, 2011
  • Outcomes of collaborative maternity care for
    diverse population in a California community
    hospital
  • 74 of women received intrapartum CNM care
  • Few differences were seen in management or
    outcomes despite significant variation in
    demographic and clinical characteristics of
    public health clinic patients vs private practice

31
Shaw-Battista 2011
  • Private practice patients older, less likely
    obese, more likely English speaking more
    hydrotherapy, epidurals, and severe lacerations
  • Overall 12.5 Cesarean, less than a quarter used
    narcotics, epidural or hydrotherapy.

32
Shaw-Battista, 2011
  • Philosophy of extensive prenatal education,
    shared decision-making, and judicious use of
    obstetric interventions
  • Optimal labor begins spontaneously
  • Labor is permitted to progress without
    intervention
  • Prenatal education about pharmacologic and
    non-pharmacologic pain relief methods
  • Obstetricians who firmly believe in collaborative
    practice model

33
Shaw-Battista, 2011
  • Evidenced based guidelines developed
    collaboratively
  • Ample hands-on support from nurses, CNM, and
    doulas

34
Shaw-Battista, 2011
  • Challenges
  • CNM view childbirth as a physiologic process
    requiring supportive care
  • Ob view childbirth as process to be managed to
    avoid illness and pathology
  • Inter-professional consensus on guidelines is
    time-intensive and therefore expensive
  • Patient-centered model respects womans right to
    decline recommended care

35
Barriers to Collaboration
  • Educational differences
  • Level of degree
  • Institutionalized discrimination
  • Hierarchical system
  • Focus on problem cases not overall outcomes
  • Legal definitions of relationships between
    providers
  • Insurance companies
  • Hospital departments

36
Barriers to Collaboration
  • Professional competition
  • Ineffective communication
  • Gender issues
  • Social class
  • Medical malpractice
  • Vicarious liability
  • Mandates practice composition
  • Limits to scope of practice

37
Barriers to Collaboration
  • International Collaboration
  • Australia in an attempt to mandate practice
    agreements met with complete opposition by
    obstetricians and lessened midwife autonomy
  • Canada RM are publicly funded, autonomous primary
    care providers, required to offer home and
    hospital birth. Limited acceptance especially in
    rural areas where the patient volume is smaller,
    doctors bill fee-for-service, physician-staffed
    Medical Advisory Committees deny privileges to
    midwives (Munro, 2012)

38
Peru Surgical Mission
39
Characteristics of Successful Models
  • Joint policy development
  • Joint responsibility and accountability
  • Joint education and team drills
  • Peer review interdependent independent practices
  • Focused on patient outcomes
  • Evidenced-based practice
  • Shared work-load and improved outcomes lead to
    provider satisfaction
  • Institutional recognition of autonomy of MW

40
Normalizing Collaboration
  • Current opportunities
  • Affordable Care Act
  • National Maternal Health Initiative
  • Laborists, Midwifilist triage
  • Maternal Fetal Medicine
  • Obstetric resident education
  • Consumer demand
  • Information availability- shared guidelines,
    consents, transport plans, refusal of recommended
    treatment forms

41
Opportunities
  • Institute of Medicine (2001,2010)
  • care provided by nurses safely reduces health
    care costs
  • critical to the availability and value of public
    and private clinical services

42
Federal Health Reform Implications
Opportunities
  • Increased ACNM visibility among policymakers,
    other health professions, White House, federal
    agencies, and Congress
  • Multiple new opportunities for ACNM member
    involvement, need for new taskforces, etc.
  • Potential for action on multiple issues including
    reimbursement, recognition as primary care
    providers, education funding, workforce issues,
    and issues directly affecting women and families
    (Avery, ACNM Focus on the Future, 2009)

43
Normalizing Collaboration
  • Current opportunities
  • Affordable Care Act
  • National Maternal Health Initiative
  • Laborists, Midwifilist triage
  • Maternal Fetal Medicine
  • Obstetric resident education
  • Consumer demand
  • Information availability- shared guidelines,
    consents, transport plans, refusal of recommended
    treatment forms

44
Normalizing Collaboration
  • Consensus to eliminate hierarchy
  • Clearly defined roles, lines of communication
  • Acknowledge history Control, hostility,
    supervision, suppression, nursing dept, ego
  • Evidenced-based guidelines resources
  • Interdisciplinary teams
  • Capitalizing on the strengths of each provider
  • Emergency Scenario Training
  • Joint Quality Assurance

45
Normalizing Collaboration
  • Home birth
  • HBAC increasing
  • Consents for risks and benefits
  • Transport plans to hospital
  • Referral plans to CNM, MD, MFM
  • Acknowledge hostility unilateral guidelines if
    necessary
  • WHO observation 82 of births world-wide are
    out-of-hospital. In US 1-2

46
Normalizing Collaboration
  • Financial support for collaboration
  • Educate obstetric and FP residents and midwives
    to consult and collaborate
  • Midwife participation at all levels
  • Shared work load
  • Outcomes based assessments

47
The End
48
Legislative History NYSALM
  • 2003  NYS Legislature passed a bill adding
    Licensed Midwives to the list of providers who
    could order lab tests.
  • A.11649 / S.7658    Ch. 524 of 20042007 
    Physical Therapy bill added Licensed Midwives to
    the list of providers who could order physical
    therapy evaluation and treatment.
  • A.5515 / S.3490 (05-06)2008  A
    non-discrimination bill was passed that added
    Licensed Midwives to the list of providers who
    could not be denied hospital privileges solely
    based on class of licensure.  We lobbied for this
    bill for seven years before its successful
    passage.
  • A.5505 / A.4019-A2010  The Midwifery
    Modernization Act amended the midwifery licensing
    law which had been passed in 1992.  The MMA
    removed the requirement that midwives have a
    written practice agreement with a physician or
    hospital, and instead required that midwives
    advise their patients of what arrangements were
    in place in case the woman needed care beyond the
    scope of practice of the midwife.  A.8117-B /
    S.5007-A

49
Bibliography
  • Shaw-Battista J, Fineberg A, Boehler B, Skubic B,
    Wooley D, Tilton Z. Obstetrician and
    Nurse-Midwife Collaboration Successful Public
    Health and Private Partnership. Obstet Gynecol
    2011663-72
  • Darlington A, McBroom K, Warwick S. A Northwest
    Collaborative Practice Model. Obstet Gynecol
    2011673-7
  • Hutchison MS, Ennis L, Shaw-Battista J, Delgado
    A, Myers K, Cragin L, Jackson RA. Great Minds
    Dont Think Alike Collaborative Maternity Care
    at San Francisco General Hospital. Obstet Gynecol
    673-7
  • DeJoy S, Burkman RT, Graves BW, Grow D, Sankey
    HZ, Delk C, Feinland J, Kaplan J, Hallisey A.
    Making It Work Successful Collaborative
    Practice
  • Conry JA, Inaugural Speech, 64th President of
    ACOG. 2013

50
Bibliography
  • Garvey, M. Communication ACNM and ACOG Issue
    Joint Statement on Collaboration, 2011
  • Brocklehurst P. Perinatal and maternal outcomes
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Bibliography
  • Baldwin, LM, Hutchinson,H, Rosenblatt, RA.
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52
Bibliography
  • Gee, RE, Corry, MP. Patient Engagement and Shared
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Bibliography
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