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Title:

Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves

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... innervation of diaphragm Brachial plexus Brachial plexus Axillary nerve Radial nerve Musculocutaneous nerve Median nerve Ulnar nerve Brachial plexus Lumbar ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves


1
Spinal CordSpinal Nerves
2
Spinal Cord
  • Part of the CNS
  • About 18 inches long
  • Extends from the foramen magnum to the end of L1
  • Main pathway for information flow to and from the
    brain

3
Spinal Cord Histology / Structure
4
Dorsal root ganglia
  • Sensory neuron cells bodies
  • These are unipolar neurons in structure

5
Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
  • Cord is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar
    and sacral segments
  • Cervical and lumbar enlargements
  • Covered by same membranes as the brain
  • At about L1 the cord divides into many long
    ventral and dorsal roots called the cauda equina
    (horses tail)
  • Each spinal segment has a pair of dorsal root
    ganglia (sensory neuron cell bodies)
  • Dorsal root enters the cord, ventral root leaves
    the cord

6
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7
Spinal cord and meninges
8
Spinal Cord and Meninges
9
Ganglia and roots
  • Dorsal root ganglia sensory neuron cell bodies
  • Dorsal root sensory input
  • Ventral root motor output
  • Spinal nerve - mixed

10
Epidural analgesia
  • Pain medication placed into the epidural space
  • Often used to block pain associated with child
    birth
  • Continuous infusion
  • Blocks pain not muscle activity

11
Spinal Cord White Matter
  • White matter is divided into columns
  • Columns contain TRACTS composed of axons of
    similar structural and functional characteristics
  • Specific tracts convey either sensory or motor
    commands
  • All axons in a tract relay information in the
    same direction
  • ASCENDING TRACTS relay sensory information toward
    the brain
  • DESCENDING TRACTS relay motor information into
    the spinal cord

12
Spinal Cord Gray Matter
  • Gray matter is organized into nuclei neuron
    cell bodies
  • Sensory nuclei receive and relay sensory
    information
  • Motor nuclei send out commands to peripheral
    effectors, skeletal muscles

13
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14
Spinal Nerves
  • 31 pairs of spinal nerves
  • C1-C8
  • T1-T12
  • L1-L5
  • S1-S5

15
Nerve Structure
  • Nerve is divided into fascicles
  • Outer covering of the nerve is the epineurium
  • Each fascicle is surrounded by the perineurium
  • Each axon in the fascicle is covered by the
    endoneurium

16
Nerve Distribution - motor
17
Nerve Distribution - sensory
18
Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Two general types of injuries
  • Complete - no function below the affected area of
    the cord
  • C1 - C3 injury breathing affected - respirator
  • C4 - C7 quadriplegia (arms and legs)
  • Incomplete - some function below the affected
    area of the cord
  • Thoracic area and below - paraplegia (legs)

19
Cause of Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Sudden traumatic blow to spine that fractures or
    dislocates vertebrae
  • Bone fragments, disc material bruise or tear the
    spinal cord tissue
  • Cord swells, blood supply cells can stop, neurons
    die, cord is damaged beyond repair

20
Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Minimize further injury
  • Realign spine and immobilize (surgery)
  • Steroid medication to reduce swelling
  • Methylprednisolone in first 8 hours reduces
    swelling, inflammation and nerve cell damage
  • Rehabilitation
  • Dealing with long term complications

21
Nerve Plexuses
  • Ventral rami (branches) of various spinal nerves
    blend together to form an interwoven network of
    nerves, nerve plexus
  • Four major plexuses
  • Cervical
  • Brachial
  • Lumbar
  • Sacral

22
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23
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24
Cervical Plexus
25
Cervical plexus
  • Ventral rami of C1-C4 with a few fibers from C5
  • Innveration of muscles of the neck, shoulder and
    upper breast
  • Phrenic nerve innervation of diaphragm

26
Brachial plexus
27
Brachial plexus
  • Axillary nerve
  • Radial nerve
  • Musculocutaneous nerve
  • Median nerve
  • Ulnar nerve

28
Brachial plexus
29
Lumbar plexus and Sacral plexus
30
Major spinal nerves from the lumbar and sacral
plexus
31
Nerves of the lower extermity
32
Reflex arc
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